Abstract

Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy is a label-free quantitative chemical imaging technique that has demonstrated great utility in biomedical imaging applications ranging from real-time stain-free histopathology to live animal imaging. However, similar to many other nonlinear optical imaging techniques, SRS images often suffer from low signal to noise ratio (SNR) due to absorption and scattering of light in tissue as well as the limitation in applicable power to minimize photodamage. We present the use of a deep learning algorithm to significantly improve the SNR of SRS images. Our algorithm is based on a U-Net convolutional neural network (CNN) and significantly outperforms existing denoising algorithms. More importantly, we demonstrate that the trained denoising algorithm is applicable to images acquired at different zoom, imaging power, imaging depth, and imaging geometries that are not included in the training. Our results identify deep learning as a powerful denoising tool for biomedical imaging at large, with potential towards in vivo applications, where imaging parameters are often variable and ground-truth images are not available to create a fully supervised learning training set.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (4)

B. Figueroa, T. Nguyen, S. Sotthivirat, W. Xu, T. Rhodes, M. S. Lamm, R. L. Smith, C. T. John, Y. Su, and D. Fu, “Detecting and Quantifying Microscale Chemical Reactions in Pharmaceutical Tablets by Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Anal. Chem. 91(10), 6894–6901 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wei, L. Shi, Y. Shen, Z. Zhao, A. Guzman, L. J. Kaufman, L. Wei, and W. Min, “Volumetric chemical imaging by clearing-enhanced stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116(14), 6608–6617 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Adabi, S. Ghavami, M. Fatemi, and A. Alizad, “Non-Local Based Denoising Framework for In Vivo Contrast-Free Ultrasound Microvessel Imaging,” Sensors (Basel) 19(2), E245 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, Y. Wu, B. Zheng, L. Su, Y. Chen, S. Ma, Q. Hu, X. Zou, L. Yao, Y. Yang, L. Chen, Y. Mao, Y. Chen, and M. Ji, “Rapid histology of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma with deep-learning based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Theranostics 9(9), 2541–2554 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (5)

A. T. Francis, T. T. Nguyen, M. S. Lamm, R. Teller, S. P. Forster, W. Xu, T. Rhodes, R. L. Smith, J. Kuiper, Y. Su, and D. Fu, “In Situ Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) Microscopy Study of the Dissolution of Sustained-Release Implant Formulation,” Mol. Pharm. 15(12), 5793–5801 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B.-J. Zou, Y.-D. Guo, Q. He, P.-B. Ouyang, K. Liu, and Z.-L. Chen, “3D Filtering by Block Matching and Convolutional Neural Network for Image Denoising,” J. Comput. Sci. Technol. 33(4), 838–848 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Ounkomol, S. Seshamani, M. M. Maleckar, F. Collman, and G. R. Johnson, “Label-free prediction of three-dimensional fluorescence images from transmitted-light microscopy,” Nat. Methods 15(11), 917–920 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Figueroa, W. Fu, T. Nguyen, K. Shin, B. Manifold, F. Wise, and D. Fu, “Broadband hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy with a parabolic fiber amplifier source,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(12), 6116–6131 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Shi, C. Zheng, Y. Shen, Z. Chen, E. S. Silveira, L. Zhang, M. Wei, C. Liu, C. de Sena-Tomas, K. Targoff, and W. Min, “Optical imaging of metabolic dynamics in animals,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 2995 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (6)

D. Fu, “Quantitative chemical imaging with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 39, 24–31 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. L. Garrett, B. Singh, A. Jones, and J. Moger, “Imaging microscopic distribution of antifungal agents in dandruff treatments with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(6), 066003 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Figueroa, Y. Chen, K. Berry, A. Francis, and D. Fu, “Label-Free Chemical Imaging of Latent Fingerprints with Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Anal. Chem. 89(8), 4468–4473 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Francis, K. Berry, Y. Chen, B. Figueroa, and D. Fu, “Label-free pathology by spectrally sliced femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy,” PLoS One 12(5), e0178750 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. He, Y. Xu, L. Zhang, S. Ma, X. Wang, D. Ye, and M. Ji, “Dual-phase stimulated Raman scattering microscopy for real-time two-color imaging,” Optica, OPTICA 4(1), 44–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Zhao, O. Gallo, I. Frosio, and J. Kautz, “Loss Functions for Image Restoration With Neural Networks,” IEEE Trans. Comput. Imaging 3(1), 47–57 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

E. A. Pnevmatikakis, D. Soudry, Y. Gao, T. A. Machado, J. Merel, D. Pfau, T. Reardon, Y. Mu, C. Lacefield, W. Yang, M. Ahrens, R. Bruno, T. M. Jessell, D. S. Peterka, R. Yuste, and L. Paninski, “Simultaneous Denoising, Deconvolution, and Demixing of Calcium Imaging Data,” Neuron 89(2), 285–299 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Tipping, M. Lee, A. Serrels, V. G. Brunton, and A. N. Hulme, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy: an emerging tool for drug discovery,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 45(8), 2075–2089 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F.-K. Lu, D. Calligaris, O. I. Olubiyi, I. Norton, W. Yang, S. Santagata, X. S. Xie, A. J. Golby, and N. Y. R. Agar, “Label-Free Neurosurgical Pathology with Stimulated Raman Imaging,” Cancer Res. 76(12), 3451–3462 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nourhashemi, M. Mahmoudzadeh, and F. Wallois, “Thermal impact of near-infrared laser in advanced noninvasive optical brain imaging,” Neurophotonics 3(1), 015001 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

J.-X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, “Vibrational spectroscopic imaging of living systems: An emerging platform for biology and medicine,” Science 350(6264), aaa8870 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F.-K. Lu, S. Basu, V. Igras, M. P. Hoang, M. Ji, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, V. A. Neel, C. W. Freudiger, D. E. Fisher, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free DNA imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(37), 11624–11629 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, D. Zhang, and J.-X. Cheng, “Coherent Raman Scattering Microscopy in Biology and Medicine,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 17(1), 415–445 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

D. Fu, J. Zhou, W. S. Zhu, P. W. Manley, Y. K. Wang, T. Hood, A. Wylie, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging the intracellular Distribution of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Living Cells with Quantitative Hyperspectral Stimulated Raman Scattering,” Nat. Chem. 6(7), 614–622 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

D. Fu, G. Holtom, C. Freudiger, X. Zhang, and X. S. Xie, “Hyperspectral Imaging with Stimulated Raman Scattering by Chirped Femtosecond Lasers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 117(16), 4634–4640 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

P. Coupé, M. Munz, J. V. Manjón, E. S. Ruthazer, and D. L. Collins, “A CANDLE for a deeper in vivo insight,” Med. Image Anal. 16(4), 849–864 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, M. B. J. Roeffaers, S. Basu, J. R. Daniele, D. Fu, C. W. Freudiger, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free live-cell imaging of nucleic acids using stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” ChemPhysChem 13(4), 1054–1059 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-Rate Molecular Imaging In Vivo with Stimulated Raman Scattering,” Science 330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Chauhan, P. Bowlan, J. Cohen, and R. Trebino, “Single-diffraction-grating and grism pulse compressors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(4), 619–624 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

S. Chitchian, M. A. Fiddy, and N. M. Fried, “Denoising during optical coherence tomography of the prostate nerves via wavelet shrinkage using dual-tree complex wavelet transform,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014031 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

M. L. Denton, M. S. Foltz, L. E. Estlack, D. J. Stolarski, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, D. Eikum, and B. A. Rockwell, “Damage Thresholds for Exposure to NIR and Blue Lasers in an In Vitro RPE Cell System,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(7), 3065–3073 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

D. Sage and M. Unser, “Teaching image-processing programming in Java,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 20(6), 43–52 (2003).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

P. Perona and J. Malik, “Scale-space and edge detection using anisotropic diffusion,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 12(7), 629–639 (1990).
[Crossref]

Adabi, S.

S. Adabi, S. Ghavami, M. Fatemi, and A. Alizad, “Non-Local Based Denoising Framework for In Vivo Contrast-Free Ultrasound Microvessel Imaging,” Sensors (Basel) 19(2), E245 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agar, N. Y. R.

F.-K. Lu, D. Calligaris, O. I. Olubiyi, I. Norton, W. Yang, S. Santagata, X. S. Xie, A. J. Golby, and N. Y. R. Agar, “Label-Free Neurosurgical Pathology with Stimulated Raman Imaging,” Cancer Res. 76(12), 3451–3462 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahrens, M.

E. A. Pnevmatikakis, D. Soudry, Y. Gao, T. A. Machado, J. Merel, D. Pfau, T. Reardon, Y. Mu, C. Lacefield, W. Yang, M. Ahrens, R. Bruno, T. M. Jessell, D. S. Peterka, R. Yuste, and L. Paninski, “Simultaneous Denoising, Deconvolution, and Demixing of Calcium Imaging Data,” Neuron 89(2), 285–299 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alizad, A.

S. Adabi, S. Ghavami, M. Fatemi, and A. Alizad, “Non-Local Based Denoising Framework for In Vivo Contrast-Free Ultrasound Microvessel Imaging,” Sensors (Basel) 19(2), E245 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Basu, S.

F.-K. Lu, S. Basu, V. Igras, M. P. Hoang, M. Ji, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, V. A. Neel, C. W. Freudiger, D. E. Fisher, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free DNA imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(37), 11624–11629 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, M. B. J. Roeffaers, S. Basu, J. R. Daniele, D. Fu, C. W. Freudiger, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free live-cell imaging of nucleic acids using stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” ChemPhysChem 13(4), 1054–1059 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berry, K.

B. Figueroa, Y. Chen, K. Berry, A. Francis, and D. Fu, “Label-Free Chemical Imaging of Latent Fingerprints with Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Anal. Chem. 89(8), 4468–4473 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Francis, K. Berry, Y. Chen, B. Figueroa, and D. Fu, “Label-free pathology by spectrally sliced femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy,” PLoS One 12(5), e0178750 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blu, T.

J. Li, F. Luisier, and T. Blu, “Deconvolution of poissonian images with the PURE-LET approach,” in 2016 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP) (2016), pp. 2708–2712.
[Crossref]

Bowlan, P.

V. Chauhan, P. Bowlan, J. Cohen, and R. Trebino, “Single-diffraction-grating and grism pulse compressors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(4), 619–624 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bruno, R.

E. A. Pnevmatikakis, D. Soudry, Y. Gao, T. A. Machado, J. Merel, D. Pfau, T. Reardon, Y. Mu, C. Lacefield, W. Yang, M. Ahrens, R. Bruno, T. M. Jessell, D. S. Peterka, R. Yuste, and L. Paninski, “Simultaneous Denoising, Deconvolution, and Demixing of Calcium Imaging Data,” Neuron 89(2), 285–299 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brunton, V. G.

W. J. Tipping, M. Lee, A. Serrels, V. G. Brunton, and A. N. Hulme, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy: an emerging tool for drug discovery,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 45(8), 2075–2089 (2016).
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Calligaris, D.

F.-K. Lu, D. Calligaris, O. I. Olubiyi, I. Norton, W. Yang, S. Santagata, X. S. Xie, A. J. Golby, and N. Y. R. Agar, “Label-Free Neurosurgical Pathology with Stimulated Raman Imaging,” Cancer Res. 76(12), 3451–3462 (2016).
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Camelo-Piragua, S.

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
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V. Chauhan, P. Bowlan, J. Cohen, and R. Trebino, “Single-diffraction-grating and grism pulse compressors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(4), 619–624 (2010).
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L. Zhang, Y. Wu, B. Zheng, L. Su, Y. Chen, S. Ma, Q. Hu, X. Zou, L. Yao, Y. Yang, L. Chen, Y. Mao, Y. Chen, and M. Ji, “Rapid histology of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma with deep-learning based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Theranostics 9(9), 2541–2554 (2019).
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Chen, Y.

L. Zhang, Y. Wu, B. Zheng, L. Su, Y. Chen, S. Ma, Q. Hu, X. Zou, L. Yao, Y. Yang, L. Chen, Y. Mao, Y. Chen, and M. Ji, “Rapid histology of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma with deep-learning based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Theranostics 9(9), 2541–2554 (2019).
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L. Zhang, Y. Wu, B. Zheng, L. Su, Y. Chen, S. Ma, Q. Hu, X. Zou, L. Yao, Y. Yang, L. Chen, Y. Mao, Y. Chen, and M. Ji, “Rapid histology of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma with deep-learning based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Theranostics 9(9), 2541–2554 (2019).
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B. Figueroa, Y. Chen, K. Berry, A. Francis, and D. Fu, “Label-Free Chemical Imaging of Latent Fingerprints with Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Anal. Chem. 89(8), 4468–4473 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Francis, K. Berry, Y. Chen, B. Figueroa, and D. Fu, “Label-free pathology by spectrally sliced femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy,” PLoS One 12(5), e0178750 (2017).
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L. Shi, C. Zheng, Y. Shen, Z. Chen, E. S. Silveira, L. Zhang, M. Wei, C. Liu, C. de Sena-Tomas, K. Targoff, and W. Min, “Optical imaging of metabolic dynamics in animals,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 2995 (2018).
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B.-J. Zou, Y.-D. Guo, Q. He, P.-B. Ouyang, K. Liu, and Z.-L. Chen, “3D Filtering by Block Matching and Convolutional Neural Network for Image Denoising,” J. Comput. Sci. Technol. 33(4), 838–848 (2018).
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C. Zhang, D. Zhang, and J.-X. Cheng, “Coherent Raman Scattering Microscopy in Biology and Medicine,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 17(1), 415–445 (2015).
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J.-X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, “Vibrational spectroscopic imaging of living systems: An emerging platform for biology and medicine,” Science 350(6264), aaa8870 (2015).
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S. Chitchian, M. A. Fiddy, and N. M. Fried, “Denoising during optical coherence tomography of the prostate nerves via wavelet shrinkage using dual-tree complex wavelet transform,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014031 (2009).
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Choudhury, S. K.

S. K. Choudhury, P. K. Sa, R. P. Padhy, and B. Majhi, “A denoising inspired deblurring framework for regularized image restoration,” in 2016 IEEE Annual India Conference (INDICON) (2016), pp. 1–6.
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Cohen, J.

V. Chauhan, P. Bowlan, J. Cohen, and R. Trebino, “Single-diffraction-grating and grism pulse compressors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(4), 619–624 (2010).
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P. Coupé, M. Munz, J. V. Manjón, E. S. Ruthazer, and D. L. Collins, “A CANDLE for a deeper in vivo insight,” Med. Image Anal. 16(4), 849–864 (2012).
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C. Ounkomol, S. Seshamani, M. M. Maleckar, F. Collman, and G. R. Johnson, “Label-free prediction of three-dimensional fluorescence images from transmitted-light microscopy,” Nat. Methods 15(11), 917–920 (2018).
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Coupé, P.

P. Coupé, M. Munz, J. V. Manjón, E. S. Ruthazer, and D. L. Collins, “A CANDLE for a deeper in vivo insight,” Med. Image Anal. 16(4), 849–864 (2012).
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Daniele, J. R.

X. Zhang, M. B. J. Roeffaers, S. Basu, J. R. Daniele, D. Fu, C. W. Freudiger, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free live-cell imaging of nucleic acids using stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” ChemPhysChem 13(4), 1054–1059 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Sena-Tomas, C.

L. Shi, C. Zheng, Y. Shen, Z. Chen, E. S. Silveira, L. Zhang, M. Wei, C. Liu, C. de Sena-Tomas, K. Targoff, and W. Min, “Optical imaging of metabolic dynamics in animals,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 2995 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Denton, M. L.

M. L. Denton, M. S. Foltz, L. E. Estlack, D. J. Stolarski, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, D. Eikum, and B. A. Rockwell, “Damage Thresholds for Exposure to NIR and Blue Lasers in an In Vitro RPE Cell System,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(7), 3065–3073 (2006).
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Eikum, D.

M. L. Denton, M. S. Foltz, L. E. Estlack, D. J. Stolarski, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, D. Eikum, and B. A. Rockwell, “Damage Thresholds for Exposure to NIR and Blue Lasers in an In Vitro RPE Cell System,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(7), 3065–3073 (2006).
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Estlack, L. E.

M. L. Denton, M. S. Foltz, L. E. Estlack, D. J. Stolarski, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, D. Eikum, and B. A. Rockwell, “Damage Thresholds for Exposure to NIR and Blue Lasers in an In Vitro RPE Cell System,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(7), 3065–3073 (2006).
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Fatemi, M.

S. Adabi, S. Ghavami, M. Fatemi, and A. Alizad, “Non-Local Based Denoising Framework for In Vivo Contrast-Free Ultrasound Microvessel Imaging,” Sensors (Basel) 19(2), E245 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fiddy, M. A.

S. Chitchian, M. A. Fiddy, and N. M. Fried, “Denoising during optical coherence tomography of the prostate nerves via wavelet shrinkage using dual-tree complex wavelet transform,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014031 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Figueroa, B.

B. Figueroa, T. Nguyen, S. Sotthivirat, W. Xu, T. Rhodes, M. S. Lamm, R. L. Smith, C. T. John, Y. Su, and D. Fu, “Detecting and Quantifying Microscale Chemical Reactions in Pharmaceutical Tablets by Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Anal. Chem. 91(10), 6894–6901 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Figueroa, W. Fu, T. Nguyen, K. Shin, B. Manifold, F. Wise, and D. Fu, “Broadband hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy with a parabolic fiber amplifier source,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(12), 6116–6131 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Francis, K. Berry, Y. Chen, B. Figueroa, and D. Fu, “Label-free pathology by spectrally sliced femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy,” PLoS One 12(5), e0178750 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Figueroa, Y. Chen, K. Berry, A. Francis, and D. Fu, “Label-Free Chemical Imaging of Latent Fingerprints with Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Anal. Chem. 89(8), 4468–4473 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fisher, D. E.

F.-K. Lu, S. Basu, V. Igras, M. P. Hoang, M. Ji, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, V. A. Neel, C. W. Freudiger, D. E. Fisher, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free DNA imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(37), 11624–11629 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fisher-Hubbard, A.

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Foltz, M. S.

M. L. Denton, M. S. Foltz, L. E. Estlack, D. J. Stolarski, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, D. Eikum, and B. A. Rockwell, “Damage Thresholds for Exposure to NIR and Blue Lasers in an In Vitro RPE Cell System,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(7), 3065–3073 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Forster, S. P.

A. T. Francis, T. T. Nguyen, M. S. Lamm, R. Teller, S. P. Forster, W. Xu, T. Rhodes, R. L. Smith, J. Kuiper, Y. Su, and D. Fu, “In Situ Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) Microscopy Study of the Dissolution of Sustained-Release Implant Formulation,” Mol. Pharm. 15(12), 5793–5801 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Francis, A.

A. Francis, K. Berry, Y. Chen, B. Figueroa, and D. Fu, “Label-free pathology by spectrally sliced femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy,” PLoS One 12(5), e0178750 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Figueroa, Y. Chen, K. Berry, A. Francis, and D. Fu, “Label-Free Chemical Imaging of Latent Fingerprints with Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Anal. Chem. 89(8), 4468–4473 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Francis, A. T.

A. T. Francis, T. T. Nguyen, M. S. Lamm, R. Teller, S. P. Forster, W. Xu, T. Rhodes, R. L. Smith, J. Kuiper, Y. Su, and D. Fu, “In Situ Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) Microscopy Study of the Dissolution of Sustained-Release Implant Formulation,” Mol. Pharm. 15(12), 5793–5801 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freudiger, C.

D. Fu, G. Holtom, C. Freudiger, X. Zhang, and X. S. Xie, “Hyperspectral Imaging with Stimulated Raman Scattering by Chirped Femtosecond Lasers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 117(16), 4634–4640 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freudiger, C. W.

F.-K. Lu, S. Basu, V. Igras, M. P. Hoang, M. Ji, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, V. A. Neel, C. W. Freudiger, D. E. Fisher, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free DNA imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(37), 11624–11629 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, M. B. J. Roeffaers, S. Basu, J. R. Daniele, D. Fu, C. W. Freudiger, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free live-cell imaging of nucleic acids using stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” ChemPhysChem 13(4), 1054–1059 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-Rate Molecular Imaging In Vivo with Stimulated Raman Scattering,” Science 330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fried, N. M.

S. Chitchian, M. A. Fiddy, and N. M. Fried, “Denoising during optical coherence tomography of the prostate nerves via wavelet shrinkage using dual-tree complex wavelet transform,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014031 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frosio, I.

H. Zhao, O. Gallo, I. Frosio, and J. Kautz, “Loss Functions for Image Restoration With Neural Networks,” IEEE Trans. Comput. Imaging 3(1), 47–57 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fu, D.

B. Figueroa, T. Nguyen, S. Sotthivirat, W. Xu, T. Rhodes, M. S. Lamm, R. L. Smith, C. T. John, Y. Su, and D. Fu, “Detecting and Quantifying Microscale Chemical Reactions in Pharmaceutical Tablets by Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Anal. Chem. 91(10), 6894–6901 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Figueroa, W. Fu, T. Nguyen, K. Shin, B. Manifold, F. Wise, and D. Fu, “Broadband hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy with a parabolic fiber amplifier source,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(12), 6116–6131 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. T. Francis, T. T. Nguyen, M. S. Lamm, R. Teller, S. P. Forster, W. Xu, T. Rhodes, R. L. Smith, J. Kuiper, Y. Su, and D. Fu, “In Situ Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) Microscopy Study of the Dissolution of Sustained-Release Implant Formulation,” Mol. Pharm. 15(12), 5793–5801 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Francis, K. Berry, Y. Chen, B. Figueroa, and D. Fu, “Label-free pathology by spectrally sliced femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy,” PLoS One 12(5), e0178750 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Figueroa, Y. Chen, K. Berry, A. Francis, and D. Fu, “Label-Free Chemical Imaging of Latent Fingerprints with Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Anal. Chem. 89(8), 4468–4473 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Fu, “Quantitative chemical imaging with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 39, 24–31 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F.-K. Lu, S. Basu, V. Igras, M. P. Hoang, M. Ji, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, V. A. Neel, C. W. Freudiger, D. E. Fisher, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free DNA imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(37), 11624–11629 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Fu, J. Zhou, W. S. Zhu, P. W. Manley, Y. K. Wang, T. Hood, A. Wylie, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging the intracellular Distribution of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Living Cells with Quantitative Hyperspectral Stimulated Raman Scattering,” Nat. Chem. 6(7), 614–622 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Fu, G. Holtom, C. Freudiger, X. Zhang, and X. S. Xie, “Hyperspectral Imaging with Stimulated Raman Scattering by Chirped Femtosecond Lasers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 117(16), 4634–4640 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, M. B. J. Roeffaers, S. Basu, J. R. Daniele, D. Fu, C. W. Freudiger, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free live-cell imaging of nucleic acids using stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” ChemPhysChem 13(4), 1054–1059 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, W.

Gallo, O.

H. Zhao, O. Gallo, I. Frosio, and J. Kautz, “Loss Functions for Image Restoration With Neural Networks,” IEEE Trans. Comput. Imaging 3(1), 47–57 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gao, Y.

E. A. Pnevmatikakis, D. Soudry, Y. Gao, T. A. Machado, J. Merel, D. Pfau, T. Reardon, Y. Mu, C. Lacefield, W. Yang, M. Ahrens, R. Bruno, T. M. Jessell, D. S. Peterka, R. Yuste, and L. Paninski, “Simultaneous Denoising, Deconvolution, and Demixing of Calcium Imaging Data,” Neuron 89(2), 285–299 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garrard, M.

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garrett, N. L.

N. L. Garrett, B. Singh, A. Jones, and J. Moger, “Imaging microscopic distribution of antifungal agents in dandruff treatments with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(6), 066003 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ghavami, S.

S. Adabi, S. Ghavami, M. Fatemi, and A. Alizad, “Non-Local Based Denoising Framework for In Vivo Contrast-Free Ultrasound Microvessel Imaging,” Sensors (Basel) 19(2), E245 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Golby, A. J.

F.-K. Lu, D. Calligaris, O. I. Olubiyi, I. Norton, W. Yang, S. Santagata, X. S. Xie, A. J. Golby, and N. Y. R. Agar, “Label-Free Neurosurgical Pathology with Stimulated Raman Imaging,” Cancer Res. 76(12), 3451–3462 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, Y.-D.

B.-J. Zou, Y.-D. Guo, Q. He, P.-B. Ouyang, K. Liu, and Z.-L. Chen, “3D Filtering by Block Matching and Convolutional Neural Network for Image Denoising,” J. Comput. Sci. Technol. 33(4), 838–848 (2018).
[Crossref]

Guzman, A.

M. Wei, L. Shi, Y. Shen, Z. Zhao, A. Guzman, L. J. Kaufman, L. Wei, and W. Min, “Volumetric chemical imaging by clearing-enhanced stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116(14), 6608–6617 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, Q.

B.-J. Zou, Y.-D. Guo, Q. He, P.-B. Ouyang, K. Liu, and Z.-L. Chen, “3D Filtering by Block Matching and Convolutional Neural Network for Image Denoising,” J. Comput. Sci. Technol. 33(4), 838–848 (2018).
[Crossref]

He, R.

R. He, Y. Xu, L. Zhang, S. Ma, X. Wang, D. Ye, and M. Ji, “Dual-phase stimulated Raman scattering microscopy for real-time two-color imaging,” Optica, OPTICA 4(1), 44–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

Heth, J. A.

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoang, M. P.

F.-K. Lu, S. Basu, V. Igras, M. P. Hoang, M. Ji, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, V. A. Neel, C. W. Freudiger, D. E. Fisher, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free DNA imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(37), 11624–11629 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holtom, G.

D. Fu, G. Holtom, C. Freudiger, X. Zhang, and X. S. Xie, “Hyperspectral Imaging with Stimulated Raman Scattering by Chirped Femtosecond Lasers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 117(16), 4634–4640 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holtom, G. R.

F.-K. Lu, S. Basu, V. Igras, M. P. Hoang, M. Ji, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, V. A. Neel, C. W. Freudiger, D. E. Fisher, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free DNA imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(37), 11624–11629 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, M. B. J. Roeffaers, S. Basu, J. R. Daniele, D. Fu, C. W. Freudiger, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free live-cell imaging of nucleic acids using stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” ChemPhysChem 13(4), 1054–1059 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-Rate Molecular Imaging In Vivo with Stimulated Raman Scattering,” Science 330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hood, T.

D. Fu, J. Zhou, W. S. Zhu, P. W. Manley, Y. K. Wang, T. Hood, A. Wylie, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging the intracellular Distribution of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Living Cells with Quantitative Hyperspectral Stimulated Raman Scattering,” Nat. Chem. 6(7), 614–622 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, Q.

L. Zhang, Y. Wu, B. Zheng, L. Su, Y. Chen, S. Ma, Q. Hu, X. Zou, L. Yao, Y. Yang, L. Chen, Y. Mao, Y. Chen, and M. Ji, “Rapid histology of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma with deep-learning based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Theranostics 9(9), 2541–2554 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hulme, A. N.

W. J. Tipping, M. Lee, A. Serrels, V. G. Brunton, and A. N. Hulme, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy: an emerging tool for drug discovery,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 45(8), 2075–2089 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Igras, V.

F.-K. Lu, S. Basu, V. Igras, M. P. Hoang, M. Ji, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, V. A. Neel, C. W. Freudiger, D. E. Fisher, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free DNA imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(37), 11624–11629 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jessell, T. M.

E. A. Pnevmatikakis, D. Soudry, Y. Gao, T. A. Machado, J. Merel, D. Pfau, T. Reardon, Y. Mu, C. Lacefield, W. Yang, M. Ahrens, R. Bruno, T. M. Jessell, D. S. Peterka, R. Yuste, and L. Paninski, “Simultaneous Denoising, Deconvolution, and Demixing of Calcium Imaging Data,” Neuron 89(2), 285–299 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ji, M.

L. Zhang, Y. Wu, B. Zheng, L. Su, Y. Chen, S. Ma, Q. Hu, X. Zou, L. Yao, Y. Yang, L. Chen, Y. Mao, Y. Chen, and M. Ji, “Rapid histology of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma with deep-learning based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Theranostics 9(9), 2541–2554 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. He, Y. Xu, L. Zhang, S. Ma, X. Wang, D. Ye, and M. Ji, “Dual-phase stimulated Raman scattering microscopy for real-time two-color imaging,” Optica, OPTICA 4(1), 44–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F.-K. Lu, S. Basu, V. Igras, M. P. Hoang, M. Ji, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, V. A. Neel, C. W. Freudiger, D. E. Fisher, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free DNA imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(37), 11624–11629 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

John, C. T.

B. Figueroa, T. Nguyen, S. Sotthivirat, W. Xu, T. Rhodes, M. S. Lamm, R. L. Smith, C. T. John, Y. Su, and D. Fu, “Detecting and Quantifying Microscale Chemical Reactions in Pharmaceutical Tablets by Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Anal. Chem. 91(10), 6894–6901 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, G. R.

C. Ounkomol, S. Seshamani, M. M. Maleckar, F. Collman, and G. R. Johnson, “Label-free prediction of three-dimensional fluorescence images from transmitted-light microscopy,” Nat. Methods 15(11), 917–920 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, T. D.

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jones, A.

N. L. Garrett, B. Singh, A. Jones, and J. Moger, “Imaging microscopic distribution of antifungal agents in dandruff treatments with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(6), 066003 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaufman, L. J.

M. Wei, L. Shi, Y. Shen, Z. Zhao, A. Guzman, L. J. Kaufman, L. Wei, and W. Min, “Volumetric chemical imaging by clearing-enhanced stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116(14), 6608–6617 (2019).
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Kautz, J.

H. Zhao, O. Gallo, I. Frosio, and J. Kautz, “Loss Functions for Image Restoration With Neural Networks,” IEEE Trans. Comput. Imaging 3(1), 47–57 (2017).
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A. T. Francis, T. T. Nguyen, M. S. Lamm, R. Teller, S. P. Forster, W. Xu, T. Rhodes, R. L. Smith, J. Kuiper, Y. Su, and D. Fu, “In Situ Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) Microscopy Study of the Dissolution of Sustained-Release Implant Formulation,” Mol. Pharm. 15(12), 5793–5801 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lacefield, C.

E. A. Pnevmatikakis, D. Soudry, Y. Gao, T. A. Machado, J. Merel, D. Pfau, T. Reardon, Y. Mu, C. Lacefield, W. Yang, M. Ahrens, R. Bruno, T. M. Jessell, D. S. Peterka, R. Yuste, and L. Paninski, “Simultaneous Denoising, Deconvolution, and Demixing of Calcium Imaging Data,” Neuron 89(2), 285–299 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lamm, M. S.

B. Figueroa, T. Nguyen, S. Sotthivirat, W. Xu, T. Rhodes, M. S. Lamm, R. L. Smith, C. T. John, Y. Su, and D. Fu, “Detecting and Quantifying Microscale Chemical Reactions in Pharmaceutical Tablets by Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Anal. Chem. 91(10), 6894–6901 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. T. Francis, T. T. Nguyen, M. S. Lamm, R. Teller, S. P. Forster, W. Xu, T. Rhodes, R. L. Smith, J. Kuiper, Y. Su, and D. Fu, “In Situ Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) Microscopy Study of the Dissolution of Sustained-Release Implant Formulation,” Mol. Pharm. 15(12), 5793–5801 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, M.

W. J. Tipping, M. Lee, A. Serrels, V. G. Brunton, and A. N. Hulme, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy: an emerging tool for drug discovery,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 45(8), 2075–2089 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lewis, S.

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J.

J. Li, F. Luisier, and T. Blu, “Deconvolution of poissonian images with the PURE-LET approach,” in 2016 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP) (2016), pp. 2708–2712.
[Crossref]

Liu, C.

L. Shi, C. Zheng, Y. Shen, Z. Chen, E. S. Silveira, L. Zhang, M. Wei, C. Liu, C. de Sena-Tomas, K. Targoff, and W. Min, “Optical imaging of metabolic dynamics in animals,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 2995 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, K.

B.-J. Zou, Y.-D. Guo, Q. He, P.-B. Ouyang, K. Liu, and Z.-L. Chen, “3D Filtering by Block Matching and Convolutional Neural Network for Image Denoising,” J. Comput. Sci. Technol. 33(4), 838–848 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lu, F.-K.

F.-K. Lu, D. Calligaris, O. I. Olubiyi, I. Norton, W. Yang, S. Santagata, X. S. Xie, A. J. Golby, and N. Y. R. Agar, “Label-Free Neurosurgical Pathology with Stimulated Raman Imaging,” Cancer Res. 76(12), 3451–3462 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F.-K. Lu, S. Basu, V. Igras, M. P. Hoang, M. Ji, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, V. A. Neel, C. W. Freudiger, D. E. Fisher, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free DNA imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(37), 11624–11629 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luisier, F.

J. Li, F. Luisier, and T. Blu, “Deconvolution of poissonian images with the PURE-LET approach,” in 2016 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP) (2016), pp. 2708–2712.
[Crossref]

Ma, S.

L. Zhang, Y. Wu, B. Zheng, L. Su, Y. Chen, S. Ma, Q. Hu, X. Zou, L. Yao, Y. Yang, L. Chen, Y. Mao, Y. Chen, and M. Ji, “Rapid histology of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma with deep-learning based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Theranostics 9(9), 2541–2554 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. He, Y. Xu, L. Zhang, S. Ma, X. Wang, D. Ye, and M. Ji, “Dual-phase stimulated Raman scattering microscopy for real-time two-color imaging,” Optica, OPTICA 4(1), 44–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

Machado, T. A.

E. A. Pnevmatikakis, D. Soudry, Y. Gao, T. A. Machado, J. Merel, D. Pfau, T. Reardon, Y. Mu, C. Lacefield, W. Yang, M. Ahrens, R. Bruno, T. M. Jessell, D. S. Peterka, R. Yuste, and L. Paninski, “Simultaneous Denoising, Deconvolution, and Demixing of Calcium Imaging Data,” Neuron 89(2), 285–299 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maher, C. O.

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mahmoudzadeh, M.

M. Nourhashemi, M. Mahmoudzadeh, and F. Wallois, “Thermal impact of near-infrared laser in advanced noninvasive optical brain imaging,” Neurophotonics 3(1), 015001 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Majhi, B.

S. K. Choudhury, P. K. Sa, R. P. Padhy, and B. Majhi, “A denoising inspired deblurring framework for regularized image restoration,” in 2016 IEEE Annual India Conference (INDICON) (2016), pp. 1–6.
[Crossref]

Maleckar, M. M.

C. Ounkomol, S. Seshamani, M. M. Maleckar, F. Collman, and G. R. Johnson, “Label-free prediction of three-dimensional fluorescence images from transmitted-light microscopy,” Nat. Methods 15(11), 917–920 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malik, J.

P. Perona and J. Malik, “Scale-space and edge detection using anisotropic diffusion,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 12(7), 629–639 (1990).
[Crossref]

Manifold, B.

Manjón, J. V.

P. Coupé, M. Munz, J. V. Manjón, E. S. Ruthazer, and D. L. Collins, “A CANDLE for a deeper in vivo insight,” Med. Image Anal. 16(4), 849–864 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manley, P. W.

D. Fu, J. Zhou, W. S. Zhu, P. W. Manley, Y. K. Wang, T. Hood, A. Wylie, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging the intracellular Distribution of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Living Cells with Quantitative Hyperspectral Stimulated Raman Scattering,” Nat. Chem. 6(7), 614–622 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mao, Y.

L. Zhang, Y. Wu, B. Zheng, L. Su, Y. Chen, S. Ma, Q. Hu, X. Zou, L. Yao, Y. Yang, L. Chen, Y. Mao, Y. Chen, and M. Ji, “Rapid histology of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma with deep-learning based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Theranostics 9(9), 2541–2554 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Merel, J.

E. A. Pnevmatikakis, D. Soudry, Y. Gao, T. A. Machado, J. Merel, D. Pfau, T. Reardon, Y. Mu, C. Lacefield, W. Yang, M. Ahrens, R. Bruno, T. M. Jessell, D. S. Peterka, R. Yuste, and L. Paninski, “Simultaneous Denoising, Deconvolution, and Demixing of Calcium Imaging Data,” Neuron 89(2), 285–299 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Min, W.

M. Wei, L. Shi, Y. Shen, Z. Zhao, A. Guzman, L. J. Kaufman, L. Wei, and W. Min, “Volumetric chemical imaging by clearing-enhanced stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116(14), 6608–6617 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Shi, C. Zheng, Y. Shen, Z. Chen, E. S. Silveira, L. Zhang, M. Wei, C. Liu, C. de Sena-Tomas, K. Targoff, and W. Min, “Optical imaging of metabolic dynamics in animals,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 2995 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moger, J.

N. L. Garrett, B. Singh, A. Jones, and J. Moger, “Imaging microscopic distribution of antifungal agents in dandruff treatments with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(6), 066003 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mu, Y.

E. A. Pnevmatikakis, D. Soudry, Y. Gao, T. A. Machado, J. Merel, D. Pfau, T. Reardon, Y. Mu, C. Lacefield, W. Yang, M. Ahrens, R. Bruno, T. M. Jessell, D. S. Peterka, R. Yuste, and L. Paninski, “Simultaneous Denoising, Deconvolution, and Demixing of Calcium Imaging Data,” Neuron 89(2), 285–299 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Munz, M.

P. Coupé, M. Munz, J. V. Manjón, E. S. Ruthazer, and D. L. Collins, “A CANDLE for a deeper in vivo insight,” Med. Image Anal. 16(4), 849–864 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neel, V. A.

F.-K. Lu, S. Basu, V. Igras, M. P. Hoang, M. Ji, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, V. A. Neel, C. W. Freudiger, D. E. Fisher, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free DNA imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(37), 11624–11629 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nguyen, T.

B. Figueroa, T. Nguyen, S. Sotthivirat, W. Xu, T. Rhodes, M. S. Lamm, R. L. Smith, C. T. John, Y. Su, and D. Fu, “Detecting and Quantifying Microscale Chemical Reactions in Pharmaceutical Tablets by Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Anal. Chem. 91(10), 6894–6901 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Figueroa, W. Fu, T. Nguyen, K. Shin, B. Manifold, F. Wise, and D. Fu, “Broadband hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy with a parabolic fiber amplifier source,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(12), 6116–6131 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nguyen, T. T.

A. T. Francis, T. T. Nguyen, M. S. Lamm, R. Teller, S. P. Forster, W. Xu, T. Rhodes, R. L. Smith, J. Kuiper, Y. Su, and D. Fu, “In Situ Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) Microscopy Study of the Dissolution of Sustained-Release Implant Formulation,” Mol. Pharm. 15(12), 5793–5801 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noojin, G. D.

M. L. Denton, M. S. Foltz, L. E. Estlack, D. J. Stolarski, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, D. Eikum, and B. A. Rockwell, “Damage Thresholds for Exposure to NIR and Blue Lasers in an In Vitro RPE Cell System,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(7), 3065–3073 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Norton, I.

F.-K. Lu, D. Calligaris, O. I. Olubiyi, I. Norton, W. Yang, S. Santagata, X. S. Xie, A. J. Golby, and N. Y. R. Agar, “Label-Free Neurosurgical Pathology with Stimulated Raman Imaging,” Cancer Res. 76(12), 3451–3462 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nourhashemi, M.

M. Nourhashemi, M. Mahmoudzadeh, and F. Wallois, “Thermal impact of near-infrared laser in advanced noninvasive optical brain imaging,” Neurophotonics 3(1), 015001 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Olubiyi, O. I.

F.-K. Lu, D. Calligaris, O. I. Olubiyi, I. Norton, W. Yang, S. Santagata, X. S. Xie, A. J. Golby, and N. Y. R. Agar, “Label-Free Neurosurgical Pathology with Stimulated Raman Imaging,” Cancer Res. 76(12), 3451–3462 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Orringer, D. A.

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ounkomol, C.

C. Ounkomol, S. Seshamani, M. M. Maleckar, F. Collman, and G. R. Johnson, “Label-free prediction of three-dimensional fluorescence images from transmitted-light microscopy,” Nat. Methods 15(11), 917–920 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ouyang, P.-B.

B.-J. Zou, Y.-D. Guo, Q. He, P.-B. Ouyang, K. Liu, and Z.-L. Chen, “3D Filtering by Block Matching and Convolutional Neural Network for Image Denoising,” J. Comput. Sci. Technol. 33(4), 838–848 (2018).
[Crossref]

Padhy, R. P.

S. K. Choudhury, P. K. Sa, R. P. Padhy, and B. Majhi, “A denoising inspired deblurring framework for regularized image restoration,” in 2016 IEEE Annual India Conference (INDICON) (2016), pp. 1–6.
[Crossref]

Paninski, L.

E. A. Pnevmatikakis, D. Soudry, Y. Gao, T. A. Machado, J. Merel, D. Pfau, T. Reardon, Y. Mu, C. Lacefield, W. Yang, M. Ahrens, R. Bruno, T. M. Jessell, D. S. Peterka, R. Yuste, and L. Paninski, “Simultaneous Denoising, Deconvolution, and Demixing of Calcium Imaging Data,” Neuron 89(2), 285–299 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perona, P.

P. Perona and J. Malik, “Scale-space and edge detection using anisotropic diffusion,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 12(7), 629–639 (1990).
[Crossref]

Peterka, D. S.

E. A. Pnevmatikakis, D. Soudry, Y. Gao, T. A. Machado, J. Merel, D. Pfau, T. Reardon, Y. Mu, C. Lacefield, W. Yang, M. Ahrens, R. Bruno, T. M. Jessell, D. S. Peterka, R. Yuste, and L. Paninski, “Simultaneous Denoising, Deconvolution, and Demixing of Calcium Imaging Data,” Neuron 89(2), 285–299 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pfau, D.

E. A. Pnevmatikakis, D. Soudry, Y. Gao, T. A. Machado, J. Merel, D. Pfau, T. Reardon, Y. Mu, C. Lacefield, W. Yang, M. Ahrens, R. Bruno, T. M. Jessell, D. S. Peterka, R. Yuste, and L. Paninski, “Simultaneous Denoising, Deconvolution, and Demixing of Calcium Imaging Data,” Neuron 89(2), 285–299 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pnevmatikakis, E. A.

E. A. Pnevmatikakis, D. Soudry, Y. Gao, T. A. Machado, J. Merel, D. Pfau, T. Reardon, Y. Mu, C. Lacefield, W. Yang, M. Ahrens, R. Bruno, T. M. Jessell, D. S. Peterka, R. Yuste, and L. Paninski, “Simultaneous Denoising, Deconvolution, and Demixing of Calcium Imaging Data,” Neuron 89(2), 285–299 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramkissoon, S. H.

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reardon, T.

E. A. Pnevmatikakis, D. Soudry, Y. Gao, T. A. Machado, J. Merel, D. Pfau, T. Reardon, Y. Mu, C. Lacefield, W. Yang, M. Ahrens, R. Bruno, T. M. Jessell, D. S. Peterka, R. Yuste, and L. Paninski, “Simultaneous Denoising, Deconvolution, and Demixing of Calcium Imaging Data,” Neuron 89(2), 285–299 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reichman, J.

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-Rate Molecular Imaging In Vivo with Stimulated Raman Scattering,” Science 330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rhodes, T.

B. Figueroa, T. Nguyen, S. Sotthivirat, W. Xu, T. Rhodes, M. S. Lamm, R. L. Smith, C. T. John, Y. Su, and D. Fu, “Detecting and Quantifying Microscale Chemical Reactions in Pharmaceutical Tablets by Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Anal. Chem. 91(10), 6894–6901 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. T. Francis, T. T. Nguyen, M. S. Lamm, R. Teller, S. P. Forster, W. Xu, T. Rhodes, R. L. Smith, J. Kuiper, Y. Su, and D. Fu, “In Situ Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) Microscopy Study of the Dissolution of Sustained-Release Implant Formulation,” Mol. Pharm. 15(12), 5793–5801 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rockwell, B. A.

M. L. Denton, M. S. Foltz, L. E. Estlack, D. J. Stolarski, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, D. Eikum, and B. A. Rockwell, “Damage Thresholds for Exposure to NIR and Blue Lasers in an In Vitro RPE Cell System,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(7), 3065–3073 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roeffaers, M. B. J.

X. Zhang, M. B. J. Roeffaers, S. Basu, J. R. Daniele, D. Fu, C. W. Freudiger, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free live-cell imaging of nucleic acids using stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” ChemPhysChem 13(4), 1054–1059 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruthazer, E. S.

P. Coupé, M. Munz, J. V. Manjón, E. S. Ruthazer, and D. L. Collins, “A CANDLE for a deeper in vivo insight,” Med. Image Anal. 16(4), 849–864 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sa, P. K.

S. K. Choudhury, P. K. Sa, R. P. Padhy, and B. Majhi, “A denoising inspired deblurring framework for regularized image restoration,” in 2016 IEEE Annual India Conference (INDICON) (2016), pp. 1–6.
[Crossref]

Saar, B. G.

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-Rate Molecular Imaging In Vivo with Stimulated Raman Scattering,” Science 330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sage, D.

D. Sage and M. Unser, “Teaching image-processing programming in Java,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 20(6), 43–52 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sagher, O.

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sanai, N.

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Santagata, S.

F.-K. Lu, D. Calligaris, O. I. Olubiyi, I. Norton, W. Yang, S. Santagata, X. S. Xie, A. J. Golby, and N. Y. R. Agar, “Label-Free Neurosurgical Pathology with Stimulated Raman Imaging,” Cancer Res. 76(12), 3451–3462 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Serrels, A.

W. J. Tipping, M. Lee, A. Serrels, V. G. Brunton, and A. N. Hulme, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy: an emerging tool for drug discovery,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 45(8), 2075–2089 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seshamani, S.

C. Ounkomol, S. Seshamani, M. M. Maleckar, F. Collman, and G. R. Johnson, “Label-free prediction of three-dimensional fluorescence images from transmitted-light microscopy,” Nat. Methods 15(11), 917–920 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, Y.

M. Wei, L. Shi, Y. Shen, Z. Zhao, A. Guzman, L. J. Kaufman, L. Wei, and W. Min, “Volumetric chemical imaging by clearing-enhanced stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116(14), 6608–6617 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Shi, C. Zheng, Y. Shen, Z. Chen, E. S. Silveira, L. Zhang, M. Wei, C. Liu, C. de Sena-Tomas, K. Targoff, and W. Min, “Optical imaging of metabolic dynamics in animals,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 2995 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, L.

M. Wei, L. Shi, Y. Shen, Z. Zhao, A. Guzman, L. J. Kaufman, L. Wei, and W. Min, “Volumetric chemical imaging by clearing-enhanced stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116(14), 6608–6617 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Shi, C. Zheng, Y. Shen, Z. Chen, E. S. Silveira, L. Zhang, M. Wei, C. Liu, C. de Sena-Tomas, K. Targoff, and W. Min, “Optical imaging of metabolic dynamics in animals,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 2995 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shin, K.

Silveira, E. S.

L. Shi, C. Zheng, Y. Shen, Z. Chen, E. S. Silveira, L. Zhang, M. Wei, C. Liu, C. de Sena-Tomas, K. Targoff, and W. Min, “Optical imaging of metabolic dynamics in animals,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 2995 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singh, B.

N. L. Garrett, B. Singh, A. Jones, and J. Moger, “Imaging microscopic distribution of antifungal agents in dandruff treatments with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(6), 066003 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, R. L.

B. Figueroa, T. Nguyen, S. Sotthivirat, W. Xu, T. Rhodes, M. S. Lamm, R. L. Smith, C. T. John, Y. Su, and D. Fu, “Detecting and Quantifying Microscale Chemical Reactions in Pharmaceutical Tablets by Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Anal. Chem. 91(10), 6894–6901 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. T. Francis, T. T. Nguyen, M. S. Lamm, R. Teller, S. P. Forster, W. Xu, T. Rhodes, R. L. Smith, J. Kuiper, Y. Su, and D. Fu, “In Situ Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) Microscopy Study of the Dissolution of Sustained-Release Implant Formulation,” Mol. Pharm. 15(12), 5793–5801 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Snuderl, M.

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sotthivirat, S.

B. Figueroa, T. Nguyen, S. Sotthivirat, W. Xu, T. Rhodes, M. S. Lamm, R. L. Smith, C. T. John, Y. Su, and D. Fu, “Detecting and Quantifying Microscale Chemical Reactions in Pharmaceutical Tablets by Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Anal. Chem. 91(10), 6894–6901 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soudry, D.

E. A. Pnevmatikakis, D. Soudry, Y. Gao, T. A. Machado, J. Merel, D. Pfau, T. Reardon, Y. Mu, C. Lacefield, W. Yang, M. Ahrens, R. Bruno, T. M. Jessell, D. S. Peterka, R. Yuste, and L. Paninski, “Simultaneous Denoising, Deconvolution, and Demixing of Calcium Imaging Data,” Neuron 89(2), 285–299 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stanley, C. M.

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-Rate Molecular Imaging In Vivo with Stimulated Raman Scattering,” Science 330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stolarski, D. J.

M. L. Denton, M. S. Foltz, L. E. Estlack, D. J. Stolarski, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, D. Eikum, and B. A. Rockwell, “Damage Thresholds for Exposure to NIR and Blue Lasers in an In Vitro RPE Cell System,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(7), 3065–3073 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, L.

L. Zhang, Y. Wu, B. Zheng, L. Su, Y. Chen, S. Ma, Q. Hu, X. Zou, L. Yao, Y. Yang, L. Chen, Y. Mao, Y. Chen, and M. Ji, “Rapid histology of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma with deep-learning based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Theranostics 9(9), 2541–2554 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, Y.

B. Figueroa, T. Nguyen, S. Sotthivirat, W. Xu, T. Rhodes, M. S. Lamm, R. L. Smith, C. T. John, Y. Su, and D. Fu, “Detecting and Quantifying Microscale Chemical Reactions in Pharmaceutical Tablets by Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Anal. Chem. 91(10), 6894–6901 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. T. Francis, T. T. Nguyen, M. S. Lamm, R. Teller, S. P. Forster, W. Xu, T. Rhodes, R. L. Smith, J. Kuiper, Y. Su, and D. Fu, “In Situ Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) Microscopy Study of the Dissolution of Sustained-Release Implant Formulation,” Mol. Pharm. 15(12), 5793–5801 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Targoff, K.

L. Shi, C. Zheng, Y. Shen, Z. Chen, E. S. Silveira, L. Zhang, M. Wei, C. Liu, C. de Sena-Tomas, K. Targoff, and W. Min, “Optical imaging of metabolic dynamics in animals,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 2995 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teller, R.

A. T. Francis, T. T. Nguyen, M. S. Lamm, R. Teller, S. P. Forster, W. Xu, T. Rhodes, R. L. Smith, J. Kuiper, Y. Su, and D. Fu, “In Situ Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) Microscopy Study of the Dissolution of Sustained-Release Implant Formulation,” Mol. Pharm. 15(12), 5793–5801 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomas, R. J.

M. L. Denton, M. S. Foltz, L. E. Estlack, D. J. Stolarski, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, D. Eikum, and B. A. Rockwell, “Damage Thresholds for Exposure to NIR and Blue Lasers in an In Vitro RPE Cell System,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(7), 3065–3073 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tipping, W. J.

W. J. Tipping, M. Lee, A. Serrels, V. G. Brunton, and A. N. Hulme, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy: an emerging tool for drug discovery,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 45(8), 2075–2089 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trebino, R.

V. Chauhan, P. Bowlan, J. Cohen, and R. Trebino, “Single-diffraction-grating and grism pulse compressors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(4), 619–624 (2010).
[Crossref]

Unser, M.

D. Sage and M. Unser, “Teaching image-processing programming in Java,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 20(6), 43–52 (2003).
[Crossref]

Venneti, S.

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wallois, F.

M. Nourhashemi, M. Mahmoudzadeh, and F. Wallois, “Thermal impact of near-infrared laser in advanced noninvasive optical brain imaging,” Neurophotonics 3(1), 015001 (2016).
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Wang, A. C.

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

R. He, Y. Xu, L. Zhang, S. Ma, X. Wang, D. Ye, and M. Ji, “Dual-phase stimulated Raman scattering microscopy for real-time two-color imaging,” Optica, OPTICA 4(1), 44–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. K.

D. Fu, J. Zhou, W. S. Zhu, P. W. Manley, Y. K. Wang, T. Hood, A. Wylie, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging the intracellular Distribution of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Living Cells with Quantitative Hyperspectral Stimulated Raman Scattering,” Nat. Chem. 6(7), 614–622 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, L.

M. Wei, L. Shi, Y. Shen, Z. Zhao, A. Guzman, L. J. Kaufman, L. Wei, and W. Min, “Volumetric chemical imaging by clearing-enhanced stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116(14), 6608–6617 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, M.

M. Wei, L. Shi, Y. Shen, Z. Zhao, A. Guzman, L. J. Kaufman, L. Wei, and W. Min, “Volumetric chemical imaging by clearing-enhanced stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116(14), 6608–6617 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Shi, C. Zheng, Y. Shen, Z. Chen, E. S. Silveira, L. Zhang, M. Wei, C. Liu, C. de Sena-Tomas, K. Targoff, and W. Min, “Optical imaging of metabolic dynamics in animals,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 2995 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wise, F.

Wu, Y.

L. Zhang, Y. Wu, B. Zheng, L. Su, Y. Chen, S. Ma, Q. Hu, X. Zou, L. Yao, Y. Yang, L. Chen, Y. Mao, Y. Chen, and M. Ji, “Rapid histology of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma with deep-learning based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Theranostics 9(9), 2541–2554 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wylie, A.

D. Fu, J. Zhou, W. S. Zhu, P. W. Manley, Y. K. Wang, T. Hood, A. Wylie, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging the intracellular Distribution of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Living Cells with Quantitative Hyperspectral Stimulated Raman Scattering,” Nat. Chem. 6(7), 614–622 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, X. S.

F.-K. Lu, D. Calligaris, O. I. Olubiyi, I. Norton, W. Yang, S. Santagata, X. S. Xie, A. J. Golby, and N. Y. R. Agar, “Label-Free Neurosurgical Pathology with Stimulated Raman Imaging,” Cancer Res. 76(12), 3451–3462 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F.-K. Lu, S. Basu, V. Igras, M. P. Hoang, M. Ji, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, V. A. Neel, C. W. Freudiger, D. E. Fisher, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free DNA imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(37), 11624–11629 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, “Vibrational spectroscopic imaging of living systems: An emerging platform for biology and medicine,” Science 350(6264), aaa8870 (2015).
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D. Fu, J. Zhou, W. S. Zhu, P. W. Manley, Y. K. Wang, T. Hood, A. Wylie, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging the intracellular Distribution of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Living Cells with Quantitative Hyperspectral Stimulated Raman Scattering,” Nat. Chem. 6(7), 614–622 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Fu, G. Holtom, C. Freudiger, X. Zhang, and X. S. Xie, “Hyperspectral Imaging with Stimulated Raman Scattering by Chirped Femtosecond Lasers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 117(16), 4634–4640 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, M. B. J. Roeffaers, S. Basu, J. R. Daniele, D. Fu, C. W. Freudiger, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free live-cell imaging of nucleic acids using stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” ChemPhysChem 13(4), 1054–1059 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-Rate Molecular Imaging In Vivo with Stimulated Raman Scattering,” Science 330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, W.

B. Figueroa, T. Nguyen, S. Sotthivirat, W. Xu, T. Rhodes, M. S. Lamm, R. L. Smith, C. T. John, Y. Su, and D. Fu, “Detecting and Quantifying Microscale Chemical Reactions in Pharmaceutical Tablets by Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Anal. Chem. 91(10), 6894–6901 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. T. Francis, T. T. Nguyen, M. S. Lamm, R. Teller, S. P. Forster, W. Xu, T. Rhodes, R. L. Smith, J. Kuiper, Y. Su, and D. Fu, “In Situ Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) Microscopy Study of the Dissolution of Sustained-Release Implant Formulation,” Mol. Pharm. 15(12), 5793–5801 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Y.

R. He, Y. Xu, L. Zhang, S. Ma, X. Wang, D. Ye, and M. Ji, “Dual-phase stimulated Raman scattering microscopy for real-time two-color imaging,” Optica, OPTICA 4(1), 44–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yang, W.

E. A. Pnevmatikakis, D. Soudry, Y. Gao, T. A. Machado, J. Merel, D. Pfau, T. Reardon, Y. Mu, C. Lacefield, W. Yang, M. Ahrens, R. Bruno, T. M. Jessell, D. S. Peterka, R. Yuste, and L. Paninski, “Simultaneous Denoising, Deconvolution, and Demixing of Calcium Imaging Data,” Neuron 89(2), 285–299 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F.-K. Lu, D. Calligaris, O. I. Olubiyi, I. Norton, W. Yang, S. Santagata, X. S. Xie, A. J. Golby, and N. Y. R. Agar, “Label-Free Neurosurgical Pathology with Stimulated Raman Imaging,” Cancer Res. 76(12), 3451–3462 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

L. Zhang, Y. Wu, B. Zheng, L. Su, Y. Chen, S. Ma, Q. Hu, X. Zou, L. Yao, Y. Yang, L. Chen, Y. Mao, Y. Chen, and M. Ji, “Rapid histology of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma with deep-learning based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Theranostics 9(9), 2541–2554 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, L.

L. Zhang, Y. Wu, B. Zheng, L. Su, Y. Chen, S. Ma, Q. Hu, X. Zou, L. Yao, Y. Yang, L. Chen, Y. Mao, Y. Chen, and M. Ji, “Rapid histology of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma with deep-learning based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Theranostics 9(9), 2541–2554 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, D.

R. He, Y. Xu, L. Zhang, S. Ma, X. Wang, D. Ye, and M. Ji, “Dual-phase stimulated Raman scattering microscopy for real-time two-color imaging,” Optica, OPTICA 4(1), 44–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yuste, R.

E. A. Pnevmatikakis, D. Soudry, Y. Gao, T. A. Machado, J. Merel, D. Pfau, T. Reardon, Y. Mu, C. Lacefield, W. Yang, M. Ahrens, R. Bruno, T. M. Jessell, D. S. Peterka, R. Yuste, and L. Paninski, “Simultaneous Denoising, Deconvolution, and Demixing of Calcium Imaging Data,” Neuron 89(2), 285–299 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, C.

C. Zhang, D. Zhang, and J.-X. Cheng, “Coherent Raman Scattering Microscopy in Biology and Medicine,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 17(1), 415–445 (2015).
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Zhang, D.

C. Zhang, D. Zhang, and J.-X. Cheng, “Coherent Raman Scattering Microscopy in Biology and Medicine,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 17(1), 415–445 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, Y. Wu, B. Zheng, L. Su, Y. Chen, S. Ma, Q. Hu, X. Zou, L. Yao, Y. Yang, L. Chen, Y. Mao, Y. Chen, and M. Ji, “Rapid histology of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma with deep-learning based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Theranostics 9(9), 2541–2554 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Shi, C. Zheng, Y. Shen, Z. Chen, E. S. Silveira, L. Zhang, M. Wei, C. Liu, C. de Sena-Tomas, K. Targoff, and W. Min, “Optical imaging of metabolic dynamics in animals,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 2995 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. He, Y. Xu, L. Zhang, S. Ma, X. Wang, D. Ye, and M. Ji, “Dual-phase stimulated Raman scattering microscopy for real-time two-color imaging,” Optica, OPTICA 4(1), 44–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

D. Fu, G. Holtom, C. Freudiger, X. Zhang, and X. S. Xie, “Hyperspectral Imaging with Stimulated Raman Scattering by Chirped Femtosecond Lasers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 117(16), 4634–4640 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, M. B. J. Roeffaers, S. Basu, J. R. Daniele, D. Fu, C. W. Freudiger, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free live-cell imaging of nucleic acids using stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” ChemPhysChem 13(4), 1054–1059 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, H.

H. Zhao, O. Gallo, I. Frosio, and J. Kautz, “Loss Functions for Image Restoration With Neural Networks,” IEEE Trans. Comput. Imaging 3(1), 47–57 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Z.

M. Wei, L. Shi, Y. Shen, Z. Zhao, A. Guzman, L. J. Kaufman, L. Wei, and W. Min, “Volumetric chemical imaging by clearing-enhanced stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116(14), 6608–6617 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, B.

L. Zhang, Y. Wu, B. Zheng, L. Su, Y. Chen, S. Ma, Q. Hu, X. Zou, L. Yao, Y. Yang, L. Chen, Y. Mao, Y. Chen, and M. Ji, “Rapid histology of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma with deep-learning based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Theranostics 9(9), 2541–2554 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, C.

L. Shi, C. Zheng, Y. Shen, Z. Chen, E. S. Silveira, L. Zhang, M. Wei, C. Liu, C. de Sena-Tomas, K. Targoff, and W. Min, “Optical imaging of metabolic dynamics in animals,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 2995 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

D. Fu, J. Zhou, W. S. Zhu, P. W. Manley, Y. K. Wang, T. Hood, A. Wylie, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging the intracellular Distribution of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Living Cells with Quantitative Hyperspectral Stimulated Raman Scattering,” Nat. Chem. 6(7), 614–622 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, W. S.

D. Fu, J. Zhou, W. S. Zhu, P. W. Manley, Y. K. Wang, T. Hood, A. Wylie, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging the intracellular Distribution of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Living Cells with Quantitative Hyperspectral Stimulated Raman Scattering,” Nat. Chem. 6(7), 614–622 (2014).
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B.-J. Zou, Y.-D. Guo, Q. He, P.-B. Ouyang, K. Liu, and Z.-L. Chen, “3D Filtering by Block Matching and Convolutional Neural Network for Image Denoising,” J. Comput. Sci. Technol. 33(4), 838–848 (2018).
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L. Zhang, Y. Wu, B. Zheng, L. Su, Y. Chen, S. Ma, Q. Hu, X. Zou, L. Yao, Y. Yang, L. Chen, Y. Mao, Y. Chen, and M. Ji, “Rapid histology of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma with deep-learning based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Theranostics 9(9), 2541–2554 (2019).
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Anal. Chem. (2)

B. Figueroa, T. Nguyen, S. Sotthivirat, W. Xu, T. Rhodes, M. S. Lamm, R. L. Smith, C. T. John, Y. Su, and D. Fu, “Detecting and Quantifying Microscale Chemical Reactions in Pharmaceutical Tablets by Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Anal. Chem. 91(10), 6894–6901 (2019).
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B. Figueroa, Y. Chen, K. Berry, A. Francis, and D. Fu, “Label-Free Chemical Imaging of Latent Fingerprints with Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Anal. Chem. 89(8), 4468–4473 (2017).
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Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (1)

C. Zhang, D. Zhang, and J.-X. Cheng, “Coherent Raman Scattering Microscopy in Biology and Medicine,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 17(1), 415–445 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Cancer Res. (1)

F.-K. Lu, D. Calligaris, O. I. Olubiyi, I. Norton, W. Yang, S. Santagata, X. S. Xie, A. J. Golby, and N. Y. R. Agar, “Label-Free Neurosurgical Pathology with Stimulated Raman Imaging,” Cancer Res. 76(12), 3451–3462 (2016).
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Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

W. J. Tipping, M. Lee, A. Serrels, V. G. Brunton, and A. N. Hulme, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy: an emerging tool for drug discovery,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 45(8), 2075–2089 (2016).
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ChemPhysChem (1)

X. Zhang, M. B. J. Roeffaers, S. Basu, J. R. Daniele, D. Fu, C. W. Freudiger, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free live-cell imaging of nucleic acids using stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” ChemPhysChem 13(4), 1054–1059 (2012).
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Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. (1)

D. Fu, “Quantitative chemical imaging with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 39, 24–31 (2017).
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IEEE Signal Process. Mag. (1)

D. Sage and M. Unser, “Teaching image-processing programming in Java,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 20(6), 43–52 (2003).
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IEEE Trans. Comput. Imaging (1)

H. Zhao, O. Gallo, I. Frosio, and J. Kautz, “Loss Functions for Image Restoration With Neural Networks,” IEEE Trans. Comput. Imaging 3(1), 47–57 (2017).
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M. L. Denton, M. S. Foltz, L. E. Estlack, D. J. Stolarski, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, D. Eikum, and B. A. Rockwell, “Damage Thresholds for Exposure to NIR and Blue Lasers in an In Vitro RPE Cell System,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(7), 3065–3073 (2006).
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J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

S. Chitchian, M. A. Fiddy, and N. M. Fried, “Denoising during optical coherence tomography of the prostate nerves via wavelet shrinkage using dual-tree complex wavelet transform,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014031 (2009).
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N. L. Garrett, B. Singh, A. Jones, and J. Moger, “Imaging microscopic distribution of antifungal agents in dandruff treatments with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(6), 066003 (2017).
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J. Comput. Sci. Technol. (1)

B.-J. Zou, Y.-D. Guo, Q. He, P.-B. Ouyang, K. Liu, and Z.-L. Chen, “3D Filtering by Block Matching and Convolutional Neural Network for Image Denoising,” J. Comput. Sci. Technol. 33(4), 838–848 (2018).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

V. Chauhan, P. Bowlan, J. Cohen, and R. Trebino, “Single-diffraction-grating and grism pulse compressors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(4), 619–624 (2010).
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J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

D. Fu, G. Holtom, C. Freudiger, X. Zhang, and X. S. Xie, “Hyperspectral Imaging with Stimulated Raman Scattering by Chirped Femtosecond Lasers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 117(16), 4634–4640 (2013).
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A. T. Francis, T. T. Nguyen, M. S. Lamm, R. Teller, S. P. Forster, W. Xu, T. Rhodes, R. L. Smith, J. Kuiper, Y. Su, and D. Fu, “In Situ Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) Microscopy Study of the Dissolution of Sustained-Release Implant Formulation,” Mol. Pharm. 15(12), 5793–5801 (2018).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 SRS microscope setup with spectral focusing. Epi detection used the same setup with the addition of a polarizing beam splitter prior to the objective to collect back scattered light and send it to the photodiode detector.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (A-D) SRS images at 2920 cm−1 of fixed HeLa cells where (A) was imaged using 1mW Stokes and 20 mW pump (low power) then subsequently denoised using VST (B) and the trained deep learning algorithm (C); (D) shows the same field of view as (A-C) imaged at 20 mW Stokes and pump (high power). Corresponding pixel value plots along the shown line are demonstrated in (E).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Coronal mouse brain SRS images acquired at 2990 cm-1. (A) Low power image acquired at 1 mW Stokes and 20 mW pump. (B) The low power image denoised with VST. (C) The low power image denoised with the deep learning algorithm. (D) The high power image acquired at 20 mW Stokes and 20 mW pump.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Two-color (lipids and proteins) composite SRS images of ex vivo mouse brain and corresponding pixel value line plots. (A) Low power image acquired at 1 mW Stokes 20 mW pump. (B) The low power image denoised using VST. (C) The low power image denoised with the deep learning algorithm. (D) The high power image acquired at 20 mW Stokes and pump. Pixel value line plots along the red line are shown for each composite image.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (A-D) Two-color (lipids-green, proteins-blue) SRS images of coronal mouse brain slice at a depth of 175μm. (A) shows the field of view taken at 15 mW Stokes 20 mW pump (high power) and (B-D) show denoising of (A) via VST (B), CANDLE (C), and the trained deep learning algorithm (D). Corresponding pixel plots along the lines shown next to their respective images.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Two-color (lipids-green, proteins-blue) SRS images of coronal mouse-brain slice. Images (A-C) show an area imaged at 2x zoom where (A) was imaged at low power, (B) was the low power image denoised using the same deep learning algorithm from Figs. 3 & 4, and (C) was imaged at high power.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Images (A-C) show an area of coronal mouse brain imaged in epi mode (A), the epi field of view denoised via deep learning algorithm (B), and the same field of view imaged in transmission mode (C).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Image of HeLa cells shown in Fig. 2 denoised using PURE-LET.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 PSNR, RMSE, and CCa Values of Low Power HeLa Images and Corresponding Denoising Methods

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Table 2 PSNR and RMSEa Values of Low Power and Denoised Two-Color SRS Mouse Brain Images

Equations (3)

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PSNR=10 log 10 ( R 2 r,t [ r( x,y )t( x,y ) ] 2 n x * n y )
RMSE= 1 n x n y 0 n x 1 0 n y 1 [ r(x,y)t(x,y) ] 2
CC= 0 n x 1 0 n y 1 [ r(x,y) r ¯ ] [ t(x,y) t ¯ ] 0 n x 1 0 n y 1 [ r(x,y) r ¯ ] 2 0 n x 1 0 n y 1 [ t(x,y) t ¯ ] 2