Abstract

Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) allows us to noninvasively investigate foveal ischemia, a key feature of diabetic retinopathy (DR). However, the sizes of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) have a significant variation in normal population, preventing the objective assessment of pathological enlargement of FAZ due to capillary dropout. Based on the relationship between FAZ and ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness in normal eyes, we defined a theoretical baseline FAZ (tbFAZ) on structural OCT and measured 2D and 3D vessel density in its vicinity on the simultaneously acquired OCTA in normal and diabetic eyes. We found that the structure-based tbFAZ was a reliable reference to identify foveal ischemia and that the 3D vessel density demonstrated ischemia more effectively than the 2D method. The proposed 3D para-FAZ vessel density correlates well with DR severity and potentially is a useful diagnostic biomarker, especially in the early stages of DR.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (1)

T. M. Rodrigues, J. P. Marques, M. Soares, S. Simão, P. Melo, A. Martins, J. Figueira, J. N. Murta, and R. Silva, “Macular OCT-angiography parameters to predict the clinical stage of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy: an exploratory analysis,” Eye (Lond.) 2019, 1 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (8)

A. N. Kulikov, D. S. Maltsev, and M. A. Burnasheva, “Improved analysis of foveal avascular zone area with optical coherence tomography angiography,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 256(12), 2293–2299 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Lynch, J. S. A. Romo, R. Linderman, B. D. Krawitz, S. Mo, A. Zakik, J. Carroll, R. B. Rosen, and T. Y. P. Chui, “Within-subject assessment of foveal avascular zone enlargement in different stages of diabetic retinopathy using en face OCT reflectance and OCT angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(12), 5982–5996 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Yasin Alibhai, E. M. Moult, R. Shahzad, C. B. Rebhun, C. Moreira-Neto, M. McGowan, D. Lee, B. Lee, C. R. Baumal, A. J. Witkin, E. Reichel, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, and N. K. Waheed, “Quantifying microvascular changes using OCT angiography in diabetic eyes without clinical evidence of retinopathy,” Ophthalmol. Retina 2(5), 418–427 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. D. Krawitz, E. Phillips, R. D. Bavier, S. Mo, J. Carroll, R. B. Rosen, and T. Y. P. Chui, “Parafoveal nonperfusion analysis in diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. 7(4), 4 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, A. M. Hagag, J. Wang, M. Zhang, A. Smith, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of nonperfusion areas in 3 vascular plexuses with optical coherence tomography angiography in eyes of patients with diabetes,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 136(8), 929–936 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lu, J. M. Simonett, J. Wang, M. Zhang, T. Hwang, A. M. Hagag, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Evaluation of automatically quantified foveal avascular zone metrics for diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(6), 2212–2221 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Camino, M. Zhang, L. Liu, J. Wang, Y. Jia, and D. Huang, “Enhanced quantification of retinal perfusion by improved discrimination of blood flow from bulk motion signal in OCTA,” Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. 7(6), 20 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Guo, A. Camino, M. Zhang, J. Wang, D. Huang, T. Hwang, and Y. Jia, “Automated segmentation of retinal layer boundaries and capillary plexuses in wide-field optical coherence tomographic angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(9), 4429–4442 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (6)

2016 (8)

M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, J. P. Campbell, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Projection-resolved optical coherence tomographic angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 816–828 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, M. Zhang, A. D. Pechauer, L. Liu, T. S. Hwang, D. J. Wilson, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated volumetric segmentation of retinal fluid on optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(4), 1577–1589 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, C. Dongye, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of nonperfusion in three retinal plexuses using projection-resolved optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(13), 5101–5106 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Y. Kim, Z. Chu, A. Shahidzadeh, R. K. Wang, C. A. Puliafito, and A. H. Kashani, “Quantifying microvascular density and morphology in diabetic retinopathy using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT362 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of capillary nonperfusion using optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(4), 367–373 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Bhanushali, N. Anegondi, S. G. Gadde, P. Srinivasan, L. Chidambara, N. K. Yadav, and A. Sinha Roy, “Linking retinal microvasculature features with severity of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT519 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Coscas, M. Lupidi, and F. Coscas, “Optical coherence tomographic angiography in diabetic macular ischemia: a new step forward,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(4), 373–374 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Shahlaee, M. Pefkianaki, J. Hsu, and A. C. Ho, “Measurement of foveal avascular zone dimensions and its reliability in healthy eyes using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 161, 50–55 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, C. M. Shah, T. Chui, P. M. Garcia, J. G. Lee, R. C. Gentile, Y.-S. Hsiao, Q. Zhou, T. Ko, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal vascular perfusion density mapping using optical coherence tomography angiography in normals and diabetic retinopathy patients,” Retina 35(11), 2353–2363 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, A. K. Lauer, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography features of diabetic retinopathy,” Retina 35(11), 2371–2376 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

T. Y. Chui, D. A. VanNasdale, A. E. Elsner, and S. A. Burns, “The association between the foveal avascular zone and retinal thickness,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(10), 6870–6877 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

D.-H. Lee, J. T. Kim, D.-W. Jung, S. G. Joe, and Y. H. Yoon, “The relationship between foveal ischemia and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography findings in ischemic diabetic macular edema,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(2), 1080–1085 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2009 (2)

N. Bhagat, R. A. Grigorian, A. Tutela, and M. A. Zarbin, “Diabetic macular edema: pathogenesis and treatment,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 54(1), 1–32 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Tan, V. Chopra, A. T.-H. Lu, J. S. Schuman, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, R. Varma, and D. Huang, “Detection of macular ganglion cell loss in glaucoma by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 116(12), 2305–2314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

N. Unoki, K. Nishijima, A. Sakamoto, M. Kita, D. Watanabe, M. Hangai, T. Kimura, N. Kawagoe, M. Ohta, and N. Yoshimura, “Retinal sensitivity loss and structural disturbance in areas of capillary nonperfusion of eyes with diabetic retinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 144(5), 755–760 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

A. Bringmann, A. Reichenbach, and P. Wiedemann, “Pathomechanisms of cystoid macular edema,” Ophthalmic Res. 36(5), 241–249 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Kempen, B. J. O’Colmain, M. C. Leske, S. M. Haffner, R. Klein, S. E. Moss, H. R. Taylor, R. F. Hamman, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 552–563 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

B. Sander, M. Larsen, C. Engler, and H. Lund-Andersen, “Absence of foveal avascular zone demonstrated by laser scanning fluorescein angiography,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.) 72(5), 550–552 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

A. M. Mansour, A. Schachat, G. Bodiford, and R. Haymond, “Foveal avascular zone in diabetes mellitus,” Retina 13(2), 125–128 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (3)

Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group, “Grading diabetic retinopathy from stereoscopic color fundus photographs--an extension of the modified Airlie House classification. ETDRS report number 10,” Ophthalmology 98(5Suppl), 786–806 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group, “Fundus photographic risk factors for progression of diabetic retinopathy. ETDRS report number 12,” Ophthalmology 98(5Suppl), 823–833 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group, “Classification of diabetic retinopathy from fluorescein angiograms. ETDRS report number 11,” Ophthalmology 98(5Suppl), 807–822 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

G. L. Trick, L. R. Trick, and C. Kilo, “Visual field defects in patients with insulin-dependent and noninsulin-dependent diabetes,” Ophthalmology 97(4), 475–482 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

A. C. Bird and R. A. Weale, “On the retinal vasculature of the human fovea,” Exp. Eye Res. 19(5), 409–417 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agemy, S. A.

B. D. Krawitz, S. Mo, L. S. Geyman, S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, P. M. Garcia, T. Y. P. Chui, and R. B. Rosen, “Acircularity index and axis ratio of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic eyes and healthy controls measured by optical coherence tomography angiography,” Vision Res. 139, 177–186 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, C. M. Shah, T. Chui, P. M. Garcia, J. G. Lee, R. C. Gentile, Y.-S. Hsiao, Q. Zhou, T. Ko, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal vascular perfusion density mapping using optical coherence tomography angiography in normals and diabetic retinopathy patients,” Retina 35(11), 2353–2363 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anegondi, N.

D. Bhanushali, N. Anegondi, S. G. Gadde, P. Srinivasan, L. Chidambara, N. K. Yadav, and A. Sinha Roy, “Linking retinal microvasculature features with severity of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT519 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Augustin, M.

Bailey, S. T.

J. Wang, M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, D. Huang, D. J. Wilson, and Y. Jia, “Reflectance-based projection-resolved optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1536–1548 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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T. Y. Chui, D. A. VanNasdale, A. E. Elsner, and S. A. Burns, “The association between the foveal avascular zone and retinal thickness,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(10), 6870–6877 (2014).
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B. D. Krawitz, E. Phillips, R. D. Bavier, S. Mo, J. Carroll, R. B. Rosen, and T. Y. P. Chui, “Parafoveal nonperfusion analysis in diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. 7(4), 4 (2018).
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B. D. Krawitz, S. Mo, L. S. Geyman, S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, P. M. Garcia, T. Y. P. Chui, and R. B. Rosen, “Acircularity index and axis ratio of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic eyes and healthy controls measured by optical coherence tomography angiography,” Vision Res. 139, 177–186 (2017).
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T. Y. Chui, D. A. VanNasdale, A. E. Elsner, and S. A. Burns, “The association between the foveal avascular zone and retinal thickness,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(10), 6870–6877 (2014).
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T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of capillary nonperfusion using optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(4), 367–373 (2016).
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T. S. Hwang, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, A. K. Lauer, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography features of diabetic retinopathy,” Retina 35(11), 2371–2376 (2015).
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Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
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Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
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A. Yasin Alibhai, E. M. Moult, R. Shahzad, C. B. Rebhun, C. Moreira-Neto, M. McGowan, D. Lee, B. Lee, C. R. Baumal, A. J. Witkin, E. Reichel, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, and N. K. Waheed, “Quantifying microvascular changes using OCT angiography in diabetic eyes without clinical evidence of retinopathy,” Ophthalmol. Retina 2(5), 418–427 (2018).
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Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
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Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
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Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
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D. Bhanushali, N. Anegondi, S. G. Gadde, P. Srinivasan, L. Chidambara, N. K. Yadav, and A. Sinha Roy, “Linking retinal microvasculature features with severity of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT519 (2016).
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T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of capillary nonperfusion using optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(4), 367–373 (2016).
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Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
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T. S. Hwang, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, A. K. Lauer, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography features of diabetic retinopathy,” Retina 35(11), 2371–2376 (2015).
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B. D. Krawitz, S. Mo, L. S. Geyman, S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, P. M. Garcia, T. Y. P. Chui, and R. B. Rosen, “Acircularity index and axis ratio of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic eyes and healthy controls measured by optical coherence tomography angiography,” Vision Res. 139, 177–186 (2017).
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S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, C. M. Shah, T. Chui, P. M. Garcia, J. G. Lee, R. C. Gentile, Y.-S. Hsiao, Q. Zhou, T. Ko, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal vascular perfusion density mapping using optical coherence tomography angiography in normals and diabetic retinopathy patients,” Retina 35(11), 2353–2363 (2015).
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N. Bhagat, R. A. Grigorian, A. Tutela, and M. A. Zarbin, “Diabetic macular edema: pathogenesis and treatment,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 54(1), 1–32 (2009).
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Ho, A. C.

A. Shahlaee, M. Pefkianaki, J. Hsu, and A. C. Ho, “Measurement of foveal avascular zone dimensions and its reliability in healthy eyes using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 161, 50–55 (2016).
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Hornegger, J.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
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Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
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S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, C. M. Shah, T. Chui, P. M. Garcia, J. G. Lee, R. C. Gentile, Y.-S. Hsiao, Q. Zhou, T. Ko, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal vascular perfusion density mapping using optical coherence tomography angiography in normals and diabetic retinopathy patients,” Retina 35(11), 2353–2363 (2015).
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A. Shahlaee, M. Pefkianaki, J. Hsu, and A. C. Ho, “Measurement of foveal avascular zone dimensions and its reliability in healthy eyes using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 161, 50–55 (2016).
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Y. Lu, J. M. Simonett, J. Wang, M. Zhang, T. Hwang, A. M. Hagag, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Evaluation of automatically quantified foveal avascular zone metrics for diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(6), 2212–2221 (2018).
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A. Camino, M. Zhang, L. Liu, J. Wang, Y. Jia, and D. Huang, “Enhanced quantification of retinal perfusion by improved discrimination of blood flow from bulk motion signal in OCTA,” Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. 7(6), 20 (2018).
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T. S. Hwang, A. M. Hagag, J. Wang, M. Zhang, A. Smith, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of nonperfusion areas in 3 vascular plexuses with optical coherence tomography angiography in eyes of patients with diabetes,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 136(8), 929–936 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Guo, A. Camino, M. Zhang, J. Wang, D. Huang, T. Hwang, and Y. Jia, “Automated segmentation of retinal layer boundaries and capillary plexuses in wide-field optical coherence tomographic angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(9), 4429–4442 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, D. Huang, D. J. Wilson, and Y. Jia, “Reflectance-based projection-resolved optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1536–1548 (2017).
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A. Camino, Y. Jia, G. Liu, J. Wang, and D. Huang, “Regression-based algorithm for bulk motion subtraction in optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(6), 3053–3066 (2017).
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J. P. Campbell, M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, Y. Jia, and D. Huang, “Detailed vascular anatomy of the human retina by projection-resolved optical coherence tomography angiography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42201 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, J. P. Campbell, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Projection-resolved optical coherence tomographic angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 816–828 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, C. Dongye, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of nonperfusion in three retinal plexuses using projection-resolved optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(13), 5101–5106 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of capillary nonperfusion using optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(4), 367–373 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, A. K. Lauer, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography features of diabetic retinopathy,” Retina 35(11), 2371–2376 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Tan, V. Chopra, A. T.-H. Lu, J. S. Schuman, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, R. Varma, and D. Huang, “Detection of macular ganglion cell loss in glaucoma by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 116(12), 2305–2314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwang, T.

Y. Guo, A. Camino, M. Zhang, J. Wang, D. Huang, T. Hwang, and Y. Jia, “Automated segmentation of retinal layer boundaries and capillary plexuses in wide-field optical coherence tomographic angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(9), 4429–4442 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lu, J. M. Simonett, J. Wang, M. Zhang, T. Hwang, A. M. Hagag, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Evaluation of automatically quantified foveal avascular zone metrics for diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(6), 2212–2221 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwang, T. S.

T. S. Hwang, A. M. Hagag, J. Wang, M. Zhang, A. Smith, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of nonperfusion areas in 3 vascular plexuses with optical coherence tomography angiography in eyes of patients with diabetes,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 136(8), 929–936 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, D. Huang, D. J. Wilson, and Y. Jia, “Reflectance-based projection-resolved optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1536–1548 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Campbell, M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, Y. Jia, and D. Huang, “Detailed vascular anatomy of the human retina by projection-resolved optical coherence tomography angiography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42201 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, J. P. Campbell, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Projection-resolved optical coherence tomographic angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 816–828 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, M. Zhang, A. D. Pechauer, L. Liu, T. S. Hwang, D. J. Wilson, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated volumetric segmentation of retinal fluid on optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(4), 1577–1589 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, C. Dongye, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of nonperfusion in three retinal plexuses using projection-resolved optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(13), 5101–5106 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of capillary nonperfusion using optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(4), 367–373 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, A. K. Lauer, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography features of diabetic retinopathy,” Retina 35(11), 2371–2376 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, H.

O. Tan, V. Chopra, A. T.-H. Lu, J. S. Schuman, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, R. Varma, and D. Huang, “Detection of macular ganglion cell loss in glaucoma by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 116(12), 2305–2314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jia, Y.

T. S. Hwang, A. M. Hagag, J. Wang, M. Zhang, A. Smith, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of nonperfusion areas in 3 vascular plexuses with optical coherence tomography angiography in eyes of patients with diabetes,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 136(8), 929–936 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Camino, M. Zhang, L. Liu, J. Wang, Y. Jia, and D. Huang, “Enhanced quantification of retinal perfusion by improved discrimination of blood flow from bulk motion signal in OCTA,” Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. 7(6), 20 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Guo, A. Camino, M. Zhang, J. Wang, D. Huang, T. Hwang, and Y. Jia, “Automated segmentation of retinal layer boundaries and capillary plexuses in wide-field optical coherence tomographic angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(9), 4429–4442 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lu, J. M. Simonett, J. Wang, M. Zhang, T. Hwang, A. M. Hagag, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Evaluation of automatically quantified foveal avascular zone metrics for diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(6), 2212–2221 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Campbell, M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, Y. Jia, and D. Huang, “Detailed vascular anatomy of the human retina by projection-resolved optical coherence tomography angiography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42201 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, D. Huang, D. J. Wilson, and Y. Jia, “Reflectance-based projection-resolved optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1536–1548 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Camino, Y. Jia, G. Liu, J. Wang, and D. Huang, “Regression-based algorithm for bulk motion subtraction in optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(6), 3053–3066 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, M. Zhang, A. D. Pechauer, L. Liu, T. S. Hwang, D. J. Wilson, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated volumetric segmentation of retinal fluid on optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(4), 1577–1589 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, J. P. Campbell, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Projection-resolved optical coherence tomographic angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 816–828 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, C. Dongye, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of nonperfusion in three retinal plexuses using projection-resolved optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(13), 5101–5106 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of capillary nonperfusion using optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(4), 367–373 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, A. K. Lauer, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography features of diabetic retinopathy,” Retina 35(11), 2371–2376 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joe, S. G.

D.-H. Lee, J. T. Kim, D.-W. Jung, S. G. Joe, and Y. H. Yoon, “The relationship between foveal ischemia and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography findings in ischemic diabetic macular edema,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(2), 1080–1085 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, D.-W.

D.-H. Lee, J. T. Kim, D.-W. Jung, S. G. Joe, and Y. H. Yoon, “The relationship between foveal ischemia and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography findings in ischemic diabetic macular edema,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(2), 1080–1085 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kashani, A. H.

A. Y. Kim, Z. Chu, A. Shahidzadeh, R. K. Wang, C. A. Puliafito, and A. H. Kashani, “Quantifying microvascular density and morphology in diabetic retinopathy using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT362 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kawagoe, N.

N. Unoki, K. Nishijima, A. Sakamoto, M. Kita, D. Watanabe, M. Hangai, T. Kimura, N. Kawagoe, M. Ohta, and N. Yoshimura, “Retinal sensitivity loss and structural disturbance in areas of capillary nonperfusion of eyes with diabetic retinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 144(5), 755–760 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kempen, J. H.

J. H. Kempen, B. J. O’Colmain, M. C. Leske, S. M. Haffner, R. Klein, S. E. Moss, H. R. Taylor, R. F. Hamman, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 552–563 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kilo, C.

G. L. Trick, L. R. Trick, and C. Kilo, “Visual field defects in patients with insulin-dependent and noninsulin-dependent diabetes,” Ophthalmology 97(4), 475–482 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, A. Y.

A. Y. Kim, Z. Chu, A. Shahidzadeh, R. K. Wang, C. A. Puliafito, and A. H. Kashani, “Quantifying microvascular density and morphology in diabetic retinopathy using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT362 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. T.

D.-H. Lee, J. T. Kim, D.-W. Jung, S. G. Joe, and Y. H. Yoon, “The relationship between foveal ischemia and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography findings in ischemic diabetic macular edema,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(2), 1080–1085 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kimura, T.

N. Unoki, K. Nishijima, A. Sakamoto, M. Kita, D. Watanabe, M. Hangai, T. Kimura, N. Kawagoe, M. Ohta, and N. Yoshimura, “Retinal sensitivity loss and structural disturbance in areas of capillary nonperfusion of eyes with diabetic retinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 144(5), 755–760 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kita, M.

N. Unoki, K. Nishijima, A. Sakamoto, M. Kita, D. Watanabe, M. Hangai, T. Kimura, N. Kawagoe, M. Ohta, and N. Yoshimura, “Retinal sensitivity loss and structural disturbance in areas of capillary nonperfusion of eyes with diabetic retinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 144(5), 755–760 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klein, M. L.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klein, R.

J. H. Kempen, B. J. O’Colmain, M. C. Leske, S. M. Haffner, R. Klein, S. E. Moss, H. R. Taylor, R. F. Hamman, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 552–563 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ko, T.

S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, C. M. Shah, T. Chui, P. M. Garcia, J. G. Lee, R. C. Gentile, Y.-S. Hsiao, Q. Zhou, T. Ko, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal vascular perfusion density mapping using optical coherence tomography angiography in normals and diabetic retinopathy patients,” Retina 35(11), 2353–2363 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kraus, M. F.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krawitz, B. D.

G. Lynch, J. S. A. Romo, R. Linderman, B. D. Krawitz, S. Mo, A. Zakik, J. Carroll, R. B. Rosen, and T. Y. P. Chui, “Within-subject assessment of foveal avascular zone enlargement in different stages of diabetic retinopathy using en face OCT reflectance and OCT angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(12), 5982–5996 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. D. Krawitz, E. Phillips, R. D. Bavier, S. Mo, J. Carroll, R. B. Rosen, and T. Y. P. Chui, “Parafoveal nonperfusion analysis in diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. 7(4), 4 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. D. Krawitz, S. Mo, L. S. Geyman, S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, P. M. Garcia, T. Y. P. Chui, and R. B. Rosen, “Acircularity index and axis ratio of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic eyes and healthy controls measured by optical coherence tomography angiography,” Vision Res. 139, 177–186 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kulikov, A. N.

A. N. Kulikov, D. S. Maltsev, and M. A. Burnasheva, “Improved analysis of foveal avascular zone area with optical coherence tomography angiography,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 256(12), 2293–2299 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Larsen, M.

B. Sander, M. Larsen, C. Engler, and H. Lund-Andersen, “Absence of foveal avascular zone demonstrated by laser scanning fluorescein angiography,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.) 72(5), 550–552 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laslandes, M.

Lauer, A. K.

T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of capillary nonperfusion using optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(4), 367–373 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, A. K. Lauer, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography features of diabetic retinopathy,” Retina 35(11), 2371–2376 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, B.

A. Yasin Alibhai, E. M. Moult, R. Shahzad, C. B. Rebhun, C. Moreira-Neto, M. McGowan, D. Lee, B. Lee, C. R. Baumal, A. J. Witkin, E. Reichel, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, and N. K. Waheed, “Quantifying microvascular changes using OCT angiography in diabetic eyes without clinical evidence of retinopathy,” Ophthalmol. Retina 2(5), 418–427 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, D.

A. Yasin Alibhai, E. M. Moult, R. Shahzad, C. B. Rebhun, C. Moreira-Neto, M. McGowan, D. Lee, B. Lee, C. R. Baumal, A. J. Witkin, E. Reichel, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, and N. K. Waheed, “Quantifying microvascular changes using OCT angiography in diabetic eyes without clinical evidence of retinopathy,” Ophthalmol. Retina 2(5), 418–427 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, D.-H.

D.-H. Lee, J. T. Kim, D.-W. Jung, S. G. Joe, and Y. H. Yoon, “The relationship between foveal ischemia and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography findings in ischemic diabetic macular edema,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(2), 1080–1085 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J. G.

S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, C. M. Shah, T. Chui, P. M. Garcia, J. G. Lee, R. C. Gentile, Y.-S. Hsiao, Q. Zhou, T. Ko, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal vascular perfusion density mapping using optical coherence tomography angiography in normals and diabetic retinopathy patients,” Retina 35(11), 2353–2363 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leske, M. C.

J. H. Kempen, B. J. O’Colmain, M. C. Leske, S. M. Haffner, R. Klein, S. E. Moss, H. R. Taylor, R. F. Hamman, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 552–563 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, D.

Y. Lu, J. M. Simonett, J. Wang, M. Zhang, T. Hwang, A. M. Hagag, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Evaluation of automatically quantified foveal avascular zone metrics for diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(6), 2212–2221 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, M. Zhang, A. D. Pechauer, L. Liu, T. S. Hwang, D. J. Wilson, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated volumetric segmentation of retinal fluid on optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(4), 1577–1589 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Linderman, R.

Liu, G.

Liu, J. J.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, L.

A. Camino, M. Zhang, L. Liu, J. Wang, Y. Jia, and D. Huang, “Enhanced quantification of retinal perfusion by improved discrimination of blood flow from bulk motion signal in OCTA,” Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. 7(6), 20 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, A. K. Lauer, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of capillary nonperfusion using optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(4), 367–373 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, M. Zhang, A. D. Pechauer, L. Liu, T. S. Hwang, D. J. Wilson, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated volumetric segmentation of retinal fluid on optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(4), 1577–1589 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, A. T.-H.

O. Tan, V. Chopra, A. T.-H. Lu, J. S. Schuman, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, R. Varma, and D. Huang, “Detection of macular ganglion cell loss in glaucoma by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 116(12), 2305–2314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, C. D.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, Y.

Y. Lu, J. M. Simonett, J. Wang, M. Zhang, T. Hwang, A. M. Hagag, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Evaluation of automatically quantified foveal avascular zone metrics for diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(6), 2212–2221 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lund-Andersen, H.

B. Sander, M. Larsen, C. Engler, and H. Lund-Andersen, “Absence of foveal avascular zone demonstrated by laser scanning fluorescein angiography,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.) 72(5), 550–552 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lupidi, M.

G. Coscas, M. Lupidi, and F. Coscas, “Optical coherence tomographic angiography in diabetic macular ischemia: a new step forward,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(4), 373–374 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lynch, G.

Maltsev, D. S.

A. N. Kulikov, D. S. Maltsev, and M. A. Burnasheva, “Improved analysis of foveal avascular zone area with optical coherence tomography angiography,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 256(12), 2293–2299 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mansour, A. M.

A. M. Mansour, A. Schachat, G. Bodiford, and R. Haymond, “Foveal avascular zone in diabetes mellitus,” Retina 13(2), 125–128 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marques, J. P.

T. M. Rodrigues, J. P. Marques, M. Soares, S. Simão, P. Melo, A. Martins, J. Figueira, J. N. Murta, and R. Silva, “Macular OCT-angiography parameters to predict the clinical stage of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy: an exploratory analysis,” Eye (Lond.) 2019, 1 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martins, A.

T. M. Rodrigues, J. P. Marques, M. Soares, S. Simão, P. Melo, A. Martins, J. Figueira, J. N. Murta, and R. Silva, “Macular OCT-angiography parameters to predict the clinical stage of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy: an exploratory analysis,” Eye (Lond.) 2019, 1 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McClintic, S. M.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McGowan, M.

A. Yasin Alibhai, E. M. Moult, R. Shahzad, C. B. Rebhun, C. Moreira-Neto, M. McGowan, D. Lee, B. Lee, C. R. Baumal, A. J. Witkin, E. Reichel, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, and N. K. Waheed, “Quantifying microvascular changes using OCT angiography in diabetic eyes without clinical evidence of retinopathy,” Ophthalmol. Retina 2(5), 418–427 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Melo, P.

T. M. Rodrigues, J. P. Marques, M. Soares, S. Simão, P. Melo, A. Martins, J. Figueira, J. N. Murta, and R. Silva, “Macular OCT-angiography parameters to predict the clinical stage of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy: an exploratory analysis,” Eye (Lond.) 2019, 1 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mo, S.

G. Lynch, J. S. A. Romo, R. Linderman, B. D. Krawitz, S. Mo, A. Zakik, J. Carroll, R. B. Rosen, and T. Y. P. Chui, “Within-subject assessment of foveal avascular zone enlargement in different stages of diabetic retinopathy using en face OCT reflectance and OCT angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(12), 5982–5996 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. D. Krawitz, E. Phillips, R. D. Bavier, S. Mo, J. Carroll, R. B. Rosen, and T. Y. P. Chui, “Parafoveal nonperfusion analysis in diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. 7(4), 4 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. D. Krawitz, S. Mo, L. S. Geyman, S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, P. M. Garcia, T. Y. P. Chui, and R. B. Rosen, “Acircularity index and axis ratio of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic eyes and healthy controls measured by optical coherence tomography angiography,” Vision Res. 139, 177–186 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moreira-Neto, C.

A. Yasin Alibhai, E. M. Moult, R. Shahzad, C. B. Rebhun, C. Moreira-Neto, M. McGowan, D. Lee, B. Lee, C. R. Baumal, A. J. Witkin, E. Reichel, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, and N. K. Waheed, “Quantifying microvascular changes using OCT angiography in diabetic eyes without clinical evidence of retinopathy,” Ophthalmol. Retina 2(5), 418–427 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (A) The en face angiogram of inner retina overlaid with manually delineated angiographic FAZ boundary (cyan curve). The white horizontal line indicates the position of the representative B-scan in the right panel. (B) Cross-sectional OCT B-scan overlaid with angiographic signal (red). Vitreous/ILM: the vitreous and inner limiting membrane (ILM) interface. IPL/INL: the inner plexiform layer (IPL) and inner nuclear layer (INL) interface. OPL/ONL: the outer plexiform layer (OPL) and outer nuclear layer (ONL) interface. EZ: the ellipsoid zone. The cyan vertical lines indicate the positions of angiographic FAZ boundary at which the ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness were measured.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (A) The histogram of ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness at angiographic FAZ boundaries of healthy controls. N is the number of sampled points. (B) Bland-Altman plot showing the agreement of FAZ area between angiographic FAZ and theoretical baseline FAZ (tbFAZ) in healthy control group.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Theoretical baseline FAZ (tbFAZ) detection for patients with significant DME. A1-A3: the foveal region was partially affected by cystic fluid. A1: cross-sectional B-scan with cystic fluid (yellow dash line). A2: maximum projection en face image of inner retinal angiogram overlaid with fluid cysts (white region). A3: the final tbFAZ (yellow region) was defined as the intersection of the fitted circle (magenta curve) and angiographic FAZ (cyan curve). B1-B3: The foveal region was totally affected by cystic fluid. B1: cross-sectional B-scan with cystic fluid (yellow dash line). B2: maximum projection en face image of inner retinal angiogram overlaid with fluid cysts (white region). B3: the final tbFAZ (yellow region) was defined as the maximum inscribed circle of angiographic FAZ (cyan curve).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Participants with A: healthy control, B: diabetes without retinopathy, C: mild to moderate nonproliferative DR (NPDR), D: proliferative DR (PDR). Upper panel of A-D: en face maximum projection of inner retinal angiogram. The inner green line represents the theoretical baseline FAZ (tbFAZ) boundary; the outer green line represents 600 µm distances from the tbFAZ boundary in the transverse direction. The white horizontal line indicates the position of a representative B-scan in the panel below. Lower panel of A-D: cross-sectional B-scan overlaid with angiographic signal (red). The green vertical lines indicate the analytic para-FAZ volume boundary locations in the inner retina. Right panel of A-D: corresponding volumetric para-FAZ OCTA. 3D display using the ImageJ software (http://imageJ.nih.gov/ij/; provided in the public domain by the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Boxplots of theoretical baseline FAZ (tbFAZ) area and perimeter for the four groups.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Boxplots of A: angiographic FAZ area, B: angiographic FAZ perimeter, C: 2D-PFVD and D: 3D-PFVD for the four study groups. By comparing to the Bonferroni corrected threshold (0.05/6), the significant differences between groups were annotated by asterisks.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Demographic data of the four study groups.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Spearman correlation coefficients (rho) of four measurements with diabetic retinopathy severity, best-corrected visual acuity and participant age.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Diagnostic sensitivities of four measurements on diabetic ischemia.

Equations (1)

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