Abstract

Quantitative phase imaging (QPI) is the most ideal method for achieving long-term cellular tomography because it is label free and quantitative. However, for current QPI instruments, interference signals from different layers overlay with each other and impede nanoscale optical sectioning. Integrated incubators and improved configurations also require further investigation for QPI instruments. In this work, hyperspectral self-reflectance microscopy is proposed to achieve label-free tomography of living cellular nanoarchitecture. The optical description and tomography reconstruction algorithm were proposed so that the quantitative morphological structure of the entire living cell can be acquired with 89.2 nm axial resolution and 1.91 nm optical path difference sensitivity. A cell incubator was integrated to culture living cells for in situ measurement and expensive precise optical components were not needed. The proposed system can reveal native and dynamic cellular nanoscale structure, providing an alternative approach for long-term monitoring and quantitative analysis of living cells.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. T. Z. Wang, L. P. Xie, H. L. Huang, X. Li, R. L. Wang, G. Yang, Y. N. Du, and G. L. Huang, “Label-free biomolecular imaging using scanning spectral interferometry,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 2018, 11 (2013).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (1)

R. Fu, Q. Li, R. Wang, N. Xue, X. Lin, Y. Su, K. Jiang, X. Jin, R. Lin, W. Gan, Y. Lu, and G. Huang, “An interferometric imaging biosensor using weighted spectrum analysis to confirm DNA monolayer films with attogram sensitivity,” Talanta 181, 224–231 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (5)

D. Sevenler, O. Avci, and M. S. Ünlü, “Quantitative interferometric reflectance imaging for the detection and measurement of biological nanoparticles,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(6), 2976–2989 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Nguyen, M. E. Kandel, M. Rubessa, M. B. Wheeler, and G. Popescu, “Gradient light interference microscopy for 3D imaging of unlabeled specimens,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 210 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Li, R. Fu, J. Zhang, R. Wang, J. Ye, N. Xue, X. Lin, Y. Su, W. Gan, Y. Lu, and G. Huang, “Label-Free Method Using a Weighted-Phase Algorithm To Quantitate Nanoscale Interactions between Molecules on DNA Microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 89(6), 3501–3507 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Cherkezyan, D. Zhang, H. Subramanian, I. Capoglu, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, “Review of interferometric spectroscopy of scattered light for the quantification of subdiffractional structure of biomaterials,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(3), 030901 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Baronsky, D. Ruhlandt, B. R. Brückner, J. Schäfer, N. Karedla, S. Isbaner, D. Hähnel, I. Gregor, J. Enderlein, A. Janshoff, and A. I. Chizhik, “Cell-Substrate Dynamics of the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3320–3326 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

S. Skylaki, O. Hilsenbeck, and T. Schroeder, “Challenges in long-term imaging and quantification of single-cell dynamics,” Nat. Biotechnol. 34(11), 1137–1144 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

G. Popescu and Y. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging in biomedicine,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 111201 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Avci, N. L. Ünlü, A. Y. Özkumur, and M. S. Ünlü, “Interferometric Reflectance Imaging Sensor (IRIS)--A Platform Technology for Multiplexed Diagnostics and Digital Detection,” Sensors (Basel) 15(7), 17649–17665 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, R. Fu, L. Xie, Q. Li, W. Zhou, R. Wang, J. Ye, D. Wang, N. Xue, X. Lin, Y. Lu, and G. Huang, “A smart device for label-free and real-time detection of gene point mutations based on the high dark phase contrast of vapor condensation,” Lab Chip 15(19), 3891–3896 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

A. P. Reddington, J. T. Trueb, D. S. Freedman, A. Tuysuzoglu, G. G. Daaboul, C. A. Lopez, W. C. Karl, J. H. Connor, H. Fawcett, and M. S. Ünlu, “An interferometric reflectance imaging sensor for point of care viral diagnostics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(12), 3276–3283 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. Jo, H. Park, and Y. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology: from principles to applications,” Sensors (Basel) 13(4), 4170–4191 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Z. Wang, L. P. Xie, H. L. Huang, X. Li, R. L. Wang, G. Yang, Y. N. Du, and G. L. Huang, “Label-free biomolecular imaging using scanning spectral interferometry,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 2018, 11 (2013).

L. Cherkezyan, I. Capoglu, H. Subramanian, J. D. Rogers, D. Damania, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, “Interferometric spectroscopy of scattered light can quantify the statistics of subdiffractional refractive-index fluctuations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(3), 033903 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

S. Ray, G. Mehta, and S. Srivastava, “Label-free detection techniques for protein microarrays: prospects, merits and challenges,” Proteomics 10(4), 731–748 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Ozkumur, S. Ahn, A. Yalçin, C. A. Lopez, E. Cevik, R. J. Irani, C. DeLisi, M. Chiari, and M. S. Unlü, “Label-free microarray imaging for direct detection of DNA hybridization and single-nucleotide mismatches,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(7), 1789–1795 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

E. Ozkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlü, “Label-free and dynamic detection of biomolecular interactions for high-throughput microarray applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(23), 7988–7992 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Shroff, C. G. Galbraith, J. A. Galbraith, and E. Betzig, “Live-cell photoactivated localization microscopy of nanoscale adhesion dynamics,” Nat. Methods 5(5), 417–423 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

R. A. Hoebe, C. H. Van Oven, T. W. Gadella, P. B. Dhonukshe, C. J. Van Noorden, and E. M. Manders, “Controlled light-exposure microscopy reduces photobleaching and phototoxicity in fluorescence live-cell imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 25(2), 249–253 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

T. A. Klar, E. Engel, and S. W. Hell, “Breaking Abbe’s diffraction resolution limit in fluorescence microscopy with stimulated emission depletion beams of various shapes,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 64(6), 066613 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

K. K. Tan, T. H. Lee, and X. Jiang, “Robust on-line relay automatic tuning of PID control systems,” ISA Trans. 39(2), 219–232 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, S.

E. Ozkumur, S. Ahn, A. Yalçin, C. A. Lopez, E. Cevik, R. J. Irani, C. DeLisi, M. Chiari, and M. S. Unlü, “Label-free microarray imaging for direct detection of DNA hybridization and single-nucleotide mismatches,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(7), 1789–1795 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avci, O.

D. Sevenler, O. Avci, and M. S. Ünlü, “Quantitative interferometric reflectance imaging for the detection and measurement of biological nanoparticles,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(6), 2976–2989 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Avci, N. L. Ünlü, A. Y. Özkumur, and M. S. Ünlü, “Interferometric Reflectance Imaging Sensor (IRIS)--A Platform Technology for Multiplexed Diagnostics and Digital Detection,” Sensors (Basel) 15(7), 17649–17665 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azucena, O.

Backman, V.

L. Cherkezyan, D. Zhang, H. Subramanian, I. Capoglu, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, “Review of interferometric spectroscopy of scattered light for the quantification of subdiffractional structure of biomaterials,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(3), 030901 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Cherkezyan, I. Capoglu, H. Subramanian, J. D. Rogers, D. Damania, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, “Interferometric spectroscopy of scattered light can quantify the statistics of subdiffractional refractive-index fluctuations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(3), 033903 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Badizadegan, K.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baronsky, T.

T. Baronsky, D. Ruhlandt, B. R. Brückner, J. Schäfer, N. Karedla, S. Isbaner, D. Hähnel, I. Gregor, J. Enderlein, A. Janshoff, and A. I. Chizhik, “Cell-Substrate Dynamics of the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3320–3326 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bates, M.

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergstein, D. A.

E. Ozkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlü, “Label-free and dynamic detection of biomolecular interactions for high-throughput microarray applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(23), 7988–7992 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Betzig, E.

H. Shroff, C. G. Galbraith, J. A. Galbraith, and E. Betzig, “Live-cell photoactivated localization microscopy of nanoscale adhesion dynamics,” Nat. Methods 5(5), 417–423 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, P. H.

H. Zhao, P. H. Brown, and P. Schuck, “On the distribution of protein refractive index increments,” Biophys. J. 100(9), 2309–2317 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brückner, B. R.

T. Baronsky, D. Ruhlandt, B. R. Brückner, J. Schäfer, N. Karedla, S. Isbaner, D. Hähnel, I. Gregor, J. Enderlein, A. Janshoff, and A. I. Chizhik, “Cell-Substrate Dynamics of the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3320–3326 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cabodi, M.

E. Ozkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlü, “Label-free and dynamic detection of biomolecular interactions for high-throughput microarray applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(23), 7988–7992 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capoglu, I.

L. Cherkezyan, D. Zhang, H. Subramanian, I. Capoglu, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, “Review of interferometric spectroscopy of scattered light for the quantification of subdiffractional structure of biomaterials,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(3), 030901 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Cherkezyan, I. Capoglu, H. Subramanian, J. D. Rogers, D. Damania, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, “Interferometric spectroscopy of scattered light can quantify the statistics of subdiffractional refractive-index fluctuations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(3), 033903 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cevik, E.

E. Ozkumur, S. Ahn, A. Yalçin, C. A. Lopez, E. Cevik, R. J. Irani, C. DeLisi, M. Chiari, and M. S. Unlü, “Label-free microarray imaging for direct detection of DNA hybridization and single-nucleotide mismatches,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(7), 1789–1795 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, G.

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. Jo, H. Park, and Y. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology: from principles to applications,” Sensors (Basel) 13(4), 4170–4191 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, D. C.

Cherkezyan, L.

L. Cherkezyan, D. Zhang, H. Subramanian, I. Capoglu, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, “Review of interferometric spectroscopy of scattered light for the quantification of subdiffractional structure of biomaterials,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(3), 030901 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Cherkezyan, I. Capoglu, H. Subramanian, J. D. Rogers, D. Damania, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, “Interferometric spectroscopy of scattered light can quantify the statistics of subdiffractional refractive-index fluctuations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(3), 033903 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiari, M.

E. Ozkumur, S. Ahn, A. Yalçin, C. A. Lopez, E. Cevik, R. J. Irani, C. DeLisi, M. Chiari, and M. S. Unlü, “Label-free microarray imaging for direct detection of DNA hybridization and single-nucleotide mismatches,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(7), 1789–1795 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chizhik, A. I.

T. Baronsky, D. Ruhlandt, B. R. Brückner, J. Schäfer, N. Karedla, S. Isbaner, D. Hähnel, I. Gregor, J. Enderlein, A. Janshoff, and A. I. Chizhik, “Cell-Substrate Dynamics of the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3320–3326 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, S.

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. Jo, H. Park, and Y. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology: from principles to applications,” Sensors (Basel) 13(4), 4170–4191 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, W.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Connor, J. H.

A. P. Reddington, J. T. Trueb, D. S. Freedman, A. Tuysuzoglu, G. G. Daaboul, C. A. Lopez, W. C. Karl, J. H. Connor, H. Fawcett, and M. S. Ünlu, “An interferometric reflectance imaging sensor for point of care viral diagnostics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(12), 3276–3283 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Daaboul, G. G.

A. P. Reddington, J. T. Trueb, D. S. Freedman, A. Tuysuzoglu, G. G. Daaboul, C. A. Lopez, W. C. Karl, J. H. Connor, H. Fawcett, and M. S. Ünlu, “An interferometric reflectance imaging sensor for point of care viral diagnostics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(12), 3276–3283 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Damania, D.

L. Cherkezyan, I. Capoglu, H. Subramanian, J. D. Rogers, D. Damania, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, “Interferometric spectroscopy of scattered light can quantify the statistics of subdiffractional refractive-index fluctuations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(3), 033903 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DeLisi, C.

E. Ozkumur, S. Ahn, A. Yalçin, C. A. Lopez, E. Cevik, R. J. Irani, C. DeLisi, M. Chiari, and M. S. Unlü, “Label-free microarray imaging for direct detection of DNA hybridization and single-nucleotide mismatches,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(7), 1789–1795 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dhonukshe, P. B.

R. A. Hoebe, C. H. Van Oven, T. W. Gadella, P. B. Dhonukshe, C. J. Van Noorden, and E. M. Manders, “Controlled light-exposure microscopy reduces photobleaching and phototoxicity in fluorescence live-cell imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 25(2), 249–253 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Du, Y. N.

T. Z. Wang, L. P. Xie, H. L. Huang, X. Li, R. L. Wang, G. Yang, Y. N. Du, and G. L. Huang, “Label-free biomolecular imaging using scanning spectral interferometry,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 2018, 11 (2013).

Enderlein, J.

T. Baronsky, D. Ruhlandt, B. R. Brückner, J. Schäfer, N. Karedla, S. Isbaner, D. Hähnel, I. Gregor, J. Enderlein, A. Janshoff, and A. I. Chizhik, “Cell-Substrate Dynamics of the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3320–3326 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Engel, E.

T. A. Klar, E. Engel, and S. W. Hell, “Breaking Abbe’s diffraction resolution limit in fluorescence microscopy with stimulated emission depletion beams of various shapes,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 64(6), 066613 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang-Yen, C.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fawcett, H.

A. P. Reddington, J. T. Trueb, D. S. Freedman, A. Tuysuzoglu, G. G. Daaboul, C. A. Lopez, W. C. Karl, J. H. Connor, H. Fawcett, and M. S. Ünlu, “An interferometric reflectance imaging sensor for point of care viral diagnostics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(12), 3276–3283 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fernandez, B.

Freedman, D. S.

A. P. Reddington, J. T. Trueb, D. S. Freedman, A. Tuysuzoglu, G. G. Daaboul, C. A. Lopez, W. C. Karl, J. H. Connor, H. Fawcett, and M. S. Ünlu, “An interferometric reflectance imaging sensor for point of care viral diagnostics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(12), 3276–3283 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, M.

Fu, R.

R. Fu, Q. Li, R. Wang, N. Xue, X. Lin, Y. Su, K. Jiang, X. Jin, R. Lin, W. Gan, Y. Lu, and G. Huang, “An interferometric imaging biosensor using weighted spectrum analysis to confirm DNA monolayer films with attogram sensitivity,” Talanta 181, 224–231 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Li, R. Fu, J. Zhang, R. Wang, J. Ye, N. Xue, X. Lin, Y. Su, W. Gan, Y. Lu, and G. Huang, “Label-Free Method Using a Weighted-Phase Algorithm To Quantitate Nanoscale Interactions between Molecules on DNA Microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 89(6), 3501–3507 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, R. Fu, L. Xie, Q. Li, W. Zhou, R. Wang, J. Ye, D. Wang, N. Xue, X. Lin, Y. Lu, and G. Huang, “A smart device for label-free and real-time detection of gene point mutations based on the high dark phase contrast of vapor condensation,” Lab Chip 15(19), 3891–3896 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gadella, T. W.

R. A. Hoebe, C. H. Van Oven, T. W. Gadella, P. B. Dhonukshe, C. J. Van Noorden, and E. M. Manders, “Controlled light-exposure microscopy reduces photobleaching and phototoxicity in fluorescence live-cell imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 25(2), 249–253 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galbraith, C. G.

H. Shroff, C. G. Galbraith, J. A. Galbraith, and E. Betzig, “Live-cell photoactivated localization microscopy of nanoscale adhesion dynamics,” Nat. Methods 5(5), 417–423 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galbraith, J. A.

H. Shroff, C. G. Galbraith, J. A. Galbraith, and E. Betzig, “Live-cell photoactivated localization microscopy of nanoscale adhesion dynamics,” Nat. Methods 5(5), 417–423 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gan, W.

R. Fu, Q. Li, R. Wang, N. Xue, X. Lin, Y. Su, K. Jiang, X. Jin, R. Lin, W. Gan, Y. Lu, and G. Huang, “An interferometric imaging biosensor using weighted spectrum analysis to confirm DNA monolayer films with attogram sensitivity,” Talanta 181, 224–231 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Li, R. Fu, J. Zhang, R. Wang, J. Ye, N. Xue, X. Lin, Y. Su, W. Gan, Y. Lu, and G. Huang, “Label-Free Method Using a Weighted-Phase Algorithm To Quantitate Nanoscale Interactions between Molecules on DNA Microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 89(6), 3501–3507 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garcia, D.

Gershoni, J. M.

E. Ozkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlü, “Label-free and dynamic detection of biomolecular interactions for high-throughput microarray applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(23), 7988–7992 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldberg, B. B.

E. Ozkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlü, “Label-free and dynamic detection of biomolecular interactions for high-throughput microarray applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(23), 7988–7992 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gonzalez, R.

E. Ozkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlü, “Label-free and dynamic detection of biomolecular interactions for high-throughput microarray applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(23), 7988–7992 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gregor, I.

T. Baronsky, D. Ruhlandt, B. R. Brückner, J. Schäfer, N. Karedla, S. Isbaner, D. Hähnel, I. Gregor, J. Enderlein, A. Janshoff, and A. I. Chizhik, “Cell-Substrate Dynamics of the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3320–3326 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hähnel, D.

T. Baronsky, D. Ruhlandt, B. R. Brückner, J. Schäfer, N. Karedla, S. Isbaner, D. Hähnel, I. Gregor, J. Enderlein, A. Janshoff, and A. I. Chizhik, “Cell-Substrate Dynamics of the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3320–3326 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hell, S. W.

T. A. Klar, E. Engel, and S. W. Hell, “Breaking Abbe’s diffraction resolution limit in fluorescence microscopy with stimulated emission depletion beams of various shapes,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 64(6), 066613 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heo, J.

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. Jo, H. Park, and Y. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology: from principles to applications,” Sensors (Basel) 13(4), 4170–4191 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hilsenbeck, O.

S. Skylaki, O. Hilsenbeck, and T. Schroeder, “Challenges in long-term imaging and quantification of single-cell dynamics,” Nat. Biotechnol. 34(11), 1137–1144 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoebe, R. A.

R. A. Hoebe, C. H. Van Oven, T. W. Gadella, P. B. Dhonukshe, C. J. Van Noorden, and E. M. Manders, “Controlled light-exposure microscopy reduces photobleaching and phototoxicity in fluorescence live-cell imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 25(2), 249–253 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, G.

R. Fu, Q. Li, R. Wang, N. Xue, X. Lin, Y. Su, K. Jiang, X. Jin, R. Lin, W. Gan, Y. Lu, and G. Huang, “An interferometric imaging biosensor using weighted spectrum analysis to confirm DNA monolayer films with attogram sensitivity,” Talanta 181, 224–231 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Li, R. Fu, J. Zhang, R. Wang, J. Ye, N. Xue, X. Lin, Y. Su, W. Gan, Y. Lu, and G. Huang, “Label-Free Method Using a Weighted-Phase Algorithm To Quantitate Nanoscale Interactions between Molecules on DNA Microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 89(6), 3501–3507 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, R. Fu, L. Xie, Q. Li, W. Zhou, R. Wang, J. Ye, D. Wang, N. Xue, X. Lin, Y. Lu, and G. Huang, “A smart device for label-free and real-time detection of gene point mutations based on the high dark phase contrast of vapor condensation,” Lab Chip 15(19), 3891–3896 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, G. L.

T. Z. Wang, L. P. Xie, H. L. Huang, X. Li, R. L. Wang, G. Yang, Y. N. Du, and G. L. Huang, “Label-free biomolecular imaging using scanning spectral interferometry,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 2018, 11 (2013).

Huang, H. L.

T. Z. Wang, L. P. Xie, H. L. Huang, X. Li, R. L. Wang, G. Yang, Y. N. Du, and G. L. Huang, “Label-free biomolecular imaging using scanning spectral interferometry,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 2018, 11 (2013).

Irani, R. J.

E. Ozkumur, S. Ahn, A. Yalçin, C. A. Lopez, E. Cevik, R. J. Irani, C. DeLisi, M. Chiari, and M. S. Unlü, “Label-free microarray imaging for direct detection of DNA hybridization and single-nucleotide mismatches,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(7), 1789–1795 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Isbaner, S.

T. Baronsky, D. Ruhlandt, B. R. Brückner, J. Schäfer, N. Karedla, S. Isbaner, D. Hähnel, I. Gregor, J. Enderlein, A. Janshoff, and A. I. Chizhik, “Cell-Substrate Dynamics of the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3320–3326 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Janshoff, A.

T. Baronsky, D. Ruhlandt, B. R. Brückner, J. Schäfer, N. Karedla, S. Isbaner, D. Hähnel, I. Gregor, J. Enderlein, A. Janshoff, and A. I. Chizhik, “Cell-Substrate Dynamics of the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3320–3326 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, K.

R. Fu, Q. Li, R. Wang, N. Xue, X. Lin, Y. Su, K. Jiang, X. Jin, R. Lin, W. Gan, Y. Lu, and G. Huang, “An interferometric imaging biosensor using weighted spectrum analysis to confirm DNA monolayer films with attogram sensitivity,” Talanta 181, 224–231 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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K. K. Tan, T. H. Lee, and X. Jiang, “Robust on-line relay automatic tuning of PID control systems,” ISA Trans. 39(2), 219–232 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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R. Fu, Q. Li, R. Wang, N. Xue, X. Lin, Y. Su, K. Jiang, X. Jin, R. Lin, W. Gan, Y. Lu, and G. Huang, “An interferometric imaging biosensor using weighted spectrum analysis to confirm DNA monolayer films with attogram sensitivity,” Talanta 181, 224–231 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. Jo, H. Park, and Y. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology: from principles to applications,” Sensors (Basel) 13(4), 4170–4191 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, J.

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. Jo, H. Park, and Y. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology: from principles to applications,” Sensors (Basel) 13(4), 4170–4191 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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T. H. Nguyen, M. E. Kandel, M. Rubessa, M. B. Wheeler, and G. Popescu, “Gradient light interference microscopy for 3D imaging of unlabeled specimens,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 210 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karedla, N.

T. Baronsky, D. Ruhlandt, B. R. Brückner, J. Schäfer, N. Karedla, S. Isbaner, D. Hähnel, I. Gregor, J. Enderlein, A. Janshoff, and A. I. Chizhik, “Cell-Substrate Dynamics of the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3320–3326 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karl, W. C.

A. P. Reddington, J. T. Trueb, D. S. Freedman, A. Tuysuzoglu, G. G. Daaboul, C. A. Lopez, W. C. Karl, J. H. Connor, H. Fawcett, and M. S. Ünlu, “An interferometric reflectance imaging sensor for point of care viral diagnostics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(12), 3276–3283 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K.

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. Jo, H. Park, and Y. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology: from principles to applications,” Sensors (Basel) 13(4), 4170–4191 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klar, T. A.

T. A. Klar, E. Engel, and S. W. Hell, “Breaking Abbe’s diffraction resolution limit in fluorescence microscopy with stimulated emission depletion beams of various shapes,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 64(6), 066613 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kubby, J.

Lee, K.

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. Jo, H. Park, and Y. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology: from principles to applications,” Sensors (Basel) 13(4), 4170–4191 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S.

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. Jo, H. Park, and Y. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology: from principles to applications,” Sensors (Basel) 13(4), 4170–4191 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, T. H.

K. K. Tan, T. H. Lee, and X. Jiang, “Robust on-line relay automatic tuning of PID control systems,” ISA Trans. 39(2), 219–232 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Q.

R. Fu, Q. Li, R. Wang, N. Xue, X. Lin, Y. Su, K. Jiang, X. Jin, R. Lin, W. Gan, Y. Lu, and G. Huang, “An interferometric imaging biosensor using weighted spectrum analysis to confirm DNA monolayer films with attogram sensitivity,” Talanta 181, 224–231 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Li, R. Fu, J. Zhang, R. Wang, J. Ye, N. Xue, X. Lin, Y. Su, W. Gan, Y. Lu, and G. Huang, “Label-Free Method Using a Weighted-Phase Algorithm To Quantitate Nanoscale Interactions between Molecules on DNA Microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 89(6), 3501–3507 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, R. Fu, L. Xie, Q. Li, W. Zhou, R. Wang, J. Ye, D. Wang, N. Xue, X. Lin, Y. Lu, and G. Huang, “A smart device for label-free and real-time detection of gene point mutations based on the high dark phase contrast of vapor condensation,” Lab Chip 15(19), 3891–3896 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.

T. Z. Wang, L. P. Xie, H. L. Huang, X. Li, R. L. Wang, G. Yang, Y. N. Du, and G. L. Huang, “Label-free biomolecular imaging using scanning spectral interferometry,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 2018, 11 (2013).

Lin, R.

R. Fu, Q. Li, R. Wang, N. Xue, X. Lin, Y. Su, K. Jiang, X. Jin, R. Lin, W. Gan, Y. Lu, and G. Huang, “An interferometric imaging biosensor using weighted spectrum analysis to confirm DNA monolayer films with attogram sensitivity,” Talanta 181, 224–231 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, X.

R. Fu, Q. Li, R. Wang, N. Xue, X. Lin, Y. Su, K. Jiang, X. Jin, R. Lin, W. Gan, Y. Lu, and G. Huang, “An interferometric imaging biosensor using weighted spectrum analysis to confirm DNA monolayer films with attogram sensitivity,” Talanta 181, 224–231 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Li, R. Fu, J. Zhang, R. Wang, J. Ye, N. Xue, X. Lin, Y. Su, W. Gan, Y. Lu, and G. Huang, “Label-Free Method Using a Weighted-Phase Algorithm To Quantitate Nanoscale Interactions between Molecules on DNA Microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 89(6), 3501–3507 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, R. Fu, L. Xie, Q. Li, W. Zhou, R. Wang, J. Ye, D. Wang, N. Xue, X. Lin, Y. Lu, and G. Huang, “A smart device for label-free and real-time detection of gene point mutations based on the high dark phase contrast of vapor condensation,” Lab Chip 15(19), 3891–3896 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lopez, C. A.

A. P. Reddington, J. T. Trueb, D. S. Freedman, A. Tuysuzoglu, G. G. Daaboul, C. A. Lopez, W. C. Karl, J. H. Connor, H. Fawcett, and M. S. Ünlu, “An interferometric reflectance imaging sensor for point of care viral diagnostics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(12), 3276–3283 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Ozkumur, S. Ahn, A. Yalçin, C. A. Lopez, E. Cevik, R. J. Irani, C. DeLisi, M. Chiari, and M. S. Unlü, “Label-free microarray imaging for direct detection of DNA hybridization and single-nucleotide mismatches,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(7), 1789–1795 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, Y.

R. Fu, Q. Li, R. Wang, N. Xue, X. Lin, Y. Su, K. Jiang, X. Jin, R. Lin, W. Gan, Y. Lu, and G. Huang, “An interferometric imaging biosensor using weighted spectrum analysis to confirm DNA monolayer films with attogram sensitivity,” Talanta 181, 224–231 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Li, R. Fu, J. Zhang, R. Wang, J. Ye, N. Xue, X. Lin, Y. Su, W. Gan, Y. Lu, and G. Huang, “Label-Free Method Using a Weighted-Phase Algorithm To Quantitate Nanoscale Interactions between Molecules on DNA Microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 89(6), 3501–3507 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, R. Fu, L. Xie, Q. Li, W. Zhou, R. Wang, J. Ye, D. Wang, N. Xue, X. Lin, Y. Lu, and G. Huang, “A smart device for label-free and real-time detection of gene point mutations based on the high dark phase contrast of vapor condensation,” Lab Chip 15(19), 3891–3896 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lue, N.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manders, E. M.

R. A. Hoebe, C. H. Van Oven, T. W. Gadella, P. B. Dhonukshe, C. J. Van Noorden, and E. M. Manders, “Controlled light-exposure microscopy reduces photobleaching and phototoxicity in fluorescence live-cell imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 25(2), 249–253 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mehta, G.

S. Ray, G. Mehta, and S. Srivastava, “Label-free detection techniques for protein microarrays: prospects, merits and challenges,” Proteomics 10(4), 731–748 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Needham, J. W.

E. Ozkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlü, “Label-free and dynamic detection of biomolecular interactions for high-throughput microarray applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(23), 7988–7992 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nguyen, T. H.

T. H. Nguyen, M. E. Kandel, M. Rubessa, M. B. Wheeler, and G. Popescu, “Gradient light interference microscopy for 3D imaging of unlabeled specimens,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 210 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, S.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ozkumur, E.

E. Ozkumur, S. Ahn, A. Yalçin, C. A. Lopez, E. Cevik, R. J. Irani, C. DeLisi, M. Chiari, and M. S. Unlü, “Label-free microarray imaging for direct detection of DNA hybridization and single-nucleotide mismatches,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(7), 1789–1795 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Ozkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlü, “Label-free and dynamic detection of biomolecular interactions for high-throughput microarray applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(23), 7988–7992 (2008).
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Özkumur, A. Y.

O. Avci, N. L. Ünlü, A. Y. Özkumur, and M. S. Ünlü, “Interferometric Reflectance Imaging Sensor (IRIS)--A Platform Technology for Multiplexed Diagnostics and Digital Detection,” Sensors (Basel) 15(7), 17649–17665 (2015).
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Park, H.

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. Jo, H. Park, and Y. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology: from principles to applications,” Sensors (Basel) 13(4), 4170–4191 (2013).
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Park, Y.

G. Popescu and Y. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging in biomedicine,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 111201 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. Jo, H. Park, and Y. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology: from principles to applications,” Sensors (Basel) 13(4), 4170–4191 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popescu, G.

T. H. Nguyen, M. E. Kandel, M. Rubessa, M. B. Wheeler, and G. Popescu, “Gradient light interference microscopy for 3D imaging of unlabeled specimens,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 210 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Popescu and Y. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging in biomedicine,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 111201 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ray, S.

S. Ray, G. Mehta, and S. Srivastava, “Label-free detection techniques for protein microarrays: prospects, merits and challenges,” Proteomics 10(4), 731–748 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reddington, A. P.

A. P. Reddington, J. T. Trueb, D. S. Freedman, A. Tuysuzoglu, G. G. Daaboul, C. A. Lopez, W. C. Karl, J. H. Connor, H. Fawcett, and M. S. Ünlu, “An interferometric reflectance imaging sensor for point of care viral diagnostics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(12), 3276–3283 (2013).
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L. Cherkezyan, I. Capoglu, H. Subramanian, J. D. Rogers, D. Damania, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, “Interferometric spectroscopy of scattered light can quantify the statistics of subdiffractional refractive-index fluctuations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(3), 033903 (2013).
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Rubessa, M.

T. H. Nguyen, M. E. Kandel, M. Rubessa, M. B. Wheeler, and G. Popescu, “Gradient light interference microscopy for 3D imaging of unlabeled specimens,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 210 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruhlandt, D.

T. Baronsky, D. Ruhlandt, B. R. Brückner, J. Schäfer, N. Karedla, S. Isbaner, D. Hähnel, I. Gregor, J. Enderlein, A. Janshoff, and A. I. Chizhik, “Cell-Substrate Dynamics of the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3320–3326 (2017).
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M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
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T. Baronsky, D. Ruhlandt, B. R. Brückner, J. Schäfer, N. Karedla, S. Isbaner, D. Hähnel, I. Gregor, J. Enderlein, A. Janshoff, and A. I. Chizhik, “Cell-Substrate Dynamics of the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3320–3326 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schroeder, T.

S. Skylaki, O. Hilsenbeck, and T. Schroeder, “Challenges in long-term imaging and quantification of single-cell dynamics,” Nat. Biotechnol. 34(11), 1137–1144 (2016).
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H. Zhao, P. H. Brown, and P. Schuck, “On the distribution of protein refractive index increments,” Biophys. J. 100(9), 2309–2317 (2011).
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Shroff, H.

H. Shroff, C. G. Galbraith, J. A. Galbraith, and E. Betzig, “Live-cell photoactivated localization microscopy of nanoscale adhesion dynamics,” Nat. Methods 5(5), 417–423 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Skylaki, S.

S. Skylaki, O. Hilsenbeck, and T. Schroeder, “Challenges in long-term imaging and quantification of single-cell dynamics,” Nat. Biotechnol. 34(11), 1137–1144 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srivastava, S.

S. Ray, G. Mehta, and S. Srivastava, “Label-free detection techniques for protein microarrays: prospects, merits and challenges,” Proteomics 10(4), 731–748 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, Y.

R. Fu, Q. Li, R. Wang, N. Xue, X. Lin, Y. Su, K. Jiang, X. Jin, R. Lin, W. Gan, Y. Lu, and G. Huang, “An interferometric imaging biosensor using weighted spectrum analysis to confirm DNA monolayer films with attogram sensitivity,” Talanta 181, 224–231 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Li, R. Fu, J. Zhang, R. Wang, J. Ye, N. Xue, X. Lin, Y. Su, W. Gan, Y. Lu, and G. Huang, “Label-Free Method Using a Weighted-Phase Algorithm To Quantitate Nanoscale Interactions between Molecules on DNA Microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 89(6), 3501–3507 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Subramanian, H.

L. Cherkezyan, D. Zhang, H. Subramanian, I. Capoglu, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, “Review of interferometric spectroscopy of scattered light for the quantification of subdiffractional structure of biomaterials,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(3), 030901 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Cherkezyan, I. Capoglu, H. Subramanian, J. D. Rogers, D. Damania, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, “Interferometric spectroscopy of scattered light can quantify the statistics of subdiffractional refractive-index fluctuations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(3), 033903 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taflove, A.

L. Cherkezyan, D. Zhang, H. Subramanian, I. Capoglu, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, “Review of interferometric spectroscopy of scattered light for the quantification of subdiffractional structure of biomaterials,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(3), 030901 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Cherkezyan, I. Capoglu, H. Subramanian, J. D. Rogers, D. Damania, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, “Interferometric spectroscopy of scattered light can quantify the statistics of subdiffractional refractive-index fluctuations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(3), 033903 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, K. K.

K. K. Tan, T. H. Lee, and X. Jiang, “Robust on-line relay automatic tuning of PID control systems,” ISA Trans. 39(2), 219–232 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tao, X.

Trueb, J. T.

A. P. Reddington, J. T. Trueb, D. S. Freedman, A. Tuysuzoglu, G. G. Daaboul, C. A. Lopez, W. C. Karl, J. H. Connor, H. Fawcett, and M. S. Ünlu, “An interferometric reflectance imaging sensor for point of care viral diagnostics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(12), 3276–3283 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tuysuzoglu, A.

A. P. Reddington, J. T. Trueb, D. S. Freedman, A. Tuysuzoglu, G. G. Daaboul, C. A. Lopez, W. C. Karl, J. H. Connor, H. Fawcett, and M. S. Ünlu, “An interferometric reflectance imaging sensor for point of care viral diagnostics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(12), 3276–3283 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Unlü, M. S.

E. Ozkumur, S. Ahn, A. Yalçin, C. A. Lopez, E. Cevik, R. J. Irani, C. DeLisi, M. Chiari, and M. S. Unlü, “Label-free microarray imaging for direct detection of DNA hybridization and single-nucleotide mismatches,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(7), 1789–1795 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Ozkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlü, “Label-free and dynamic detection of biomolecular interactions for high-throughput microarray applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(23), 7988–7992 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ünlu, M. S.

A. P. Reddington, J. T. Trueb, D. S. Freedman, A. Tuysuzoglu, G. G. Daaboul, C. A. Lopez, W. C. Karl, J. H. Connor, H. Fawcett, and M. S. Ünlu, “An interferometric reflectance imaging sensor for point of care viral diagnostics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(12), 3276–3283 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ünlü, M. S.

D. Sevenler, O. Avci, and M. S. Ünlü, “Quantitative interferometric reflectance imaging for the detection and measurement of biological nanoparticles,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(6), 2976–2989 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Avci, N. L. Ünlü, A. Y. Özkumur, and M. S. Ünlü, “Interferometric Reflectance Imaging Sensor (IRIS)--A Platform Technology for Multiplexed Diagnostics and Digital Detection,” Sensors (Basel) 15(7), 17649–17665 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ünlü, N. L.

O. Avci, N. L. Ünlü, A. Y. Özkumur, and M. S. Ünlü, “Interferometric Reflectance Imaging Sensor (IRIS)--A Platform Technology for Multiplexed Diagnostics and Digital Detection,” Sensors (Basel) 15(7), 17649–17665 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Noorden, C. J.

R. A. Hoebe, C. H. Van Oven, T. W. Gadella, P. B. Dhonukshe, C. J. Van Noorden, and E. M. Manders, “Controlled light-exposure microscopy reduces photobleaching and phototoxicity in fluorescence live-cell imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 25(2), 249–253 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Oven, C. H.

R. A. Hoebe, C. H. Van Oven, T. W. Gadella, P. B. Dhonukshe, C. J. Van Noorden, and E. M. Manders, “Controlled light-exposure microscopy reduces photobleaching and phototoxicity in fluorescence live-cell imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 25(2), 249–253 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, D.

J. Zhang, R. Fu, L. Xie, Q. Li, W. Zhou, R. Wang, J. Ye, D. Wang, N. Xue, X. Lin, Y. Lu, and G. Huang, “A smart device for label-free and real-time detection of gene point mutations based on the high dark phase contrast of vapor condensation,” Lab Chip 15(19), 3891–3896 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, R.

R. Fu, Q. Li, R. Wang, N. Xue, X. Lin, Y. Su, K. Jiang, X. Jin, R. Lin, W. Gan, Y. Lu, and G. Huang, “An interferometric imaging biosensor using weighted spectrum analysis to confirm DNA monolayer films with attogram sensitivity,” Talanta 181, 224–231 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Li, R. Fu, J. Zhang, R. Wang, J. Ye, N. Xue, X. Lin, Y. Su, W. Gan, Y. Lu, and G. Huang, “Label-Free Method Using a Weighted-Phase Algorithm To Quantitate Nanoscale Interactions between Molecules on DNA Microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 89(6), 3501–3507 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, R. Fu, L. Xie, Q. Li, W. Zhou, R. Wang, J. Ye, D. Wang, N. Xue, X. Lin, Y. Lu, and G. Huang, “A smart device for label-free and real-time detection of gene point mutations based on the high dark phase contrast of vapor condensation,” Lab Chip 15(19), 3891–3896 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, R. L.

T. Z. Wang, L. P. Xie, H. L. Huang, X. Li, R. L. Wang, G. Yang, Y. N. Du, and G. L. Huang, “Label-free biomolecular imaging using scanning spectral interferometry,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 2018, 11 (2013).

Wang, T. Z.

T. Z. Wang, L. P. Xie, H. L. Huang, X. Li, R. L. Wang, G. Yang, Y. N. Du, and G. L. Huang, “Label-free biomolecular imaging using scanning spectral interferometry,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 2018, 11 (2013).

Wheeler, M. B.

T. H. Nguyen, M. E. Kandel, M. Rubessa, M. B. Wheeler, and G. Popescu, “Gradient light interference microscopy for 3D imaging of unlabeled specimens,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 210 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, L.

J. Zhang, R. Fu, L. Xie, Q. Li, W. Zhou, R. Wang, J. Ye, D. Wang, N. Xue, X. Lin, Y. Lu, and G. Huang, “A smart device for label-free and real-time detection of gene point mutations based on the high dark phase contrast of vapor condensation,” Lab Chip 15(19), 3891–3896 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, L. P.

T. Z. Wang, L. P. Xie, H. L. Huang, X. Li, R. L. Wang, G. Yang, Y. N. Du, and G. L. Huang, “Label-free biomolecular imaging using scanning spectral interferometry,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 2018, 11 (2013).

Xue, N.

R. Fu, Q. Li, R. Wang, N. Xue, X. Lin, Y. Su, K. Jiang, X. Jin, R. Lin, W. Gan, Y. Lu, and G. Huang, “An interferometric imaging biosensor using weighted spectrum analysis to confirm DNA monolayer films with attogram sensitivity,” Talanta 181, 224–231 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Li, R. Fu, J. Zhang, R. Wang, J. Ye, N. Xue, X. Lin, Y. Su, W. Gan, Y. Lu, and G. Huang, “Label-Free Method Using a Weighted-Phase Algorithm To Quantitate Nanoscale Interactions between Molecules on DNA Microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 89(6), 3501–3507 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, R. Fu, L. Xie, Q. Li, W. Zhou, R. Wang, J. Ye, D. Wang, N. Xue, X. Lin, Y. Lu, and G. Huang, “A smart device for label-free and real-time detection of gene point mutations based on the high dark phase contrast of vapor condensation,” Lab Chip 15(19), 3891–3896 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yalçin, A.

E. Ozkumur, S. Ahn, A. Yalçin, C. A. Lopez, E. Cevik, R. J. Irani, C. DeLisi, M. Chiari, and M. S. Unlü, “Label-free microarray imaging for direct detection of DNA hybridization and single-nucleotide mismatches,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(7), 1789–1795 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, G.

T. Z. Wang, L. P. Xie, H. L. Huang, X. Li, R. L. Wang, G. Yang, Y. N. Du, and G. L. Huang, “Label-free biomolecular imaging using scanning spectral interferometry,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 2018, 11 (2013).

Ye, J.

Q. Li, R. Fu, J. Zhang, R. Wang, J. Ye, N. Xue, X. Lin, Y. Su, W. Gan, Y. Lu, and G. Huang, “Label-Free Method Using a Weighted-Phase Algorithm To Quantitate Nanoscale Interactions between Molecules on DNA Microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 89(6), 3501–3507 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, R. Fu, L. Xie, Q. Li, W. Zhou, R. Wang, J. Ye, D. Wang, N. Xue, X. Lin, Y. Lu, and G. Huang, “A smart device for label-free and real-time detection of gene point mutations based on the high dark phase contrast of vapor condensation,” Lab Chip 15(19), 3891–3896 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, D.

L. Cherkezyan, D. Zhang, H. Subramanian, I. Capoglu, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, “Review of interferometric spectroscopy of scattered light for the quantification of subdiffractional structure of biomaterials,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(3), 030901 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

Q. Li, R. Fu, J. Zhang, R. Wang, J. Ye, N. Xue, X. Lin, Y. Su, W. Gan, Y. Lu, and G. Huang, “Label-Free Method Using a Weighted-Phase Algorithm To Quantitate Nanoscale Interactions between Molecules on DNA Microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 89(6), 3501–3507 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, R. Fu, L. Xie, Q. Li, W. Zhou, R. Wang, J. Ye, D. Wang, N. Xue, X. Lin, Y. Lu, and G. Huang, “A smart device for label-free and real-time detection of gene point mutations based on the high dark phase contrast of vapor condensation,” Lab Chip 15(19), 3891–3896 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, H.

H. Zhao, P. H. Brown, and P. Schuck, “On the distribution of protein refractive index increments,” Biophys. J. 100(9), 2309–2317 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, W.

J. Zhang, R. Fu, L. Xie, Q. Li, W. Zhou, R. Wang, J. Ye, D. Wang, N. Xue, X. Lin, Y. Lu, and G. Huang, “A smart device for label-free and real-time detection of gene point mutations based on the high dark phase contrast of vapor condensation,” Lab Chip 15(19), 3891–3896 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhuang, X.

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zuo, Y.

Anal. Chem. (1)

Q. Li, R. Fu, J. Zhang, R. Wang, J. Ye, N. Xue, X. Lin, Y. Su, W. Gan, Y. Lu, and G. Huang, “Label-Free Method Using a Weighted-Phase Algorithm To Quantitate Nanoscale Interactions between Molecules on DNA Microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 89(6), 3501–3507 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Biophys. J. (1)

H. Zhao, P. H. Brown, and P. Schuck, “On the distribution of protein refractive index increments,” Biophys. J. 100(9), 2309–2317 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

E. Ozkumur, S. Ahn, A. Yalçin, C. A. Lopez, E. Cevik, R. J. Irani, C. DeLisi, M. Chiari, and M. S. Unlü, “Label-free microarray imaging for direct detection of DNA hybridization and single-nucleotide mismatches,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(7), 1789–1795 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

T. Z. Wang, L. P. Xie, H. L. Huang, X. Li, R. L. Wang, G. Yang, Y. N. Du, and G. L. Huang, “Label-free biomolecular imaging using scanning spectral interferometry,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 2018, 11 (2013).

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

A. P. Reddington, J. T. Trueb, D. S. Freedman, A. Tuysuzoglu, G. G. Daaboul, C. A. Lopez, W. C. Karl, J. H. Connor, H. Fawcett, and M. S. Ünlu, “An interferometric reflectance imaging sensor for point of care viral diagnostics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(12), 3276–3283 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ISA Trans. (1)

K. K. Tan, T. H. Lee, and X. Jiang, “Robust on-line relay automatic tuning of PID control systems,” ISA Trans. 39(2), 219–232 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

L. Cherkezyan, D. Zhang, H. Subramanian, I. Capoglu, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, “Review of interferometric spectroscopy of scattered light for the quantification of subdiffractional structure of biomaterials,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(3), 030901 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Popescu and Y. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging in biomedicine,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 111201 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lab Chip (1)

J. Zhang, R. Fu, L. Xie, Q. Li, W. Zhou, R. Wang, J. Ye, D. Wang, N. Xue, X. Lin, Y. Lu, and G. Huang, “A smart device for label-free and real-time detection of gene point mutations based on the high dark phase contrast of vapor condensation,” Lab Chip 15(19), 3891–3896 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nano Lett. (1)

T. Baronsky, D. Ruhlandt, B. R. Brückner, J. Schäfer, N. Karedla, S. Isbaner, D. Hähnel, I. Gregor, J. Enderlein, A. Janshoff, and A. I. Chizhik, “Cell-Substrate Dynamics of the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3320–3326 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol. (2)

R. A. Hoebe, C. H. Van Oven, T. W. Gadella, P. B. Dhonukshe, C. J. Van Noorden, and E. M. Manders, “Controlled light-exposure microscopy reduces photobleaching and phototoxicity in fluorescence live-cell imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 25(2), 249–253 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Skylaki, O. Hilsenbeck, and T. Schroeder, “Challenges in long-term imaging and quantification of single-cell dynamics,” Nat. Biotechnol. 34(11), 1137–1144 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

T. H. Nguyen, M. E. Kandel, M. Rubessa, M. B. Wheeler, and G. Popescu, “Gradient light interference microscopy for 3D imaging of unlabeled specimens,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 210 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (3)

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Shroff, C. G. Galbraith, J. A. Galbraith, and E. Betzig, “Live-cell photoactivated localization microscopy of nanoscale adhesion dynamics,” Nat. Methods 5(5), 417–423 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

T. A. Klar, E. Engel, and S. W. Hell, “Breaking Abbe’s diffraction resolution limit in fluorescence microscopy with stimulated emission depletion beams of various shapes,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 64(6), 066613 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

L. Cherkezyan, I. Capoglu, H. Subramanian, J. D. Rogers, D. Damania, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, “Interferometric spectroscopy of scattered light can quantify the statistics of subdiffractional refractive-index fluctuations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(3), 033903 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

E. Ozkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlü, “Label-free and dynamic detection of biomolecular interactions for high-throughput microarray applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(23), 7988–7992 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proteomics (1)

S. Ray, G. Mehta, and S. Srivastava, “Label-free detection techniques for protein microarrays: prospects, merits and challenges,” Proteomics 10(4), 731–748 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sensors (Basel) (2)

O. Avci, N. L. Ünlü, A. Y. Özkumur, and M. S. Ünlü, “Interferometric Reflectance Imaging Sensor (IRIS)--A Platform Technology for Multiplexed Diagnostics and Digital Detection,” Sensors (Basel) 15(7), 17649–17665 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. Jo, H. Park, and Y. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology: from principles to applications,” Sensors (Basel) 13(4), 4170–4191 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Talanta (1)

R. Fu, Q. Li, R. Wang, N. Xue, X. Lin, Y. Su, K. Jiang, X. Jin, R. Lin, W. Gan, Y. Lu, and G. Huang, “An interferometric imaging biosensor using weighted spectrum analysis to confirm DNA monolayer films with attogram sensitivity,” Talanta 181, 224–231 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

R. X. Fu, Q. Li, J. Q. Zhang, R. L. Wang, X. Lin, N. Xue, Y. Su, K. Jiang, and G. L. Huang, "Label free and high sensitive detection for genetic point mutation based on hyperspectral interferometry," Optics in Health Care and Biomedical Optics Vii 0024(2017).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The theoretical principle of HSM. (a) The mathematic description of the interferometric spectrum. (b) The schematic diagram of the whole setup. (c) The structure of the smart incubator.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The axial resolution, sensitivity and reconstruction results of HSM. (a) The theoretical peak positions of different thicknesses. (b) The measurement results of wafers with different thicknesses. (c) Imaging results with scanning electron microscope. (d) Imaging results with DIC. (e) Imaging results with HSM. (f) The three-dimensional reconstruction result of the sample with HSM. The scale bar in (d) and (e) represent 5 μm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Tomography of a single HeLa cell. (a) Imaging results of different layers with HSM. (b) Imaging results of different layers with DIC. The scale bars in the images represent 10 μm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Culture performance comparison of the proposed incubator (a) and the commercial incubator (b) (Temperature curve: left; carbon dioxide concentration curve: middle; culture performance after 24 h: right). The scale bars in the images represent 100 μm. In order to show the control fluctuations and the steady errors, the horizontal axis of the two incubators were set to be not same.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Tomography of different layers during cell proliferation. The scale bar in this figure represents 10 μm.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I( λ )= | U 1 ( λ )+ U 2 ( λ )+ U 3 ( λ ) | 2
U 1 ( λ )= n 0 n 1 n 0 + n 1 U( λ )
U 3 ( λ )=2 n 0 n 0 + n 1 e i 4π n 1 D λ U( λ )
U 2 ( λ )= 4 n 0 n 1 i ( n 0 + n 1 ) 2 U( λ ) 2π λ 0 n Δ ( z ) e i 4π λ z dz
R( λ )= ( n 0 n 1 ) 2 +4 n 0 2 ( n 0 + n 1 ) 2 - 4 n 0 ( n 0 n 1 ) ( n 0 + n 1 ) 2 e i 4π n 1 D λ + 8 n 0 n 1 ( n 0 n 1 ) i ( n 0 + n 1 ) 3 2π λ 0 n Δ ( z ) e i 4π λ z dz
R axial = f 0 2n = 1 2nT = 1 2×1.37×( 1 200 1 1100 ) =89.21(nm)
T max = f max 2n = f s 4n = 1024 4×1.37×( 1 200 1 1100 ) =49.01( μm )

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