Abstract

Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates remain high in medically underserved areas. In this study, we present a low-cost (<$5,000), portable and user-friendly confocal microendoscope, and we report on its clinical use to image precancerous lesions in the cervix. The confocal microendoscope employs digital apertures on a digital light projector and a CMOS sensor to implement line-scanning confocal imaging. Leveraging its versatile programmability, we describe an automated aperture alignment algorithm to ensure clinical ease-of-use and to facilitate technology dissemination in low-resource settings. Imaging performance is then evaluated in ex vivo and in vivo pilot studies; results demonstrate that the confocal microendoscope can enhance visualization of nuclear morphology, contributing to significantly improved recognition of clinically important features for detection of cervical precancer.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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  1. F. Bray, A. H. Loos, P. McCarron, E. Weiderpass, M. Arbyn, H. Møller, M. Hakama, and D. M. Parkin, “Trends in cervical squamous cell carcinoma incidence in 13 European countries: Changing risk and the effects of screening,” Cancer Epidemiol., Biomarkers Prev. 14(3), 677–686 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  2. F. Bray, B. Carstensen, H. Møller, M. Zappa, M. P. Žakelj, G. Lawrence, M. Hakama, and E. Weiderpass, “Incidence trends of adenocarcinoma of the cervix in 13 European countries,” Cancer Epidemiol., Biomarkers Prev. 14(9), 2191–2199 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  3. F. Bray, J. Ferlay, I. Soerjomataram, R. L. Siegel, L. A. Torre, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries,” Ca-Cancer J. Clin. 68(6), 394–424 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  4. G. K. Singh and A. Jemal, “Socioeconomic and Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Cancer Mortality, Incidence, and Survival in the United States, 1950-2014: Over Six Decades of Changing Patterns and Widening Inequalities,” J. Environ. Public Health 2017, 1–19 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. Vaccarella, M. Laversanne, J. Ferlay, and F. Bray, “Cervical cancer in Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean and Asia: Regional inequalities and changing trends,” Int. J. Cancer 141(10), 1997–2001 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  6. R. Sankaranarayanan, “Screening for cancer in low- and middle-income countries,” Ann. Glob. Heal. 80(5), 412–417 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  7. D. Saslow, D. Solomon, H. W. Lawson, M. Killackey, S. L. Kulasingam, J. Cain, F. A. R. Garcia, A. T. Moriarty, A. G. Waxman, D. C. Wilbur, N. Wentzensen, L. S. Downs, M. Spitzer, A.-B. Moscicki, E. L. Franco, M. H. Stoler, M. Schiffman, P. E. Castle, and E. R. Myers, “American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology Screening Guidelines for the Prevention and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 137(4), 516–542 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. C. Pierce, Y. Y. Guan, M. K. Quinn, X. Zhang, W. H. Zhang, Y. L. Qiao, P. Castle, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A pilot study of low-cost, high-resolution microendoscopy as a tool for identifying women with cervical precancer,” Cancer Prev. Res. 5(11), 1273–1279 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. K. Quinn, T. C. Bubi, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kayembe, D. Ramogola-Masire, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-Resolution Microendoscopy for the Detection of Cervical Neoplasia in Low-Resource Settings,” PLoS One 7(9), e44924 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  10. B. D. Grant, J. H. T. G. Fregnani, J. C. Possati Resende, C. Scapulatempo-Neto, G. M. Matsushita, E. C. Mauad, T. Quang, M. H. Stoler, P. E. Castle, K. M. Schmeler, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution microendoscopy: a point-of-care diagnostic for cervical dysplasia in low-resource settings,” Eur. J. Cancer Prev. 26(1), 63–70 (2017).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  13. P. Keahey, P. Ramalingam, K. Schmeler, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Differential structured illumination microendoscopy for in vivo imaging of molecular contrast agents,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 113(39), 10769–10773 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  14. M. Kyrish, J. Dobbs, S. Jain, X. Wang, D. Yu, R. Richards-Kortum, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Needle-based fluorescence endomicroscopy via structured illumination with a plastic, achromatic objective,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(9), 096003 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  15. C. Schlosser, N. Bodenschatz, S. Lam, M. Lee, J. N. McAlpine, D. M. Miller, D. J. T. Van Niekerk, M. Follen, M. Guillaud, C. E. MacAulay, and P. M. Lane, “Fluorescence confocal endomicroscopy of the cervix: pilot study on the potential and limitations for clinical implementation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(12), 126011 (2016).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  18. Y. Tang, J. Carns, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Line-scanning confocal microendoscope for nuclear morphometry imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(11), 1–6 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  19. Y. Tang, A. Kortum, I. Vohra, M. Othman, S. Dhingra, N. Mansour, J. Carns, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Improving nuclear morphometry imaging with real-time and low-cost line-scanning confocal microendoscope,” Opt. Lett. 44(3), 654 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  20. Y. Tang, A. Kortum, I. Vohra, J. Carns, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Simple differential digital confocal aperture to improve axial response of line-scanning confocal microendoscopes,” Opt. Lett. 44(18), 4519 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  21. K. Boom, M. Lopez, M. Daheri, R. Gowen, A. Milbourne, P. Toscano, C. Carey, L. Guerra, J. M. Carvajal, E. Marin, E. Baker, S. Fisher-Hoch, A. M. Rodriguez, N. Burkalter, B. Cavazos, M. Gasca, M. M. Cuellar, E. Robles, E. Lopez, and K. Schmeler, “Perspectives on cervical cancer screening and prevention: challenges faced by providers and patients along the Texas–Mexico border,” Perspect. Public Health 139(4), 199–205 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  22. K. A. Kundrod, C. A. Smith, B. Hunt, R. A. Schwarz, K. Schmeler, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Advances in technologies for cervical cancer detection in low-resource settings,” Expert Rev. Mol. Diagn. 19(8), 695–714 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  23. C. L. Arrasmith, D. L. Dickensheets, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “MEMS-based handheld confocal microscope for in-vivo skin imaging,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3805 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  24. J. T. Alander, I. Kaartinen, A. Laakso, T. Pätilä, T. Spillmann, V. V. Tuchin, M. Venermo, and P. Välisuo, “A Review of indocyanine green fluorescent imaging in surgery,” Int. J. Biomed. Imaging 2012, 1–26 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  25. M. H. Koucky and M. C. Pierce, “Axial response of high-resolution microendoscopy in scattering media,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(10), 2247–2256 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  26. D. Shin, M.-A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative analysis of high-resolution microendoscopic images for diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279.e2 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  27. T. Quang, R. A. Schwarz, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Tan, K. Patel, X. Yu, G. Wang, F. Zhang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A tablet-interfaced high-resolution microendoscope with automated image interpretation for real-time evaluation of esophageal squamous cell neoplasia,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 84(5), 834–841 (2016).
    [Crossref]

2019 (5)

S. G. Parra, A. M. Rodriguez, K. D. Cherry, R. A. Schwarz, R. M. Gowen, L. B. Guerra, A. M. Milbourne, P. A. Toscano, S. P. Fisher-Hoch, K. M. Schmeler, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Low-cost, high-resolution imaging for detecting cervical precancer in medically-underserved areas of Texas,” Gynecol. Oncol. 154(3), 558–564 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Tang, A. Kortum, I. Vohra, M. Othman, S. Dhingra, N. Mansour, J. Carns, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Improving nuclear morphometry imaging with real-time and low-cost line-scanning confocal microendoscope,” Opt. Lett. 44(3), 654 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Tang, A. Kortum, I. Vohra, J. Carns, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Simple differential digital confocal aperture to improve axial response of line-scanning confocal microendoscopes,” Opt. Lett. 44(18), 4519 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Boom, M. Lopez, M. Daheri, R. Gowen, A. Milbourne, P. Toscano, C. Carey, L. Guerra, J. M. Carvajal, E. Marin, E. Baker, S. Fisher-Hoch, A. M. Rodriguez, N. Burkalter, B. Cavazos, M. Gasca, M. M. Cuellar, E. Robles, E. Lopez, and K. Schmeler, “Perspectives on cervical cancer screening and prevention: challenges faced by providers and patients along the Texas–Mexico border,” Perspect. Public Health 139(4), 199–205 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. A. Kundrod, C. A. Smith, B. Hunt, R. A. Schwarz, K. Schmeler, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Advances in technologies for cervical cancer detection in low-resource settings,” Expert Rev. Mol. Diagn. 19(8), 695–714 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (3)

F. Bray, J. Ferlay, I. Soerjomataram, R. L. Siegel, L. A. Torre, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries,” Ca-Cancer J. Clin. 68(6), 394–424 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Hunt, J. H. T. G. J. H. T. G. Fregnani, R. A. Schwarz, N. Pantano, S. Tesoni, J. C. J. C. Possati-Resende, M. Antoniazzi, B. De Oliveira Fonseca, G. De Macêdo Matsushita, C. Scapulatempo-Neto, L. Kerr, P. E. Castle, K. Schmeler, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Diagnosing cervical neoplasia in rural Brazil using a mobile van equipped with in vivo microscopy: A cluster-randomized community trial,” Cancer Prev. Res. 11(6), 359–370 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. E. Freeman, A. Semeere, H. Osman, G. Peterson, M. Rajadhyaksha, S. Gonzalez, J. N. Martin, R. R. Anderson, G. J. Tearney, and D. Kang, “Smartphone confocal microscopy for imaging cellular structures in human skin in vivo,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(4), 1906–1915 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

Y. Tang, J. Carns, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Line-scanning confocal microendoscope for nuclear morphometry imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(11), 1–6 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. D. Grant, J. H. T. G. Fregnani, J. C. Possati Resende, C. Scapulatempo-Neto, G. M. Matsushita, E. C. Mauad, T. Quang, M. H. Stoler, P. E. Castle, K. M. Schmeler, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution microendoscopy: a point-of-care diagnostic for cervical dysplasia in low-resource settings,” Eur. J. Cancer Prev. 26(1), 63–70 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. K. Singh and A. Jemal, “Socioeconomic and Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Cancer Mortality, Incidence, and Survival in the United States, 1950-2014: Over Six Decades of Changing Patterns and Widening Inequalities,” J. Environ. Public Health 2017, 1–19 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Vaccarella, M. Laversanne, J. Ferlay, and F. Bray, “Cervical cancer in Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean and Asia: Regional inequalities and changing trends,” Int. J. Cancer 141(10), 1997–2001 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Olsovsky, T. Hinsdale, R. Cuenca, Y.-S. L. Cheng, J. M. Wright, T. D. Rees, J. A. Jo, and K. C. Maitland, “Handheld tunable focus confocal microscope utilizing a double-clad fiber coupler for in vivo imaging of oral epithelium,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(5), 056008 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

C. Schlosser, N. Bodenschatz, S. Lam, M. Lee, J. N. McAlpine, D. M. Miller, D. J. T. Van Niekerk, M. Follen, M. Guillaud, C. E. MacAulay, and P. M. Lane, “Fluorescence confocal endomicroscopy of the cervix: pilot study on the potential and limitations for clinical implementation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(12), 126011 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Keahey, P. Ramalingam, K. Schmeler, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Differential structured illumination microendoscopy for in vivo imaging of molecular contrast agents,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 113(39), 10769–10773 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Quang, R. A. Schwarz, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Tan, K. Patel, X. Yu, G. Wang, F. Zhang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A tablet-interfaced high-resolution microendoscope with automated image interpretation for real-time evaluation of esophageal squamous cell neoplasia,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 84(5), 834–841 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

D. Shin, M.-A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative analysis of high-resolution microendoscopic images for diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279.e2 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

R. Sankaranarayanan, “Screening for cancer in low- and middle-income countries,” Ann. Glob. Heal. 80(5), 412–417 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

M. Kyrish, J. Dobbs, S. Jain, X. Wang, D. Yu, R. Richards-Kortum, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Needle-based fluorescence endomicroscopy via structured illumination with a plastic, achromatic objective,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(9), 096003 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. H. Koucky and M. C. Pierce, “Axial response of high-resolution microendoscopy in scattering media,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(10), 2247–2256 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

J. T. Alander, I. Kaartinen, A. Laakso, T. Pätilä, T. Spillmann, V. V. Tuchin, M. Venermo, and P. Välisuo, “A Review of indocyanine green fluorescent imaging in surgery,” Int. J. Biomed. Imaging 2012, 1–26 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Saslow, D. Solomon, H. W. Lawson, M. Killackey, S. L. Kulasingam, J. Cain, F. A. R. Garcia, A. T. Moriarty, A. G. Waxman, D. C. Wilbur, N. Wentzensen, L. S. Downs, M. Spitzer, A.-B. Moscicki, E. L. Franco, M. H. Stoler, M. Schiffman, P. E. Castle, and E. R. Myers, “American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology Screening Guidelines for the Prevention and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 137(4), 516–542 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. C. Pierce, Y. Y. Guan, M. K. Quinn, X. Zhang, W. H. Zhang, Y. L. Qiao, P. Castle, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A pilot study of low-cost, high-resolution microendoscopy as a tool for identifying women with cervical precancer,” Cancer Prev. Res. 5(11), 1273–1279 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. K. Quinn, T. C. Bubi, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kayembe, D. Ramogola-Masire, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-Resolution Microendoscopy for the Detection of Cervical Neoplasia in Low-Resource Settings,” PLoS One 7(9), e44924 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2005 (2)

F. Bray, A. H. Loos, P. McCarron, E. Weiderpass, M. Arbyn, H. Møller, M. Hakama, and D. M. Parkin, “Trends in cervical squamous cell carcinoma incidence in 13 European countries: Changing risk and the effects of screening,” Cancer Epidemiol., Biomarkers Prev. 14(3), 677–686 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Bray, B. Carstensen, H. Møller, M. Zappa, M. P. Žakelj, G. Lawrence, M. Hakama, and E. Weiderpass, “Incidence trends of adenocarcinoma of the cervix in 13 European countries,” Cancer Epidemiol., Biomarkers Prev. 14(9), 2191–2199 (2005).
[Crossref]

Alander, J. T.

J. T. Alander, I. Kaartinen, A. Laakso, T. Pätilä, T. Spillmann, V. V. Tuchin, M. Venermo, and P. Välisuo, “A Review of indocyanine green fluorescent imaging in surgery,” Int. J. Biomed. Imaging 2012, 1–26 (2012).
[Crossref]

Anandasabapathy, S.

Y. Tang, A. Kortum, I. Vohra, M. Othman, S. Dhingra, N. Mansour, J. Carns, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Improving nuclear morphometry imaging with real-time and low-cost line-scanning confocal microendoscope,” Opt. Lett. 44(3), 654 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Tang, A. Kortum, I. Vohra, J. Carns, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Simple differential digital confocal aperture to improve axial response of line-scanning confocal microendoscopes,” Opt. Lett. 44(18), 4519 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. Quang, R. A. Schwarz, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Tan, K. Patel, X. Yu, G. Wang, F. Zhang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A tablet-interfaced high-resolution microendoscope with automated image interpretation for real-time evaluation of esophageal squamous cell neoplasia,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 84(5), 834–841 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Shin, M.-A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative analysis of high-resolution microendoscopic images for diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279.e2 (2015).
[Crossref]

Anderson, R. R.

Antoniazzi, M.

B. Hunt, J. H. T. G. J. H. T. G. Fregnani, R. A. Schwarz, N. Pantano, S. Tesoni, J. C. J. C. Possati-Resende, M. Antoniazzi, B. De Oliveira Fonseca, G. De Macêdo Matsushita, C. Scapulatempo-Neto, L. Kerr, P. E. Castle, K. Schmeler, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Diagnosing cervical neoplasia in rural Brazil using a mobile van equipped with in vivo microscopy: A cluster-randomized community trial,” Cancer Prev. Res. 11(6), 359–370 (2018).
[Crossref]

Arbyn, M.

F. Bray, A. H. Loos, P. McCarron, E. Weiderpass, M. Arbyn, H. Møller, M. Hakama, and D. M. Parkin, “Trends in cervical squamous cell carcinoma incidence in 13 European countries: Changing risk and the effects of screening,” Cancer Epidemiol., Biomarkers Prev. 14(3), 677–686 (2005).
[Crossref]

Arrasmith, C. L.

Baker, E.

K. Boom, M. Lopez, M. Daheri, R. Gowen, A. Milbourne, P. Toscano, C. Carey, L. Guerra, J. M. Carvajal, E. Marin, E. Baker, S. Fisher-Hoch, A. M. Rodriguez, N. Burkalter, B. Cavazos, M. Gasca, M. M. Cuellar, E. Robles, E. Lopez, and K. Schmeler, “Perspectives on cervical cancer screening and prevention: challenges faced by providers and patients along the Texas–Mexico border,” Perspect. Public Health 139(4), 199–205 (2019).
[Crossref]

Bhutani, M. S.

D. Shin, M.-A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative analysis of high-resolution microendoscopic images for diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279.e2 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bodenschatz, N.

C. Schlosser, N. Bodenschatz, S. Lam, M. Lee, J. N. McAlpine, D. M. Miller, D. J. T. Van Niekerk, M. Follen, M. Guillaud, C. E. MacAulay, and P. M. Lane, “Fluorescence confocal endomicroscopy of the cervix: pilot study on the potential and limitations for clinical implementation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(12), 126011 (2016).
[Crossref]

Boom, K.

K. Boom, M. Lopez, M. Daheri, R. Gowen, A. Milbourne, P. Toscano, C. Carey, L. Guerra, J. M. Carvajal, E. Marin, E. Baker, S. Fisher-Hoch, A. M. Rodriguez, N. Burkalter, B. Cavazos, M. Gasca, M. M. Cuellar, E. Robles, E. Lopez, and K. Schmeler, “Perspectives on cervical cancer screening and prevention: challenges faced by providers and patients along the Texas–Mexico border,” Perspect. Public Health 139(4), 199–205 (2019).
[Crossref]

Bray, F.

F. Bray, J. Ferlay, I. Soerjomataram, R. L. Siegel, L. A. Torre, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries,” Ca-Cancer J. Clin. 68(6), 394–424 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Vaccarella, M. Laversanne, J. Ferlay, and F. Bray, “Cervical cancer in Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean and Asia: Regional inequalities and changing trends,” Int. J. Cancer 141(10), 1997–2001 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Bray, A. H. Loos, P. McCarron, E. Weiderpass, M. Arbyn, H. Møller, M. Hakama, and D. M. Parkin, “Trends in cervical squamous cell carcinoma incidence in 13 European countries: Changing risk and the effects of screening,” Cancer Epidemiol., Biomarkers Prev. 14(3), 677–686 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Bray, B. Carstensen, H. Møller, M. Zappa, M. P. Žakelj, G. Lawrence, M. Hakama, and E. Weiderpass, “Incidence trends of adenocarcinoma of the cervix in 13 European countries,” Cancer Epidemiol., Biomarkers Prev. 14(9), 2191–2199 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bubi, T. C.

M. K. Quinn, T. C. Bubi, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kayembe, D. Ramogola-Masire, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-Resolution Microendoscopy for the Detection of Cervical Neoplasia in Low-Resource Settings,” PLoS One 7(9), e44924 (2012).
[Crossref]

Burkalter, N.

K. Boom, M. Lopez, M. Daheri, R. Gowen, A. Milbourne, P. Toscano, C. Carey, L. Guerra, J. M. Carvajal, E. Marin, E. Baker, S. Fisher-Hoch, A. M. Rodriguez, N. Burkalter, B. Cavazos, M. Gasca, M. M. Cuellar, E. Robles, E. Lopez, and K. Schmeler, “Perspectives on cervical cancer screening and prevention: challenges faced by providers and patients along the Texas–Mexico border,” Perspect. Public Health 139(4), 199–205 (2019).
[Crossref]

Cain, J.

D. Saslow, D. Solomon, H. W. Lawson, M. Killackey, S. L. Kulasingam, J. Cain, F. A. R. Garcia, A. T. Moriarty, A. G. Waxman, D. C. Wilbur, N. Wentzensen, L. S. Downs, M. Spitzer, A.-B. Moscicki, E. L. Franco, M. H. Stoler, M. Schiffman, P. E. Castle, and E. R. Myers, “American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology Screening Guidelines for the Prevention and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 137(4), 516–542 (2012).
[Crossref]

Carey, C.

K. Boom, M. Lopez, M. Daheri, R. Gowen, A. Milbourne, P. Toscano, C. Carey, L. Guerra, J. M. Carvajal, E. Marin, E. Baker, S. Fisher-Hoch, A. M. Rodriguez, N. Burkalter, B. Cavazos, M. Gasca, M. M. Cuellar, E. Robles, E. Lopez, and K. Schmeler, “Perspectives on cervical cancer screening and prevention: challenges faced by providers and patients along the Texas–Mexico border,” Perspect. Public Health 139(4), 199–205 (2019).
[Crossref]

Carns, J.

Carstensen, B.

F. Bray, B. Carstensen, H. Møller, M. Zappa, M. P. Žakelj, G. Lawrence, M. Hakama, and E. Weiderpass, “Incidence trends of adenocarcinoma of the cervix in 13 European countries,” Cancer Epidemiol., Biomarkers Prev. 14(9), 2191–2199 (2005).
[Crossref]

Carvajal, J. M.

K. Boom, M. Lopez, M. Daheri, R. Gowen, A. Milbourne, P. Toscano, C. Carey, L. Guerra, J. M. Carvajal, E. Marin, E. Baker, S. Fisher-Hoch, A. M. Rodriguez, N. Burkalter, B. Cavazos, M. Gasca, M. M. Cuellar, E. Robles, E. Lopez, and K. Schmeler, “Perspectives on cervical cancer screening and prevention: challenges faced by providers and patients along the Texas–Mexico border,” Perspect. Public Health 139(4), 199–205 (2019).
[Crossref]

Castle, P.

M. C. Pierce, Y. Y. Guan, M. K. Quinn, X. Zhang, W. H. Zhang, Y. L. Qiao, P. Castle, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A pilot study of low-cost, high-resolution microendoscopy as a tool for identifying women with cervical precancer,” Cancer Prev. Res. 5(11), 1273–1279 (2012).
[Crossref]

Castle, P. E.

B. Hunt, J. H. T. G. J. H. T. G. Fregnani, R. A. Schwarz, N. Pantano, S. Tesoni, J. C. J. C. Possati-Resende, M. Antoniazzi, B. De Oliveira Fonseca, G. De Macêdo Matsushita, C. Scapulatempo-Neto, L. Kerr, P. E. Castle, K. Schmeler, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Diagnosing cervical neoplasia in rural Brazil using a mobile van equipped with in vivo microscopy: A cluster-randomized community trial,” Cancer Prev. Res. 11(6), 359–370 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. D. Grant, J. H. T. G. Fregnani, J. C. Possati Resende, C. Scapulatempo-Neto, G. M. Matsushita, E. C. Mauad, T. Quang, M. H. Stoler, P. E. Castle, K. M. Schmeler, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution microendoscopy: a point-of-care diagnostic for cervical dysplasia in low-resource settings,” Eur. J. Cancer Prev. 26(1), 63–70 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Saslow, D. Solomon, H. W. Lawson, M. Killackey, S. L. Kulasingam, J. Cain, F. A. R. Garcia, A. T. Moriarty, A. G. Waxman, D. C. Wilbur, N. Wentzensen, L. S. Downs, M. Spitzer, A.-B. Moscicki, E. L. Franco, M. H. Stoler, M. Schiffman, P. E. Castle, and E. R. Myers, “American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology Screening Guidelines for the Prevention and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 137(4), 516–542 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cavazos, B.

K. Boom, M. Lopez, M. Daheri, R. Gowen, A. Milbourne, P. Toscano, C. Carey, L. Guerra, J. M. Carvajal, E. Marin, E. Baker, S. Fisher-Hoch, A. M. Rodriguez, N. Burkalter, B. Cavazos, M. Gasca, M. M. Cuellar, E. Robles, E. Lopez, and K. Schmeler, “Perspectives on cervical cancer screening and prevention: challenges faced by providers and patients along the Texas–Mexico border,” Perspect. Public Health 139(4), 199–205 (2019).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y.-S. L.

C. Olsovsky, T. Hinsdale, R. Cuenca, Y.-S. L. Cheng, J. M. Wright, T. D. Rees, J. A. Jo, and K. C. Maitland, “Handheld tunable focus confocal microscope utilizing a double-clad fiber coupler for in vivo imaging of oral epithelium,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(5), 056008 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cherry, K. D.

S. G. Parra, A. M. Rodriguez, K. D. Cherry, R. A. Schwarz, R. M. Gowen, L. B. Guerra, A. M. Milbourne, P. A. Toscano, S. P. Fisher-Hoch, K. M. Schmeler, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Low-cost, high-resolution imaging for detecting cervical precancer in medically-underserved areas of Texas,” Gynecol. Oncol. 154(3), 558–564 (2019).
[Crossref]

Cuellar, M. M.

K. Boom, M. Lopez, M. Daheri, R. Gowen, A. Milbourne, P. Toscano, C. Carey, L. Guerra, J. M. Carvajal, E. Marin, E. Baker, S. Fisher-Hoch, A. M. Rodriguez, N. Burkalter, B. Cavazos, M. Gasca, M. M. Cuellar, E. Robles, E. Lopez, and K. Schmeler, “Perspectives on cervical cancer screening and prevention: challenges faced by providers and patients along the Texas–Mexico border,” Perspect. Public Health 139(4), 199–205 (2019).
[Crossref]

Cuenca, R.

C. Olsovsky, T. Hinsdale, R. Cuenca, Y.-S. L. Cheng, J. M. Wright, T. D. Rees, J. A. Jo, and K. C. Maitland, “Handheld tunable focus confocal microscope utilizing a double-clad fiber coupler for in vivo imaging of oral epithelium,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(5), 056008 (2017).
[Crossref]

Daheri, M.

K. Boom, M. Lopez, M. Daheri, R. Gowen, A. Milbourne, P. Toscano, C. Carey, L. Guerra, J. M. Carvajal, E. Marin, E. Baker, S. Fisher-Hoch, A. M. Rodriguez, N. Burkalter, B. Cavazos, M. Gasca, M. M. Cuellar, E. Robles, E. Lopez, and K. Schmeler, “Perspectives on cervical cancer screening and prevention: challenges faced by providers and patients along the Texas–Mexico border,” Perspect. Public Health 139(4), 199–205 (2019).
[Crossref]

Dawsey, S. M.

T. Quang, R. A. Schwarz, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Tan, K. Patel, X. Yu, G. Wang, F. Zhang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A tablet-interfaced high-resolution microendoscope with automated image interpretation for real-time evaluation of esophageal squamous cell neoplasia,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 84(5), 834–841 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Shin, M.-A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative analysis of high-resolution microendoscopic images for diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279.e2 (2015).
[Crossref]

De Macêdo Matsushita, G.

B. Hunt, J. H. T. G. J. H. T. G. Fregnani, R. A. Schwarz, N. Pantano, S. Tesoni, J. C. J. C. Possati-Resende, M. Antoniazzi, B. De Oliveira Fonseca, G. De Macêdo Matsushita, C. Scapulatempo-Neto, L. Kerr, P. E. Castle, K. Schmeler, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Diagnosing cervical neoplasia in rural Brazil using a mobile van equipped with in vivo microscopy: A cluster-randomized community trial,” Cancer Prev. Res. 11(6), 359–370 (2018).
[Crossref]

De Oliveira Fonseca, B.

B. Hunt, J. H. T. G. J. H. T. G. Fregnani, R. A. Schwarz, N. Pantano, S. Tesoni, J. C. J. C. Possati-Resende, M. Antoniazzi, B. De Oliveira Fonseca, G. De Macêdo Matsushita, C. Scapulatempo-Neto, L. Kerr, P. E. Castle, K. Schmeler, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Diagnosing cervical neoplasia in rural Brazil using a mobile van equipped with in vivo microscopy: A cluster-randomized community trial,” Cancer Prev. Res. 11(6), 359–370 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dhingra, S.

Dickensheets, D. L.

Dobbs, J.

M. Kyrish, J. Dobbs, S. Jain, X. Wang, D. Yu, R. Richards-Kortum, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Needle-based fluorescence endomicroscopy via structured illumination with a plastic, achromatic objective,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(9), 096003 (2013).
[Crossref]

Downs, L. S.

D. Saslow, D. Solomon, H. W. Lawson, M. Killackey, S. L. Kulasingam, J. Cain, F. A. R. Garcia, A. T. Moriarty, A. G. Waxman, D. C. Wilbur, N. Wentzensen, L. S. Downs, M. Spitzer, A.-B. Moscicki, E. L. Franco, M. H. Stoler, M. Schiffman, P. E. Castle, and E. R. Myers, “American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology Screening Guidelines for the Prevention and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 137(4), 516–542 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ferlay, J.

F. Bray, J. Ferlay, I. Soerjomataram, R. L. Siegel, L. A. Torre, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries,” Ca-Cancer J. Clin. 68(6), 394–424 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Vaccarella, M. Laversanne, J. Ferlay, and F. Bray, “Cervical cancer in Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean and Asia: Regional inequalities and changing trends,” Int. J. Cancer 141(10), 1997–2001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fisher-Hoch, S.

K. Boom, M. Lopez, M. Daheri, R. Gowen, A. Milbourne, P. Toscano, C. Carey, L. Guerra, J. M. Carvajal, E. Marin, E. Baker, S. Fisher-Hoch, A. M. Rodriguez, N. Burkalter, B. Cavazos, M. Gasca, M. M. Cuellar, E. Robles, E. Lopez, and K. Schmeler, “Perspectives on cervical cancer screening and prevention: challenges faced by providers and patients along the Texas–Mexico border,” Perspect. Public Health 139(4), 199–205 (2019).
[Crossref]

Fisher-Hoch, S. P.

S. G. Parra, A. M. Rodriguez, K. D. Cherry, R. A. Schwarz, R. M. Gowen, L. B. Guerra, A. M. Milbourne, P. A. Toscano, S. P. Fisher-Hoch, K. M. Schmeler, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Low-cost, high-resolution imaging for detecting cervical precancer in medically-underserved areas of Texas,” Gynecol. Oncol. 154(3), 558–564 (2019).
[Crossref]

Follen, M.

C. Schlosser, N. Bodenschatz, S. Lam, M. Lee, J. N. McAlpine, D. M. Miller, D. J. T. Van Niekerk, M. Follen, M. Guillaud, C. E. MacAulay, and P. M. Lane, “Fluorescence confocal endomicroscopy of the cervix: pilot study on the potential and limitations for clinical implementation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(12), 126011 (2016).
[Crossref]

Franco, E. L.

D. Saslow, D. Solomon, H. W. Lawson, M. Killackey, S. L. Kulasingam, J. Cain, F. A. R. Garcia, A. T. Moriarty, A. G. Waxman, D. C. Wilbur, N. Wentzensen, L. S. Downs, M. Spitzer, A.-B. Moscicki, E. L. Franco, M. H. Stoler, M. Schiffman, P. E. Castle, and E. R. Myers, “American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology Screening Guidelines for the Prevention and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 137(4), 516–542 (2012).
[Crossref]

Freeman, E. E.

Fregnani, J. H. T. G.

B. D. Grant, J. H. T. G. Fregnani, J. C. Possati Resende, C. Scapulatempo-Neto, G. M. Matsushita, E. C. Mauad, T. Quang, M. H. Stoler, P. E. Castle, K. M. Schmeler, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution microendoscopy: a point-of-care diagnostic for cervical dysplasia in low-resource settings,” Eur. J. Cancer Prev. 26(1), 63–70 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fregnani, J. H. T. G. J. H. T. G.

B. Hunt, J. H. T. G. J. H. T. G. Fregnani, R. A. Schwarz, N. Pantano, S. Tesoni, J. C. J. C. Possati-Resende, M. Antoniazzi, B. De Oliveira Fonseca, G. De Macêdo Matsushita, C. Scapulatempo-Neto, L. Kerr, P. E. Castle, K. Schmeler, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Diagnosing cervical neoplasia in rural Brazil using a mobile van equipped with in vivo microscopy: A cluster-randomized community trial,” Cancer Prev. Res. 11(6), 359–370 (2018).
[Crossref]

Garcia, F. A. R.

D. Saslow, D. Solomon, H. W. Lawson, M. Killackey, S. L. Kulasingam, J. Cain, F. A. R. Garcia, A. T. Moriarty, A. G. Waxman, D. C. Wilbur, N. Wentzensen, L. S. Downs, M. Spitzer, A.-B. Moscicki, E. L. Franco, M. H. Stoler, M. Schiffman, P. E. Castle, and E. R. Myers, “American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology Screening Guidelines for the Prevention and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 137(4), 516–542 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gasca, M.

K. Boom, M. Lopez, M. Daheri, R. Gowen, A. Milbourne, P. Toscano, C. Carey, L. Guerra, J. M. Carvajal, E. Marin, E. Baker, S. Fisher-Hoch, A. M. Rodriguez, N. Burkalter, B. Cavazos, M. Gasca, M. M. Cuellar, E. Robles, E. Lopez, and K. Schmeler, “Perspectives on cervical cancer screening and prevention: challenges faced by providers and patients along the Texas–Mexico border,” Perspect. Public Health 139(4), 199–205 (2019).
[Crossref]

Gonzalez, S.

Gowen, R.

K. Boom, M. Lopez, M. Daheri, R. Gowen, A. Milbourne, P. Toscano, C. Carey, L. Guerra, J. M. Carvajal, E. Marin, E. Baker, S. Fisher-Hoch, A. M. Rodriguez, N. Burkalter, B. Cavazos, M. Gasca, M. M. Cuellar, E. Robles, E. Lopez, and K. Schmeler, “Perspectives on cervical cancer screening and prevention: challenges faced by providers and patients along the Texas–Mexico border,” Perspect. Public Health 139(4), 199–205 (2019).
[Crossref]

Gowen, R. M.

S. G. Parra, A. M. Rodriguez, K. D. Cherry, R. A. Schwarz, R. M. Gowen, L. B. Guerra, A. M. Milbourne, P. A. Toscano, S. P. Fisher-Hoch, K. M. Schmeler, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Low-cost, high-resolution imaging for detecting cervical precancer in medically-underserved areas of Texas,” Gynecol. Oncol. 154(3), 558–564 (2019).
[Crossref]

Grant, B. D.

B. D. Grant, J. H. T. G. Fregnani, J. C. Possati Resende, C. Scapulatempo-Neto, G. M. Matsushita, E. C. Mauad, T. Quang, M. H. Stoler, P. E. Castle, K. M. Schmeler, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution microendoscopy: a point-of-care diagnostic for cervical dysplasia in low-resource settings,” Eur. J. Cancer Prev. 26(1), 63–70 (2017).
[Crossref]

Guan, Y. Y.

M. C. Pierce, Y. Y. Guan, M. K. Quinn, X. Zhang, W. H. Zhang, Y. L. Qiao, P. Castle, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A pilot study of low-cost, high-resolution microendoscopy as a tool for identifying women with cervical precancer,” Cancer Prev. Res. 5(11), 1273–1279 (2012).
[Crossref]

Guerra, L.

K. Boom, M. Lopez, M. Daheri, R. Gowen, A. Milbourne, P. Toscano, C. Carey, L. Guerra, J. M. Carvajal, E. Marin, E. Baker, S. Fisher-Hoch, A. M. Rodriguez, N. Burkalter, B. Cavazos, M. Gasca, M. M. Cuellar, E. Robles, E. Lopez, and K. Schmeler, “Perspectives on cervical cancer screening and prevention: challenges faced by providers and patients along the Texas–Mexico border,” Perspect. Public Health 139(4), 199–205 (2019).
[Crossref]

Guerra, L. B.

S. G. Parra, A. M. Rodriguez, K. D. Cherry, R. A. Schwarz, R. M. Gowen, L. B. Guerra, A. M. Milbourne, P. A. Toscano, S. P. Fisher-Hoch, K. M. Schmeler, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Low-cost, high-resolution imaging for detecting cervical precancer in medically-underserved areas of Texas,” Gynecol. Oncol. 154(3), 558–564 (2019).
[Crossref]

Guillaud, M.

C. Schlosser, N. Bodenschatz, S. Lam, M. Lee, J. N. McAlpine, D. M. Miller, D. J. T. Van Niekerk, M. Follen, M. Guillaud, C. E. MacAulay, and P. M. Lane, “Fluorescence confocal endomicroscopy of the cervix: pilot study on the potential and limitations for clinical implementation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(12), 126011 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hakama, M.

F. Bray, B. Carstensen, H. Møller, M. Zappa, M. P. Žakelj, G. Lawrence, M. Hakama, and E. Weiderpass, “Incidence trends of adenocarcinoma of the cervix in 13 European countries,” Cancer Epidemiol., Biomarkers Prev. 14(9), 2191–2199 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Bray, A. H. Loos, P. McCarron, E. Weiderpass, M. Arbyn, H. Møller, M. Hakama, and D. M. Parkin, “Trends in cervical squamous cell carcinoma incidence in 13 European countries: Changing risk and the effects of screening,” Cancer Epidemiol., Biomarkers Prev. 14(3), 677–686 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hinsdale, T.

C. Olsovsky, T. Hinsdale, R. Cuenca, Y.-S. L. Cheng, J. M. Wright, T. D. Rees, J. A. Jo, and K. C. Maitland, “Handheld tunable focus confocal microscope utilizing a double-clad fiber coupler for in vivo imaging of oral epithelium,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(5), 056008 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hunt, B.

K. A. Kundrod, C. A. Smith, B. Hunt, R. A. Schwarz, K. Schmeler, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Advances in technologies for cervical cancer detection in low-resource settings,” Expert Rev. Mol. Diagn. 19(8), 695–714 (2019).
[Crossref]

B. Hunt, J. H. T. G. J. H. T. G. Fregnani, R. A. Schwarz, N. Pantano, S. Tesoni, J. C. J. C. Possati-Resende, M. Antoniazzi, B. De Oliveira Fonseca, G. De Macêdo Matsushita, C. Scapulatempo-Neto, L. Kerr, P. E. Castle, K. Schmeler, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Diagnosing cervical neoplasia in rural Brazil using a mobile van equipped with in vivo microscopy: A cluster-randomized community trial,” Cancer Prev. Res. 11(6), 359–370 (2018).
[Crossref]

Jain, S.

M. Kyrish, J. Dobbs, S. Jain, X. Wang, D. Yu, R. Richards-Kortum, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Needle-based fluorescence endomicroscopy via structured illumination with a plastic, achromatic objective,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(9), 096003 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jemal, A.

F. Bray, J. Ferlay, I. Soerjomataram, R. L. Siegel, L. A. Torre, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries,” Ca-Cancer J. Clin. 68(6), 394–424 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. K. Singh and A. Jemal, “Socioeconomic and Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Cancer Mortality, Incidence, and Survival in the United States, 1950-2014: Over Six Decades of Changing Patterns and Widening Inequalities,” J. Environ. Public Health 2017, 1–19 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jo, J. A.

C. Olsovsky, T. Hinsdale, R. Cuenca, Y.-S. L. Cheng, J. M. Wright, T. D. Rees, J. A. Jo, and K. C. Maitland, “Handheld tunable focus confocal microscope utilizing a double-clad fiber coupler for in vivo imaging of oral epithelium,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(5), 056008 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kaartinen, I.

J. T. Alander, I. Kaartinen, A. Laakso, T. Pätilä, T. Spillmann, V. V. Tuchin, M. Venermo, and P. Välisuo, “A Review of indocyanine green fluorescent imaging in surgery,” Int. J. Biomed. Imaging 2012, 1–26 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kang, D.

Kayembe, M. K.

M. K. Quinn, T. C. Bubi, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kayembe, D. Ramogola-Masire, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-Resolution Microendoscopy for the Detection of Cervical Neoplasia in Low-Resource Settings,” PLoS One 7(9), e44924 (2012).
[Crossref]

Keahey, P.

P. Keahey, P. Ramalingam, K. Schmeler, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Differential structured illumination microendoscopy for in vivo imaging of molecular contrast agents,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 113(39), 10769–10773 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kerr, L.

B. Hunt, J. H. T. G. J. H. T. G. Fregnani, R. A. Schwarz, N. Pantano, S. Tesoni, J. C. J. C. Possati-Resende, M. Antoniazzi, B. De Oliveira Fonseca, G. De Macêdo Matsushita, C. Scapulatempo-Neto, L. Kerr, P. E. Castle, K. Schmeler, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Diagnosing cervical neoplasia in rural Brazil using a mobile van equipped with in vivo microscopy: A cluster-randomized community trial,” Cancer Prev. Res. 11(6), 359–370 (2018).
[Crossref]

Killackey, M.

D. Saslow, D. Solomon, H. W. Lawson, M. Killackey, S. L. Kulasingam, J. Cain, F. A. R. Garcia, A. T. Moriarty, A. G. Waxman, D. C. Wilbur, N. Wentzensen, L. S. Downs, M. Spitzer, A.-B. Moscicki, E. L. Franco, M. H. Stoler, M. Schiffman, P. E. Castle, and E. R. Myers, “American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology Screening Guidelines for the Prevention and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 137(4), 516–542 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kim, M. K.

D. Shin, M.-A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative analysis of high-resolution microendoscopic images for diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279.e2 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kortum, A.

Koucky, M. H.

Kulasingam, S. L.

D. Saslow, D. Solomon, H. W. Lawson, M. Killackey, S. L. Kulasingam, J. Cain, F. A. R. Garcia, A. T. Moriarty, A. G. Waxman, D. C. Wilbur, N. Wentzensen, L. S. Downs, M. Spitzer, A.-B. Moscicki, E. L. Franco, M. H. Stoler, M. Schiffman, P. E. Castle, and E. R. Myers, “American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology Screening Guidelines for the Prevention and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 137(4), 516–542 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kundrod, K. A.

K. A. Kundrod, C. A. Smith, B. Hunt, R. A. Schwarz, K. Schmeler, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Advances in technologies for cervical cancer detection in low-resource settings,” Expert Rev. Mol. Diagn. 19(8), 695–714 (2019).
[Crossref]

Kyrish, M.

M. Kyrish, J. Dobbs, S. Jain, X. Wang, D. Yu, R. Richards-Kortum, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Needle-based fluorescence endomicroscopy via structured illumination with a plastic, achromatic objective,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(9), 096003 (2013).
[Crossref]

Laakso, A.

J. T. Alander, I. Kaartinen, A. Laakso, T. Pätilä, T. Spillmann, V. V. Tuchin, M. Venermo, and P. Välisuo, “A Review of indocyanine green fluorescent imaging in surgery,” Int. J. Biomed. Imaging 2012, 1–26 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lam, S.

C. Schlosser, N. Bodenschatz, S. Lam, M. Lee, J. N. McAlpine, D. M. Miller, D. J. T. Van Niekerk, M. Follen, M. Guillaud, C. E. MacAulay, and P. M. Lane, “Fluorescence confocal endomicroscopy of the cervix: pilot study on the potential and limitations for clinical implementation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(12), 126011 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lane, P. M.

C. Schlosser, N. Bodenschatz, S. Lam, M. Lee, J. N. McAlpine, D. M. Miller, D. J. T. Van Niekerk, M. Follen, M. Guillaud, C. E. MacAulay, and P. M. Lane, “Fluorescence confocal endomicroscopy of the cervix: pilot study on the potential and limitations for clinical implementation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(12), 126011 (2016).
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Laversanne, M.

S. Vaccarella, M. Laversanne, J. Ferlay, and F. Bray, “Cervical cancer in Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean and Asia: Regional inequalities and changing trends,” Int. J. Cancer 141(10), 1997–2001 (2017).
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Lawrence, G.

F. Bray, B. Carstensen, H. Møller, M. Zappa, M. P. Žakelj, G. Lawrence, M. Hakama, and E. Weiderpass, “Incidence trends of adenocarcinoma of the cervix in 13 European countries,” Cancer Epidemiol., Biomarkers Prev. 14(9), 2191–2199 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lawson, H. W.

D. Saslow, D. Solomon, H. W. Lawson, M. Killackey, S. L. Kulasingam, J. Cain, F. A. R. Garcia, A. T. Moriarty, A. G. Waxman, D. C. Wilbur, N. Wentzensen, L. S. Downs, M. Spitzer, A.-B. Moscicki, E. L. Franco, M. H. Stoler, M. Schiffman, P. E. Castle, and E. R. Myers, “American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology Screening Guidelines for the Prevention and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 137(4), 516–542 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, M.

C. Schlosser, N. Bodenschatz, S. Lam, M. Lee, J. N. McAlpine, D. M. Miller, D. J. T. Van Niekerk, M. Follen, M. Guillaud, C. E. MacAulay, and P. M. Lane, “Fluorescence confocal endomicroscopy of the cervix: pilot study on the potential and limitations for clinical implementation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(12), 126011 (2016).
[Crossref]

Loos, A. H.

F. Bray, A. H. Loos, P. McCarron, E. Weiderpass, M. Arbyn, H. Møller, M. Hakama, and D. M. Parkin, “Trends in cervical squamous cell carcinoma incidence in 13 European countries: Changing risk and the effects of screening,” Cancer Epidemiol., Biomarkers Prev. 14(3), 677–686 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lopez, E.

K. Boom, M. Lopez, M. Daheri, R. Gowen, A. Milbourne, P. Toscano, C. Carey, L. Guerra, J. M. Carvajal, E. Marin, E. Baker, S. Fisher-Hoch, A. M. Rodriguez, N. Burkalter, B. Cavazos, M. Gasca, M. M. Cuellar, E. Robles, E. Lopez, and K. Schmeler, “Perspectives on cervical cancer screening and prevention: challenges faced by providers and patients along the Texas–Mexico border,” Perspect. Public Health 139(4), 199–205 (2019).
[Crossref]

Lopez, M.

K. Boom, M. Lopez, M. Daheri, R. Gowen, A. Milbourne, P. Toscano, C. Carey, L. Guerra, J. M. Carvajal, E. Marin, E. Baker, S. Fisher-Hoch, A. M. Rodriguez, N. Burkalter, B. Cavazos, M. Gasca, M. M. Cuellar, E. Robles, E. Lopez, and K. Schmeler, “Perspectives on cervical cancer screening and prevention: challenges faced by providers and patients along the Texas–Mexico border,” Perspect. Public Health 139(4), 199–205 (2019).
[Crossref]

MacAulay, C. E.

C. Schlosser, N. Bodenschatz, S. Lam, M. Lee, J. N. McAlpine, D. M. Miller, D. J. T. Van Niekerk, M. Follen, M. Guillaud, C. E. MacAulay, and P. M. Lane, “Fluorescence confocal endomicroscopy of the cervix: pilot study on the potential and limitations for clinical implementation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(12), 126011 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mahadevan-Jansen, A.

Maitland, K. C.

C. Olsovsky, T. Hinsdale, R. Cuenca, Y.-S. L. Cheng, J. M. Wright, T. D. Rees, J. A. Jo, and K. C. Maitland, “Handheld tunable focus confocal microscope utilizing a double-clad fiber coupler for in vivo imaging of oral epithelium,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(5), 056008 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mansour, N.

Marin, E.

K. Boom, M. Lopez, M. Daheri, R. Gowen, A. Milbourne, P. Toscano, C. Carey, L. Guerra, J. M. Carvajal, E. Marin, E. Baker, S. Fisher-Hoch, A. M. Rodriguez, N. Burkalter, B. Cavazos, M. Gasca, M. M. Cuellar, E. Robles, E. Lopez, and K. Schmeler, “Perspectives on cervical cancer screening and prevention: challenges faced by providers and patients along the Texas–Mexico border,” Perspect. Public Health 139(4), 199–205 (2019).
[Crossref]

Martin, J. N.

Matsushita, G. M.

B. D. Grant, J. H. T. G. Fregnani, J. C. Possati Resende, C. Scapulatempo-Neto, G. M. Matsushita, E. C. Mauad, T. Quang, M. H. Stoler, P. E. Castle, K. M. Schmeler, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution microendoscopy: a point-of-care diagnostic for cervical dysplasia in low-resource settings,” Eur. J. Cancer Prev. 26(1), 63–70 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mauad, E. C.

B. D. Grant, J. H. T. G. Fregnani, J. C. Possati Resende, C. Scapulatempo-Neto, G. M. Matsushita, E. C. Mauad, T. Quang, M. H. Stoler, P. E. Castle, K. M. Schmeler, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution microendoscopy: a point-of-care diagnostic for cervical dysplasia in low-resource settings,” Eur. J. Cancer Prev. 26(1), 63–70 (2017).
[Crossref]

McAlpine, J. N.

C. Schlosser, N. Bodenschatz, S. Lam, M. Lee, J. N. McAlpine, D. M. Miller, D. J. T. Van Niekerk, M. Follen, M. Guillaud, C. E. MacAulay, and P. M. Lane, “Fluorescence confocal endomicroscopy of the cervix: pilot study on the potential and limitations for clinical implementation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(12), 126011 (2016).
[Crossref]

McCarron, P.

F. Bray, A. H. Loos, P. McCarron, E. Weiderpass, M. Arbyn, H. Møller, M. Hakama, and D. M. Parkin, “Trends in cervical squamous cell carcinoma incidence in 13 European countries: Changing risk and the effects of screening,” Cancer Epidemiol., Biomarkers Prev. 14(3), 677–686 (2005).
[Crossref]

Milbourne, A.

K. Boom, M. Lopez, M. Daheri, R. Gowen, A. Milbourne, P. Toscano, C. Carey, L. Guerra, J. M. Carvajal, E. Marin, E. Baker, S. Fisher-Hoch, A. M. Rodriguez, N. Burkalter, B. Cavazos, M. Gasca, M. M. Cuellar, E. Robles, E. Lopez, and K. Schmeler, “Perspectives on cervical cancer screening and prevention: challenges faced by providers and patients along the Texas–Mexico border,” Perspect. Public Health 139(4), 199–205 (2019).
[Crossref]

Milbourne, A. M.

S. G. Parra, A. M. Rodriguez, K. D. Cherry, R. A. Schwarz, R. M. Gowen, L. B. Guerra, A. M. Milbourne, P. A. Toscano, S. P. Fisher-Hoch, K. M. Schmeler, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Low-cost, high-resolution imaging for detecting cervical precancer in medically-underserved areas of Texas,” Gynecol. Oncol. 154(3), 558–564 (2019).
[Crossref]

Miller, D. M.

C. Schlosser, N. Bodenschatz, S. Lam, M. Lee, J. N. McAlpine, D. M. Miller, D. J. T. Van Niekerk, M. Follen, M. Guillaud, C. E. MacAulay, and P. M. Lane, “Fluorescence confocal endomicroscopy of the cervix: pilot study on the potential and limitations for clinical implementation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(12), 126011 (2016).
[Crossref]

Møller, H.

F. Bray, A. H. Loos, P. McCarron, E. Weiderpass, M. Arbyn, H. Møller, M. Hakama, and D. M. Parkin, “Trends in cervical squamous cell carcinoma incidence in 13 European countries: Changing risk and the effects of screening,” Cancer Epidemiol., Biomarkers Prev. 14(3), 677–686 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Bray, B. Carstensen, H. Møller, M. Zappa, M. P. Žakelj, G. Lawrence, M. Hakama, and E. Weiderpass, “Incidence trends of adenocarcinoma of the cervix in 13 European countries,” Cancer Epidemiol., Biomarkers Prev. 14(9), 2191–2199 (2005).
[Crossref]

Moriarty, A. T.

D. Saslow, D. Solomon, H. W. Lawson, M. Killackey, S. L. Kulasingam, J. Cain, F. A. R. Garcia, A. T. Moriarty, A. G. Waxman, D. C. Wilbur, N. Wentzensen, L. S. Downs, M. Spitzer, A.-B. Moscicki, E. L. Franco, M. H. Stoler, M. Schiffman, P. E. Castle, and E. R. Myers, “American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology Screening Guidelines for the Prevention and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 137(4), 516–542 (2012).
[Crossref]

Moscicki, A.-B.

D. Saslow, D. Solomon, H. W. Lawson, M. Killackey, S. L. Kulasingam, J. Cain, F. A. R. Garcia, A. T. Moriarty, A. G. Waxman, D. C. Wilbur, N. Wentzensen, L. S. Downs, M. Spitzer, A.-B. Moscicki, E. L. Franco, M. H. Stoler, M. Schiffman, P. E. Castle, and E. R. Myers, “American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology Screening Guidelines for the Prevention and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 137(4), 516–542 (2012).
[Crossref]

Myers, E. R.

D. Saslow, D. Solomon, H. W. Lawson, M. Killackey, S. L. Kulasingam, J. Cain, F. A. R. Garcia, A. T. Moriarty, A. G. Waxman, D. C. Wilbur, N. Wentzensen, L. S. Downs, M. Spitzer, A.-B. Moscicki, E. L. Franco, M. H. Stoler, M. Schiffman, P. E. Castle, and E. R. Myers, “American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology Screening Guidelines for the Prevention and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 137(4), 516–542 (2012).
[Crossref]

Olsovsky, C.

C. Olsovsky, T. Hinsdale, R. Cuenca, Y.-S. L. Cheng, J. M. Wright, T. D. Rees, J. A. Jo, and K. C. Maitland, “Handheld tunable focus confocal microscope utilizing a double-clad fiber coupler for in vivo imaging of oral epithelium,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(5), 056008 (2017).
[Crossref]

Osman, H.

Othman, M.

Pantano, N.

B. Hunt, J. H. T. G. J. H. T. G. Fregnani, R. A. Schwarz, N. Pantano, S. Tesoni, J. C. J. C. Possati-Resende, M. Antoniazzi, B. De Oliveira Fonseca, G. De Macêdo Matsushita, C. Scapulatempo-Neto, L. Kerr, P. E. Castle, K. Schmeler, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Diagnosing cervical neoplasia in rural Brazil using a mobile van equipped with in vivo microscopy: A cluster-randomized community trial,” Cancer Prev. Res. 11(6), 359–370 (2018).
[Crossref]

Parikh, N.

D. Shin, M.-A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative analysis of high-resolution microendoscopic images for diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279.e2 (2015).
[Crossref]

Parkin, D. M.

F. Bray, A. H. Loos, P. McCarron, E. Weiderpass, M. Arbyn, H. Møller, M. Hakama, and D. M. Parkin, “Trends in cervical squamous cell carcinoma incidence in 13 European countries: Changing risk and the effects of screening,” Cancer Epidemiol., Biomarkers Prev. 14(3), 677–686 (2005).
[Crossref]

Parra, S. G.

S. G. Parra, A. M. Rodriguez, K. D. Cherry, R. A. Schwarz, R. M. Gowen, L. B. Guerra, A. M. Milbourne, P. A. Toscano, S. P. Fisher-Hoch, K. M. Schmeler, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Low-cost, high-resolution imaging for detecting cervical precancer in medically-underserved areas of Texas,” Gynecol. Oncol. 154(3), 558–564 (2019).
[Crossref]

Patel, K.

T. Quang, R. A. Schwarz, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Tan, K. Patel, X. Yu, G. Wang, F. Zhang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A tablet-interfaced high-resolution microendoscope with automated image interpretation for real-time evaluation of esophageal squamous cell neoplasia,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 84(5), 834–841 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pätilä, T.

J. T. Alander, I. Kaartinen, A. Laakso, T. Pätilä, T. Spillmann, V. V. Tuchin, M. Venermo, and P. Välisuo, “A Review of indocyanine green fluorescent imaging in surgery,” Int. J. Biomed. Imaging 2012, 1–26 (2012).
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Peterson, G.

Pierce, M. C.

D. Shin, M.-A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative analysis of high-resolution microendoscopic images for diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279.e2 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. H. Koucky and M. C. Pierce, “Axial response of high-resolution microendoscopy in scattering media,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(10), 2247–2256 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. C. Pierce, Y. Y. Guan, M. K. Quinn, X. Zhang, W. H. Zhang, Y. L. Qiao, P. Castle, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A pilot study of low-cost, high-resolution microendoscopy as a tool for identifying women with cervical precancer,” Cancer Prev. Res. 5(11), 1273–1279 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. K. Quinn, T. C. Bubi, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kayembe, D. Ramogola-Masire, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-Resolution Microendoscopy for the Detection of Cervical Neoplasia in Low-Resource Settings,” PLoS One 7(9), e44924 (2012).
[Crossref]

Polydorides, A. D.

D. Shin, M.-A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative analysis of high-resolution microendoscopic images for diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279.e2 (2015).
[Crossref]

Possati Resende, J. C.

B. D. Grant, J. H. T. G. Fregnani, J. C. Possati Resende, C. Scapulatempo-Neto, G. M. Matsushita, E. C. Mauad, T. Quang, M. H. Stoler, P. E. Castle, K. M. Schmeler, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution microendoscopy: a point-of-care diagnostic for cervical dysplasia in low-resource settings,” Eur. J. Cancer Prev. 26(1), 63–70 (2017).
[Crossref]

Possati-Resende, J. C. J. C.

B. Hunt, J. H. T. G. J. H. T. G. Fregnani, R. A. Schwarz, N. Pantano, S. Tesoni, J. C. J. C. Possati-Resende, M. Antoniazzi, B. De Oliveira Fonseca, G. De Macêdo Matsushita, C. Scapulatempo-Neto, L. Kerr, P. E. Castle, K. Schmeler, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Diagnosing cervical neoplasia in rural Brazil using a mobile van equipped with in vivo microscopy: A cluster-randomized community trial,” Cancer Prev. Res. 11(6), 359–370 (2018).
[Crossref]

Protano, M.-A.

D. Shin, M.-A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative analysis of high-resolution microendoscopic images for diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279.e2 (2015).
[Crossref]

Qiao, Y. L.

M. C. Pierce, Y. Y. Guan, M. K. Quinn, X. Zhang, W. H. Zhang, Y. L. Qiao, P. Castle, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A pilot study of low-cost, high-resolution microendoscopy as a tool for identifying women with cervical precancer,” Cancer Prev. Res. 5(11), 1273–1279 (2012).
[Crossref]

Quang, T.

B. D. Grant, J. H. T. G. Fregnani, J. C. Possati Resende, C. Scapulatempo-Neto, G. M. Matsushita, E. C. Mauad, T. Quang, M. H. Stoler, P. E. Castle, K. M. Schmeler, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution microendoscopy: a point-of-care diagnostic for cervical dysplasia in low-resource settings,” Eur. J. Cancer Prev. 26(1), 63–70 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Quang, R. A. Schwarz, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Tan, K. Patel, X. Yu, G. Wang, F. Zhang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A tablet-interfaced high-resolution microendoscope with automated image interpretation for real-time evaluation of esophageal squamous cell neoplasia,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 84(5), 834–841 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Shin, M.-A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative analysis of high-resolution microendoscopic images for diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279.e2 (2015).
[Crossref]

Quinn, M. K.

M. K. Quinn, T. C. Bubi, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kayembe, D. Ramogola-Masire, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-Resolution Microendoscopy for the Detection of Cervical Neoplasia in Low-Resource Settings,” PLoS One 7(9), e44924 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. C. Pierce, Y. Y. Guan, M. K. Quinn, X. Zhang, W. H. Zhang, Y. L. Qiao, P. Castle, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A pilot study of low-cost, high-resolution microendoscopy as a tool for identifying women with cervical precancer,” Cancer Prev. Res. 5(11), 1273–1279 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rajadhyaksha, M.

Ramalingam, P.

P. Keahey, P. Ramalingam, K. Schmeler, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Differential structured illumination microendoscopy for in vivo imaging of molecular contrast agents,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 113(39), 10769–10773 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ramogola-Masire, D.

M. K. Quinn, T. C. Bubi, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kayembe, D. Ramogola-Masire, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-Resolution Microendoscopy for the Detection of Cervical Neoplasia in Low-Resource Settings,” PLoS One 7(9), e44924 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rees, T. D.

C. Olsovsky, T. Hinsdale, R. Cuenca, Y.-S. L. Cheng, J. M. Wright, T. D. Rees, J. A. Jo, and K. C. Maitland, “Handheld tunable focus confocal microscope utilizing a double-clad fiber coupler for in vivo imaging of oral epithelium,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(5), 056008 (2017).
[Crossref]

Richards-Kortum, R.

K. A. Kundrod, C. A. Smith, B. Hunt, R. A. Schwarz, K. Schmeler, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Advances in technologies for cervical cancer detection in low-resource settings,” Expert Rev. Mol. Diagn. 19(8), 695–714 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Tang, A. Kortum, I. Vohra, J. Carns, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Simple differential digital confocal aperture to improve axial response of line-scanning confocal microendoscopes,” Opt. Lett. 44(18), 4519 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Tang, A. Kortum, I. Vohra, M. Othman, S. Dhingra, N. Mansour, J. Carns, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Improving nuclear morphometry imaging with real-time and low-cost line-scanning confocal microendoscope,” Opt. Lett. 44(3), 654 (2019).
[Crossref]

B. Hunt, J. H. T. G. J. H. T. G. Fregnani, R. A. Schwarz, N. Pantano, S. Tesoni, J. C. J. C. Possati-Resende, M. Antoniazzi, B. De Oliveira Fonseca, G. De Macêdo Matsushita, C. Scapulatempo-Neto, L. Kerr, P. E. Castle, K. Schmeler, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Diagnosing cervical neoplasia in rural Brazil using a mobile van equipped with in vivo microscopy: A cluster-randomized community trial,” Cancer Prev. Res. 11(6), 359–370 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Quang, R. A. Schwarz, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Tan, K. Patel, X. Yu, G. Wang, F. Zhang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A tablet-interfaced high-resolution microendoscope with automated image interpretation for real-time evaluation of esophageal squamous cell neoplasia,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 84(5), 834–841 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Kyrish, J. Dobbs, S. Jain, X. Wang, D. Yu, R. Richards-Kortum, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Needle-based fluorescence endomicroscopy via structured illumination with a plastic, achromatic objective,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(9), 096003 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. K. Quinn, T. C. Bubi, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kayembe, D. Ramogola-Masire, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-Resolution Microendoscopy for the Detection of Cervical Neoplasia in Low-Resource Settings,” PLoS One 7(9), e44924 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. C. Pierce, Y. Y. Guan, M. K. Quinn, X. Zhang, W. H. Zhang, Y. L. Qiao, P. Castle, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A pilot study of low-cost, high-resolution microendoscopy as a tool for identifying women with cervical precancer,” Cancer Prev. Res. 5(11), 1273–1279 (2012).
[Crossref]

Richards-Kortum, R. R.

S. G. Parra, A. M. Rodriguez, K. D. Cherry, R. A. Schwarz, R. M. Gowen, L. B. Guerra, A. M. Milbourne, P. A. Toscano, S. P. Fisher-Hoch, K. M. Schmeler, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Low-cost, high-resolution imaging for detecting cervical precancer in medically-underserved areas of Texas,” Gynecol. Oncol. 154(3), 558–564 (2019).
[Crossref]

B. D. Grant, J. H. T. G. Fregnani, J. C. Possati Resende, C. Scapulatempo-Neto, G. M. Matsushita, E. C. Mauad, T. Quang, M. H. Stoler, P. E. Castle, K. M. Schmeler, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution microendoscopy: a point-of-care diagnostic for cervical dysplasia in low-resource settings,” Eur. J. Cancer Prev. 26(1), 63–70 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Tang, J. Carns, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Line-scanning confocal microendoscope for nuclear morphometry imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(11), 1–6 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Keahey, P. Ramalingam, K. Schmeler, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Differential structured illumination microendoscopy for in vivo imaging of molecular contrast agents,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 113(39), 10769–10773 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Shin, M.-A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative analysis of high-resolution microendoscopic images for diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279.e2 (2015).
[Crossref]

Robles, E.

K. Boom, M. Lopez, M. Daheri, R. Gowen, A. Milbourne, P. Toscano, C. Carey, L. Guerra, J. M. Carvajal, E. Marin, E. Baker, S. Fisher-Hoch, A. M. Rodriguez, N. Burkalter, B. Cavazos, M. Gasca, M. M. Cuellar, E. Robles, E. Lopez, and K. Schmeler, “Perspectives on cervical cancer screening and prevention: challenges faced by providers and patients along the Texas–Mexico border,” Perspect. Public Health 139(4), 199–205 (2019).
[Crossref]

Rodriguez, A. M.

K. Boom, M. Lopez, M. Daheri, R. Gowen, A. Milbourne, P. Toscano, C. Carey, L. Guerra, J. M. Carvajal, E. Marin, E. Baker, S. Fisher-Hoch, A. M. Rodriguez, N. Burkalter, B. Cavazos, M. Gasca, M. M. Cuellar, E. Robles, E. Lopez, and K. Schmeler, “Perspectives on cervical cancer screening and prevention: challenges faced by providers and patients along the Texas–Mexico border,” Perspect. Public Health 139(4), 199–205 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. G. Parra, A. M. Rodriguez, K. D. Cherry, R. A. Schwarz, R. M. Gowen, L. B. Guerra, A. M. Milbourne, P. A. Toscano, S. P. Fisher-Hoch, K. M. Schmeler, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Low-cost, high-resolution imaging for detecting cervical precancer in medically-underserved areas of Texas,” Gynecol. Oncol. 154(3), 558–564 (2019).
[Crossref]

Sankaranarayanan, R.

R. Sankaranarayanan, “Screening for cancer in low- and middle-income countries,” Ann. Glob. Heal. 80(5), 412–417 (2014).
[Crossref]

Saslow, D.

D. Saslow, D. Solomon, H. W. Lawson, M. Killackey, S. L. Kulasingam, J. Cain, F. A. R. Garcia, A. T. Moriarty, A. G. Waxman, D. C. Wilbur, N. Wentzensen, L. S. Downs, M. Spitzer, A.-B. Moscicki, E. L. Franco, M. H. Stoler, M. Schiffman, P. E. Castle, and E. R. Myers, “American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology Screening Guidelines for the Prevention and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 137(4), 516–542 (2012).
[Crossref]

Scapulatempo-Neto, C.

B. Hunt, J. H. T. G. J. H. T. G. Fregnani, R. A. Schwarz, N. Pantano, S. Tesoni, J. C. J. C. Possati-Resende, M. Antoniazzi, B. De Oliveira Fonseca, G. De Macêdo Matsushita, C. Scapulatempo-Neto, L. Kerr, P. E. Castle, K. Schmeler, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Diagnosing cervical neoplasia in rural Brazil using a mobile van equipped with in vivo microscopy: A cluster-randomized community trial,” Cancer Prev. Res. 11(6), 359–370 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. D. Grant, J. H. T. G. Fregnani, J. C. Possati Resende, C. Scapulatempo-Neto, G. M. Matsushita, E. C. Mauad, T. Quang, M. H. Stoler, P. E. Castle, K. M. Schmeler, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution microendoscopy: a point-of-care diagnostic for cervical dysplasia in low-resource settings,” Eur. J. Cancer Prev. 26(1), 63–70 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schiffman, M.

D. Saslow, D. Solomon, H. W. Lawson, M. Killackey, S. L. Kulasingam, J. Cain, F. A. R. Garcia, A. T. Moriarty, A. G. Waxman, D. C. Wilbur, N. Wentzensen, L. S. Downs, M. Spitzer, A.-B. Moscicki, E. L. Franco, M. H. Stoler, M. Schiffman, P. E. Castle, and E. R. Myers, “American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology Screening Guidelines for the Prevention and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 137(4), 516–542 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schlosser, C.

C. Schlosser, N. Bodenschatz, S. Lam, M. Lee, J. N. McAlpine, D. M. Miller, D. J. T. Van Niekerk, M. Follen, M. Guillaud, C. E. MacAulay, and P. M. Lane, “Fluorescence confocal endomicroscopy of the cervix: pilot study on the potential and limitations for clinical implementation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(12), 126011 (2016).
[Crossref]

Schmeler, K.

K. Boom, M. Lopez, M. Daheri, R. Gowen, A. Milbourne, P. Toscano, C. Carey, L. Guerra, J. M. Carvajal, E. Marin, E. Baker, S. Fisher-Hoch, A. M. Rodriguez, N. Burkalter, B. Cavazos, M. Gasca, M. M. Cuellar, E. Robles, E. Lopez, and K. Schmeler, “Perspectives on cervical cancer screening and prevention: challenges faced by providers and patients along the Texas–Mexico border,” Perspect. Public Health 139(4), 199–205 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. A. Kundrod, C. A. Smith, B. Hunt, R. A. Schwarz, K. Schmeler, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Advances in technologies for cervical cancer detection in low-resource settings,” Expert Rev. Mol. Diagn. 19(8), 695–714 (2019).
[Crossref]

B. Hunt, J. H. T. G. J. H. T. G. Fregnani, R. A. Schwarz, N. Pantano, S. Tesoni, J. C. J. C. Possati-Resende, M. Antoniazzi, B. De Oliveira Fonseca, G. De Macêdo Matsushita, C. Scapulatempo-Neto, L. Kerr, P. E. Castle, K. Schmeler, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Diagnosing cervical neoplasia in rural Brazil using a mobile van equipped with in vivo microscopy: A cluster-randomized community trial,” Cancer Prev. Res. 11(6), 359–370 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Keahey, P. Ramalingam, K. Schmeler, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Differential structured illumination microendoscopy for in vivo imaging of molecular contrast agents,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 113(39), 10769–10773 (2016).
[Crossref]

Schmeler, K. M.

S. G. Parra, A. M. Rodriguez, K. D. Cherry, R. A. Schwarz, R. M. Gowen, L. B. Guerra, A. M. Milbourne, P. A. Toscano, S. P. Fisher-Hoch, K. M. Schmeler, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Low-cost, high-resolution imaging for detecting cervical precancer in medically-underserved areas of Texas,” Gynecol. Oncol. 154(3), 558–564 (2019).
[Crossref]

B. D. Grant, J. H. T. G. Fregnani, J. C. Possati Resende, C. Scapulatempo-Neto, G. M. Matsushita, E. C. Mauad, T. Quang, M. H. Stoler, P. E. Castle, K. M. Schmeler, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution microendoscopy: a point-of-care diagnostic for cervical dysplasia in low-resource settings,” Eur. J. Cancer Prev. 26(1), 63–70 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schwarz, R. A.

S. G. Parra, A. M. Rodriguez, K. D. Cherry, R. A. Schwarz, R. M. Gowen, L. B. Guerra, A. M. Milbourne, P. A. Toscano, S. P. Fisher-Hoch, K. M. Schmeler, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Low-cost, high-resolution imaging for detecting cervical precancer in medically-underserved areas of Texas,” Gynecol. Oncol. 154(3), 558–564 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. A. Kundrod, C. A. Smith, B. Hunt, R. A. Schwarz, K. Schmeler, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Advances in technologies for cervical cancer detection in low-resource settings,” Expert Rev. Mol. Diagn. 19(8), 695–714 (2019).
[Crossref]

B. Hunt, J. H. T. G. J. H. T. G. Fregnani, R. A. Schwarz, N. Pantano, S. Tesoni, J. C. J. C. Possati-Resende, M. Antoniazzi, B. De Oliveira Fonseca, G. De Macêdo Matsushita, C. Scapulatempo-Neto, L. Kerr, P. E. Castle, K. Schmeler, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Diagnosing cervical neoplasia in rural Brazil using a mobile van equipped with in vivo microscopy: A cluster-randomized community trial,” Cancer Prev. Res. 11(6), 359–370 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Quang, R. A. Schwarz, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Tan, K. Patel, X. Yu, G. Wang, F. Zhang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A tablet-interfaced high-resolution microendoscope with automated image interpretation for real-time evaluation of esophageal squamous cell neoplasia,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 84(5), 834–841 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Shin, M.-A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative analysis of high-resolution microendoscopic images for diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279.e2 (2015).
[Crossref]

Semeere, A.

Shin, D.

D. Shin, M.-A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative analysis of high-resolution microendoscopic images for diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279.e2 (2015).
[Crossref]

Siegel, R. L.

F. Bray, J. Ferlay, I. Soerjomataram, R. L. Siegel, L. A. Torre, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries,” Ca-Cancer J. Clin. 68(6), 394–424 (2018).
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Singh, G. K.

G. K. Singh and A. Jemal, “Socioeconomic and Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Cancer Mortality, Incidence, and Survival in the United States, 1950-2014: Over Six Decades of Changing Patterns and Widening Inequalities,” J. Environ. Public Health 2017, 1–19 (2017).
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Smith, C. A.

K. A. Kundrod, C. A. Smith, B. Hunt, R. A. Schwarz, K. Schmeler, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Advances in technologies for cervical cancer detection in low-resource settings,” Expert Rev. Mol. Diagn. 19(8), 695–714 (2019).
[Crossref]

Soerjomataram, I.

F. Bray, J. Ferlay, I. Soerjomataram, R. L. Siegel, L. A. Torre, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries,” Ca-Cancer J. Clin. 68(6), 394–424 (2018).
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Solomon, D.

D. Saslow, D. Solomon, H. W. Lawson, M. Killackey, S. L. Kulasingam, J. Cain, F. A. R. Garcia, A. T. Moriarty, A. G. Waxman, D. C. Wilbur, N. Wentzensen, L. S. Downs, M. Spitzer, A.-B. Moscicki, E. L. Franco, M. H. Stoler, M. Schiffman, P. E. Castle, and E. R. Myers, “American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology Screening Guidelines for the Prevention and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 137(4), 516–542 (2012).
[Crossref]

Spillmann, T.

J. T. Alander, I. Kaartinen, A. Laakso, T. Pätilä, T. Spillmann, V. V. Tuchin, M. Venermo, and P. Välisuo, “A Review of indocyanine green fluorescent imaging in surgery,” Int. J. Biomed. Imaging 2012, 1–26 (2012).
[Crossref]

Spitzer, M.

D. Saslow, D. Solomon, H. W. Lawson, M. Killackey, S. L. Kulasingam, J. Cain, F. A. R. Garcia, A. T. Moriarty, A. G. Waxman, D. C. Wilbur, N. Wentzensen, L. S. Downs, M. Spitzer, A.-B. Moscicki, E. L. Franco, M. H. Stoler, M. Schiffman, P. E. Castle, and E. R. Myers, “American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology Screening Guidelines for the Prevention and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 137(4), 516–542 (2012).
[Crossref]

Stoler, M. H.

B. D. Grant, J. H. T. G. Fregnani, J. C. Possati Resende, C. Scapulatempo-Neto, G. M. Matsushita, E. C. Mauad, T. Quang, M. H. Stoler, P. E. Castle, K. M. Schmeler, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution microendoscopy: a point-of-care diagnostic for cervical dysplasia in low-resource settings,” Eur. J. Cancer Prev. 26(1), 63–70 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Saslow, D. Solomon, H. W. Lawson, M. Killackey, S. L. Kulasingam, J. Cain, F. A. R. Garcia, A. T. Moriarty, A. G. Waxman, D. C. Wilbur, N. Wentzensen, L. S. Downs, M. Spitzer, A.-B. Moscicki, E. L. Franco, M. H. Stoler, M. Schiffman, P. E. Castle, and E. R. Myers, “American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology Screening Guidelines for the Prevention and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 137(4), 516–542 (2012).
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Tan, M. C.

T. Quang, R. A. Schwarz, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Tan, K. Patel, X. Yu, G. Wang, F. Zhang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A tablet-interfaced high-resolution microendoscope with automated image interpretation for real-time evaluation of esophageal squamous cell neoplasia,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 84(5), 834–841 (2016).
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Tearney, G. J.

Tesoni, S.

B. Hunt, J. H. T. G. J. H. T. G. Fregnani, R. A. Schwarz, N. Pantano, S. Tesoni, J. C. J. C. Possati-Resende, M. Antoniazzi, B. De Oliveira Fonseca, G. De Macêdo Matsushita, C. Scapulatempo-Neto, L. Kerr, P. E. Castle, K. Schmeler, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Diagnosing cervical neoplasia in rural Brazil using a mobile van equipped with in vivo microscopy: A cluster-randomized community trial,” Cancer Prev. Res. 11(6), 359–370 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tkaczyk, T. S.

M. Kyrish, J. Dobbs, S. Jain, X. Wang, D. Yu, R. Richards-Kortum, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Needle-based fluorescence endomicroscopy via structured illumination with a plastic, achromatic objective,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(9), 096003 (2013).
[Crossref]

Torre, L. A.

F. Bray, J. Ferlay, I. Soerjomataram, R. L. Siegel, L. A. Torre, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries,” Ca-Cancer J. Clin. 68(6), 394–424 (2018).
[Crossref]

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K. Boom, M. Lopez, M. Daheri, R. Gowen, A. Milbourne, P. Toscano, C. Carey, L. Guerra, J. M. Carvajal, E. Marin, E. Baker, S. Fisher-Hoch, A. M. Rodriguez, N. Burkalter, B. Cavazos, M. Gasca, M. M. Cuellar, E. Robles, E. Lopez, and K. Schmeler, “Perspectives on cervical cancer screening and prevention: challenges faced by providers and patients along the Texas–Mexico border,” Perspect. Public Health 139(4), 199–205 (2019).
[Crossref]

Toscano, P. A.

S. G. Parra, A. M. Rodriguez, K. D. Cherry, R. A. Schwarz, R. M. Gowen, L. B. Guerra, A. M. Milbourne, P. A. Toscano, S. P. Fisher-Hoch, K. M. Schmeler, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Low-cost, high-resolution imaging for detecting cervical precancer in medically-underserved areas of Texas,” Gynecol. Oncol. 154(3), 558–564 (2019).
[Crossref]

Tuchin, V. V.

J. T. Alander, I. Kaartinen, A. Laakso, T. Pätilä, T. Spillmann, V. V. Tuchin, M. Venermo, and P. Välisuo, “A Review of indocyanine green fluorescent imaging in surgery,” Int. J. Biomed. Imaging 2012, 1–26 (2012).
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S. Vaccarella, M. Laversanne, J. Ferlay, and F. Bray, “Cervical cancer in Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean and Asia: Regional inequalities and changing trends,” Int. J. Cancer 141(10), 1997–2001 (2017).
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J. T. Alander, I. Kaartinen, A. Laakso, T. Pätilä, T. Spillmann, V. V. Tuchin, M. Venermo, and P. Välisuo, “A Review of indocyanine green fluorescent imaging in surgery,” Int. J. Biomed. Imaging 2012, 1–26 (2012).
[Crossref]

Van Niekerk, D. J. T.

C. Schlosser, N. Bodenschatz, S. Lam, M. Lee, J. N. McAlpine, D. M. Miller, D. J. T. Van Niekerk, M. Follen, M. Guillaud, C. E. MacAulay, and P. M. Lane, “Fluorescence confocal endomicroscopy of the cervix: pilot study on the potential and limitations for clinical implementation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(12), 126011 (2016).
[Crossref]

Venermo, M.

J. T. Alander, I. Kaartinen, A. Laakso, T. Pätilä, T. Spillmann, V. V. Tuchin, M. Venermo, and P. Välisuo, “A Review of indocyanine green fluorescent imaging in surgery,” Int. J. Biomed. Imaging 2012, 1–26 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vohra, I.

Wang, G.

T. Quang, R. A. Schwarz, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Tan, K. Patel, X. Yu, G. Wang, F. Zhang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A tablet-interfaced high-resolution microendoscope with automated image interpretation for real-time evaluation of esophageal squamous cell neoplasia,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 84(5), 834–841 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Shin, M.-A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative analysis of high-resolution microendoscopic images for diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279.e2 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

D. Shin, M.-A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative analysis of high-resolution microendoscopic images for diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279.e2 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Kyrish, J. Dobbs, S. Jain, X. Wang, D. Yu, R. Richards-Kortum, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Needle-based fluorescence endomicroscopy via structured illumination with a plastic, achromatic objective,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(9), 096003 (2013).
[Crossref]

Waxman, A. G.

D. Saslow, D. Solomon, H. W. Lawson, M. Killackey, S. L. Kulasingam, J. Cain, F. A. R. Garcia, A. T. Moriarty, A. G. Waxman, D. C. Wilbur, N. Wentzensen, L. S. Downs, M. Spitzer, A.-B. Moscicki, E. L. Franco, M. H. Stoler, M. Schiffman, P. E. Castle, and E. R. Myers, “American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology Screening Guidelines for the Prevention and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 137(4), 516–542 (2012).
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Weiderpass, E.

F. Bray, A. H. Loos, P. McCarron, E. Weiderpass, M. Arbyn, H. Møller, M. Hakama, and D. M. Parkin, “Trends in cervical squamous cell carcinoma incidence in 13 European countries: Changing risk and the effects of screening,” Cancer Epidemiol., Biomarkers Prev. 14(3), 677–686 (2005).
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F. Bray, B. Carstensen, H. Møller, M. Zappa, M. P. Žakelj, G. Lawrence, M. Hakama, and E. Weiderpass, “Incidence trends of adenocarcinoma of the cervix in 13 European countries,” Cancer Epidemiol., Biomarkers Prev. 14(9), 2191–2199 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wentzensen, N.

D. Saslow, D. Solomon, H. W. Lawson, M. Killackey, S. L. Kulasingam, J. Cain, F. A. R. Garcia, A. T. Moriarty, A. G. Waxman, D. C. Wilbur, N. Wentzensen, L. S. Downs, M. Spitzer, A.-B. Moscicki, E. L. Franco, M. H. Stoler, M. Schiffman, P. E. Castle, and E. R. Myers, “American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology Screening Guidelines for the Prevention and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 137(4), 516–542 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wilbur, D. C.

D. Saslow, D. Solomon, H. W. Lawson, M. Killackey, S. L. Kulasingam, J. Cain, F. A. R. Garcia, A. T. Moriarty, A. G. Waxman, D. C. Wilbur, N. Wentzensen, L. S. Downs, M. Spitzer, A.-B. Moscicki, E. L. Franco, M. H. Stoler, M. Schiffman, P. E. Castle, and E. R. Myers, “American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology Screening Guidelines for the Prevention and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 137(4), 516–542 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wright, J. M.

C. Olsovsky, T. Hinsdale, R. Cuenca, Y.-S. L. Cheng, J. M. Wright, T. D. Rees, J. A. Jo, and K. C. Maitland, “Handheld tunable focus confocal microscope utilizing a double-clad fiber coupler for in vivo imaging of oral epithelium,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(5), 056008 (2017).
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Xu, H.

T. Quang, R. A. Schwarz, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Tan, K. Patel, X. Yu, G. Wang, F. Zhang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A tablet-interfaced high-resolution microendoscope with automated image interpretation for real-time evaluation of esophageal squamous cell neoplasia,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 84(5), 834–841 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Shin, M.-A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative analysis of high-resolution microendoscopic images for diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279.e2 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xue, L.

D. Shin, M.-A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative analysis of high-resolution microendoscopic images for diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279.e2 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yu, D.

M. Kyrish, J. Dobbs, S. Jain, X. Wang, D. Yu, R. Richards-Kortum, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Needle-based fluorescence endomicroscopy via structured illumination with a plastic, achromatic objective,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(9), 096003 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, X.

T. Quang, R. A. Schwarz, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Tan, K. Patel, X. Yu, G. Wang, F. Zhang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A tablet-interfaced high-resolution microendoscope with automated image interpretation for real-time evaluation of esophageal squamous cell neoplasia,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 84(5), 834–841 (2016).
[Crossref]

Žakelj, M. P.

F. Bray, B. Carstensen, H. Møller, M. Zappa, M. P. Žakelj, G. Lawrence, M. Hakama, and E. Weiderpass, “Incidence trends of adenocarcinoma of the cervix in 13 European countries,” Cancer Epidemiol., Biomarkers Prev. 14(9), 2191–2199 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zappa, M.

F. Bray, B. Carstensen, H. Møller, M. Zappa, M. P. Žakelj, G. Lawrence, M. Hakama, and E. Weiderpass, “Incidence trends of adenocarcinoma of the cervix in 13 European countries,” Cancer Epidemiol., Biomarkers Prev. 14(9), 2191–2199 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhang, F.

T. Quang, R. A. Schwarz, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Tan, K. Patel, X. Yu, G. Wang, F. Zhang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A tablet-interfaced high-resolution microendoscope with automated image interpretation for real-time evaluation of esophageal squamous cell neoplasia,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 84(5), 834–841 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Shin, M.-A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative analysis of high-resolution microendoscopic images for diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279.e2 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W. H.

M. C. Pierce, Y. Y. Guan, M. K. Quinn, X. Zhang, W. H. Zhang, Y. L. Qiao, P. Castle, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A pilot study of low-cost, high-resolution microendoscopy as a tool for identifying women with cervical precancer,” Cancer Prev. Res. 5(11), 1273–1279 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

M. C. Pierce, Y. Y. Guan, M. K. Quinn, X. Zhang, W. H. Zhang, Y. L. Qiao, P. Castle, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A pilot study of low-cost, high-resolution microendoscopy as a tool for identifying women with cervical precancer,” Cancer Prev. Res. 5(11), 1273–1279 (2012).
[Crossref]

Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (1)

D. Saslow, D. Solomon, H. W. Lawson, M. Killackey, S. L. Kulasingam, J. Cain, F. A. R. Garcia, A. T. Moriarty, A. G. Waxman, D. C. Wilbur, N. Wentzensen, L. S. Downs, M. Spitzer, A.-B. Moscicki, E. L. Franco, M. H. Stoler, M. Schiffman, P. E. Castle, and E. R. Myers, “American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology Screening Guidelines for the Prevention and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 137(4), 516–542 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ann. Glob. Heal. (1)

R. Sankaranarayanan, “Screening for cancer in low- and middle-income countries,” Ann. Glob. Heal. 80(5), 412–417 (2014).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

Ca-Cancer J. Clin. (1)

F. Bray, J. Ferlay, I. Soerjomataram, R. L. Siegel, L. A. Torre, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries,” Ca-Cancer J. Clin. 68(6), 394–424 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cancer Epidemiol., Biomarkers Prev. (2)

F. Bray, A. H. Loos, P. McCarron, E. Weiderpass, M. Arbyn, H. Møller, M. Hakama, and D. M. Parkin, “Trends in cervical squamous cell carcinoma incidence in 13 European countries: Changing risk and the effects of screening,” Cancer Epidemiol., Biomarkers Prev. 14(3), 677–686 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Bray, B. Carstensen, H. Møller, M. Zappa, M. P. Žakelj, G. Lawrence, M. Hakama, and E. Weiderpass, “Incidence trends of adenocarcinoma of the cervix in 13 European countries,” Cancer Epidemiol., Biomarkers Prev. 14(9), 2191–2199 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cancer Prev. Res. (2)

M. C. Pierce, Y. Y. Guan, M. K. Quinn, X. Zhang, W. H. Zhang, Y. L. Qiao, P. Castle, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A pilot study of low-cost, high-resolution microendoscopy as a tool for identifying women with cervical precancer,” Cancer Prev. Res. 5(11), 1273–1279 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Hunt, J. H. T. G. J. H. T. G. Fregnani, R. A. Schwarz, N. Pantano, S. Tesoni, J. C. J. C. Possati-Resende, M. Antoniazzi, B. De Oliveira Fonseca, G. De Macêdo Matsushita, C. Scapulatempo-Neto, L. Kerr, P. E. Castle, K. Schmeler, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Diagnosing cervical neoplasia in rural Brazil using a mobile van equipped with in vivo microscopy: A cluster-randomized community trial,” Cancer Prev. Res. 11(6), 359–370 (2018).
[Crossref]

Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (1)

D. Shin, M.-A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative analysis of high-resolution microendoscopic images for diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279.e2 (2015).
[Crossref]

Eur. J. Cancer Prev. (1)

B. D. Grant, J. H. T. G. Fregnani, J. C. Possati Resende, C. Scapulatempo-Neto, G. M. Matsushita, E. C. Mauad, T. Quang, M. H. Stoler, P. E. Castle, K. M. Schmeler, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution microendoscopy: a point-of-care diagnostic for cervical dysplasia in low-resource settings,” Eur. J. Cancer Prev. 26(1), 63–70 (2017).
[Crossref]

Expert Rev. Mol. Diagn. (1)

K. A. Kundrod, C. A. Smith, B. Hunt, R. A. Schwarz, K. Schmeler, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Advances in technologies for cervical cancer detection in low-resource settings,” Expert Rev. Mol. Diagn. 19(8), 695–714 (2019).
[Crossref]

Gastrointest. Endosc. (1)

T. Quang, R. A. Schwarz, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Tan, K. Patel, X. Yu, G. Wang, F. Zhang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A tablet-interfaced high-resolution microendoscope with automated image interpretation for real-time evaluation of esophageal squamous cell neoplasia,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 84(5), 834–841 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gynecol. Oncol. (1)

S. G. Parra, A. M. Rodriguez, K. D. Cherry, R. A. Schwarz, R. M. Gowen, L. B. Guerra, A. M. Milbourne, P. A. Toscano, S. P. Fisher-Hoch, K. M. Schmeler, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Low-cost, high-resolution imaging for detecting cervical precancer in medically-underserved areas of Texas,” Gynecol. Oncol. 154(3), 558–564 (2019).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Biomed. Imaging (1)

J. T. Alander, I. Kaartinen, A. Laakso, T. Pätilä, T. Spillmann, V. V. Tuchin, M. Venermo, and P. Välisuo, “A Review of indocyanine green fluorescent imaging in surgery,” Int. J. Biomed. Imaging 2012, 1–26 (2012).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Cancer (1)

S. Vaccarella, M. Laversanne, J. Ferlay, and F. Bray, “Cervical cancer in Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean and Asia: Regional inequalities and changing trends,” Int. J. Cancer 141(10), 1997–2001 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

M. Kyrish, J. Dobbs, S. Jain, X. Wang, D. Yu, R. Richards-Kortum, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Needle-based fluorescence endomicroscopy via structured illumination with a plastic, achromatic objective,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(9), 096003 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Schlosser, N. Bodenschatz, S. Lam, M. Lee, J. N. McAlpine, D. M. Miller, D. J. T. Van Niekerk, M. Follen, M. Guillaud, C. E. MacAulay, and P. M. Lane, “Fluorescence confocal endomicroscopy of the cervix: pilot study on the potential and limitations for clinical implementation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(12), 126011 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Olsovsky, T. Hinsdale, R. Cuenca, Y.-S. L. Cheng, J. M. Wright, T. D. Rees, J. A. Jo, and K. C. Maitland, “Handheld tunable focus confocal microscope utilizing a double-clad fiber coupler for in vivo imaging of oral epithelium,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(5), 056008 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Tang, J. Carns, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Line-scanning confocal microendoscope for nuclear morphometry imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(11), 1–6 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Environ. Public Health (1)

G. K. Singh and A. Jemal, “Socioeconomic and Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Cancer Mortality, Incidence, and Survival in the United States, 1950-2014: Over Six Decades of Changing Patterns and Widening Inequalities,” J. Environ. Public Health 2017, 1–19 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Perspect. Public Health (1)

K. Boom, M. Lopez, M. Daheri, R. Gowen, A. Milbourne, P. Toscano, C. Carey, L. Guerra, J. M. Carvajal, E. Marin, E. Baker, S. Fisher-Hoch, A. M. Rodriguez, N. Burkalter, B. Cavazos, M. Gasca, M. M. Cuellar, E. Robles, E. Lopez, and K. Schmeler, “Perspectives on cervical cancer screening and prevention: challenges faced by providers and patients along the Texas–Mexico border,” Perspect. Public Health 139(4), 199–205 (2019).
[Crossref]

PLoS One (1)

M. K. Quinn, T. C. Bubi, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kayembe, D. Ramogola-Masire, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-Resolution Microendoscopy for the Detection of Cervical Neoplasia in Low-Resource Settings,” PLoS One 7(9), e44924 (2012).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (1)

P. Keahey, P. Ramalingam, K. Schmeler, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Differential structured illumination microendoscopy for in vivo imaging of molecular contrast agents,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 113(39), 10769–10773 (2016).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Optical and mechanical assembly of the confocal microendoscope (A) in a compact enclosure, which allows for convenient deployment for in vivo imaging of cervical lesions in a mobile clinic in the Rio Grande Valley, Texas (B). Detailed aperture design and spatiotemporal alignment in confocal and widefield (non-confocal) modes is shown in Fig. C. DLP: digital light projector; DMD: digital micromirror device; EM: emission filter; EX: excitation filter; DM: dichroic mirror.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Automated alignment of digital confocal apertures using a simple calibration target. (A) Confocal aperture misalignment compromises background rejection and causes scanning artifacts when imaging lens paper colored with a fluorescent highlighter. (B) A simple calibration target provides a stationary scene to facilitate aperture alignment. (C) Images of the calibration target are acquired with varied temporal offsets by adding a delay between two confocal aperture sequences. (D) An alignment score is calculated based on the calibration images to evaluate the magnitude of scanning artifacts as a function of aperture temporal offset. Circular FOV: 790 µm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Ex vivo imaging of LEEP specimens using the microendoscope in widefield and confocal modes. The confocal microendoscope better resolves various clinically important features. These findings are confirmed in corresponding profiles of line scans (white brackets in images), showing enhanced contrast of nuclei (asterisks), glandular patterns (black brackets in line profiles) and vascular network (white arrows in confocal image of site C and black arrows in corresponding line profile). GC: global contrast. Circular FOV: 790 µm.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. In vivo images of benign sites (A – C) and neoplastic lesions (D – E) in the cervix. In each panel, widefield (left) and confocal (right) images are shown with the corresponding histopathology diagnosis provided above each image pair. In vivo confocal imaging reveals morphological alterations associated with cancer progression, which are consistent with histopathology. Compared with widefield mode, the confocal mode better highlights these architecture changes, especially in regions with crowded nuclei and high out-of-focus background. White arrows: glandular involvement. GC: global contrast. Circular FOV: 790 µm.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Comparison of nuclear count identified by expert microendoscope users in widefield and confocal microendoscope images of squamous (site A) and columnar (sites B and C) epithelium. Three ROIs are cropped in each site and nuclei that can be individually outlined are counted by three experienced users. The nuclear count is compared for widefield and confocal images using a paired t-test. *: p < 0.05. GC: global contrast. Circular FOV: 790 µm.

Equations (1)

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G C = s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n ( p i x e l i n t e n s i t i e s ) m e a n ( p i x e l i n t e n s i t i e s )

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