Abstract

While colonoscopy is the gold standard for diagnosis and classification of colorectal cancer (CRC), its sensitivity and specificity are operator-dependent and are especially poor for small and flat lesions. Contemporary imaging modalities, such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence, have been investigated to visualize microvasculature and morphological changes for detecting early stage CRC in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In our study, we developed a multimodal endoscopic system with simultaneous co-registered OCT and NIR fluorescence imaging. By introducing a contrast agent into the vascular network, NIR fluorescence is able to highlight the cancer-suspected area based on significant change of tumor vascular density and morphology caused by angiogenesis. With the addition of co-registered OCT images to reveal subsurface tissue layer architecture, the suspected regions can be further investigated by the altered light scattering resulting from the morphological abnormality. Using this multimodal imaging system, an in vivo animal study was performed using a F344-ApcPircUwm rat, in which the layered architecture and microvasculature of the colorectal wall at different time points were demonstrated. The co-registered OCT and NIR fluorescence images allowed the identification and differentiation of normal colon, hyperplastic polyp, adenomatous polyp, and adenocarcinoma. This multimodal imaging strategy using a single imaging probe has demonstrated the enhanced capability of identification and classification of CRC compared to using any of these technologies alone, thus has the potential to provide a new clinical tool to advance gastroenterology practice.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (4)

F. Bray, J. Ferlay, I. Soerjomataram, R. L. Siegel, L. A. Torre, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 68(6), 394–424 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wang, X. Li, B. W. C. Tse, H. Yang, C. A. Thorling, Y. Liu, M. Touraud, J. B. Chouane, X. Liu, M. S. Roberts, and X. Liang, “Indocyanine green-incorporating nanoparticles for cancer theranostics,” Theranostics 8(5), 1227–1242 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Shen, Y. Zhang, and T. Wang, “Indocyanine Green Fluorescence Angiography and the Incidence of Anastomotic Leak After Colorectal Resection for Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-analysis,” Dis. Colon Rectum 61(10), 1228–1234 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Li, J. Jing, J. Yu, B. Zhang, T. Huo, Q. Yang, and Z. Chen, “Multimodality endoscopic optical coherence tomography and fluorescence imaging technology for visualization of layered architecture and subsurface microvasculature,” Opt. Lett. 43(9), 2074–2077 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (2)

Y. Li, J. Jing, Y. Qu, Y. Miao, B. Zhang, T. Ma, M. Yu, Q. Zhou, and Z. Chen, “Fully integrated optical coherence tomography, ultrasound, and indocyanine green-based fluorescence tri-modality system for intravascular imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2), 1036–1044 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Li, J. Jing, E. Heidari, J. Zhu, Y. Qu, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography for Characterization of Atherosclerosis with a 1.7 Micron Swept-Source Laser,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 14525 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

G. J. Ughi, H. Wang, E. Gerbaud, J. A. Gardecki, A. M. Fard, E. Hamidi, P. Vacas-Jacques, M. Rosenberg, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Clinical Characterization of Coronary Atherosclerosis With Dual-Modality OCT and Near-Infrared Autofluorescence Imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 9(11), 1304–1314 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Pahlevaninezhad, A. M. Lee, G. Hohert, S. Lam, T. Shaipanich, E. L. Beaudoin, C. MacAulay, C. Boudoux, and P. Lane, “Endoscopic high-resolution autofluorescence imaging and OCT of pulmonary vascular networks,” Opt. Lett. 41(14), 3209–3212 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

J. C. DeLong, J. M. Chakedis, A. Hosseini, K. J. Kelly, S. Horgan, and M. Bouvet, “Indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence-guided laparoscopic adrenalectomy,” J. Surg. Oncol. 112(6), 650–653 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

T. H. Tsai, O. O. Ahsen, H. C. Lee, K. Liang, M. Figueiredo, Y. K. Tao, M. G. Giacomelli, B. M. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, Q. Huang, A. E. Cable, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Endoscopic optical coherence angiography enables 3-dimensional visualization of subsurface microvasculature,” Gastroenterology 147(6), 1219–1221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

2011 (3)

A. M. Winkler, P. F. Rice, J. Weichsel, J. M. Watson, M. V. Backer, J. M. Backer, and J. K. Barton, “In vivo, dual-modality OCT/LIF imaging using a novel VEGF receptor-targeted NIR fluorescent probe in the AOM-treated mouse model,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 13(6), 1173–1182 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Gado, B. Ebeid, A. Abdelmohsen, and A. Axon, “Improving the Yield of Histological Sampling in Patients With Suspected Colorectal Cancer During Colonoscopy by Introducing a Colonoscopy Quality Assurance Program,” Gastroenterol. Res. 4(4), 157–161 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kubo and T. Akasaka, “Optical coherence tomography imaging: current status and future perspectives : Current and future developments in OCT,” Cardiovasc. Interv. Ther. 25(1), 2–10 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

J. M. Amos-Landgraf, L. N. Kwong, C. M. Kendziorski, M. Reichelderfer, J. Torrealba, J. Weichert, J. D. Haag, K. S. Chen, J. L. Waller, M. N. Gould, and W. F. Dove, “A target-selected Apc-mutant rat kindred enhances the modeling of familial human colon cancer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(10), 4036–4041 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

J. C. van Rijn, J. B. Reitsma, J. Stoker, P. M. Bossuyt, S. J. van Deventer, and E. Dekker, “Polyp miss rate determined by tandem colonoscopy: a systematic review,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 101(2), 343–350 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

V. X. Yang, S. J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(7), 879–890 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

2000 (1)

K. Iseki, M. Tatsuta, H. Iishi, N. Sakai, H. Yano, and S. Ishiguro, “Effectiveness of the near-infrared electronic endoscope for diagnosis of the depth of involvement of gastric cancers,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 52(6), 755–762 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

S. Yoneya, T. Saito, Y. Komatsu, I. Koyama, K. Takahashi, and J. Duvoll-Young, “Binding properties of indocyanine green in human blood,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39(7), 1286–1290 (1998).
[PubMed]

1989 (1)

D. Mascagni, L. Corbellini, P. Urciuoli, and G. Di Matteo, “Endoluminal ultrasound for early detection of local recurrence of rectal cancer,” Br. J. Surg. 76(11), 1176–1180 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

S. J. Winawer, S. D. Leidner, S. I. Hajdu, and P. Sherlock, “Colonoscopic biopsy and cytology in the diagnosis of colon cancer,” Cancer 42(6), 2849–2853 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abdelmohsen, A.

A. Gado, B. Ebeid, A. Abdelmohsen, and A. Axon, “Improving the Yield of Histological Sampling in Patients With Suspected Colorectal Cancer During Colonoscopy by Introducing a Colonoscopy Quality Assurance Program,” Gastroenterol. Res. 4(4), 157–161 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahsen, O. O.

T. H. Tsai, O. O. Ahsen, H. C. Lee, K. Liang, M. Figueiredo, Y. K. Tao, M. G. Giacomelli, B. M. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, Q. Huang, A. E. Cable, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Endoscopic optical coherence angiography enables 3-dimensional visualization of subsurface microvasculature,” Gastroenterology 147(6), 1219–1221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akasaka, T.

T. Kubo and T. Akasaka, “Optical coherence tomography imaging: current status and future perspectives : Current and future developments in OCT,” Cardiovasc. Interv. Ther. 25(1), 2–10 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amiji, M.

Amos-Landgraf, J. M.

J. M. Amos-Landgraf, L. N. Kwong, C. M. Kendziorski, M. Reichelderfer, J. Torrealba, J. Weichert, J. D. Haag, K. S. Chen, J. L. Waller, M. N. Gould, and W. F. Dove, “A target-selected Apc-mutant rat kindred enhances the modeling of familial human colon cancer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(10), 4036–4041 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Axon, A.

A. Gado, B. Ebeid, A. Abdelmohsen, and A. Axon, “Improving the Yield of Histological Sampling in Patients With Suspected Colorectal Cancer During Colonoscopy by Introducing a Colonoscopy Quality Assurance Program,” Gastroenterol. Res. 4(4), 157–161 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Backer, J. M.

A. M. Winkler, P. F. Rice, J. Weichsel, J. M. Watson, M. V. Backer, J. M. Backer, and J. K. Barton, “In vivo, dual-modality OCT/LIF imaging using a novel VEGF receptor-targeted NIR fluorescent probe in the AOM-treated mouse model,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 13(6), 1173–1182 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Backer, M. V.

A. M. Winkler, P. F. Rice, J. Weichsel, J. M. Watson, M. V. Backer, J. M. Backer, and J. K. Barton, “In vivo, dual-modality OCT/LIF imaging using a novel VEGF receptor-targeted NIR fluorescent probe in the AOM-treated mouse model,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 13(6), 1173–1182 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barton, J. K.

A. M. Winkler, P. F. Rice, J. Weichsel, J. M. Watson, M. V. Backer, J. M. Backer, and J. K. Barton, “In vivo, dual-modality OCT/LIF imaging using a novel VEGF receptor-targeted NIR fluorescent probe in the AOM-treated mouse model,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 13(6), 1173–1182 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. R. Tumlinson, L. P. Hariri, U. Utzinger, and J. K. Barton, “Miniature endoscope for simultaneous optical coherence tomography and laser-induced fluorescence measurement,” Appl. Opt. 43(1), 113–121 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beaudoin, E. L.

Bossuyt, P. M.

J. C. van Rijn, J. B. Reitsma, J. Stoker, P. M. Bossuyt, S. J. van Deventer, and E. Dekker, “Polyp miss rate determined by tandem colonoscopy: a systematic review,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 101(2), 343–350 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boudoux, C.

Bouma, B. E.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouvet, M.

J. C. DeLong, J. M. Chakedis, A. Hosseini, K. J. Kelly, S. Horgan, and M. Bouvet, “Indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence-guided laparoscopic adrenalectomy,” J. Surg. Oncol. 112(6), 650–653 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bray, F.

F. Bray, J. Ferlay, I. Soerjomataram, R. L. Siegel, L. A. Torre, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 68(6), 394–424 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cable, A.

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cable, A. E.

T. H. Tsai, O. O. Ahsen, H. C. Lee, K. Liang, M. Figueiredo, Y. K. Tao, M. G. Giacomelli, B. M. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, Q. Huang, A. E. Cable, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Endoscopic optical coherence angiography enables 3-dimensional visualization of subsurface microvasculature,” Gastroenterology 147(6), 1219–1221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chakedis, J. M.

J. C. DeLong, J. M. Chakedis, A. Hosseini, K. J. Kelly, S. Horgan, and M. Bouvet, “Indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence-guided laparoscopic adrenalectomy,” J. Surg. Oncol. 112(6), 650–653 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C. W.

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, K. S.

J. M. Amos-Landgraf, L. N. Kwong, C. M. Kendziorski, M. Reichelderfer, J. Torrealba, J. Weichert, J. D. Haag, K. S. Chen, J. L. Waller, M. N. Gould, and W. F. Dove, “A target-selected Apc-mutant rat kindred enhances the modeling of familial human colon cancer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(10), 4036–4041 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

J. Mavadia, J. Xi, Y. Chen, and X. Li, “An all-fiber-optic endoscopy platform for simultaneous OCT and fluorescence imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(11), 2851–2859 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Chouane, J. B.

H. Wang, X. Li, B. W. C. Tse, H. Yang, C. A. Thorling, Y. Liu, M. Touraud, J. B. Chouane, X. Liu, M. S. Roberts, and X. Liang, “Indocyanine green-incorporating nanoparticles for cancer theranostics,” Theranostics 8(5), 1227–1242 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cirocco, M.

V. X. Yang, S. J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(7), 879–890 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corbellini, L.

D. Mascagni, L. Corbellini, P. Urciuoli, and G. Di Matteo, “Endoluminal ultrasound for early detection of local recurrence of rectal cancer,” Br. J. Surg. 76(11), 1176–1180 (1989).
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Dekker, E.

J. C. van Rijn, J. B. Reitsma, J. Stoker, P. M. Bossuyt, S. J. van Deventer, and E. Dekker, “Polyp miss rate determined by tandem colonoscopy: a systematic review,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 101(2), 343–350 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DeLong, J. C.

J. C. DeLong, J. M. Chakedis, A. Hosseini, K. J. Kelly, S. Horgan, and M. Bouvet, “Indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence-guided laparoscopic adrenalectomy,” J. Surg. Oncol. 112(6), 650–653 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Di Matteo, G.

D. Mascagni, L. Corbellini, P. Urciuoli, and G. Di Matteo, “Endoluminal ultrasound for early detection of local recurrence of rectal cancer,” Br. J. Surg. 76(11), 1176–1180 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dove, W. F.

J. M. Amos-Landgraf, L. N. Kwong, C. M. Kendziorski, M. Reichelderfer, J. Torrealba, J. Weichert, J. D. Haag, K. S. Chen, J. L. Waller, M. N. Gould, and W. F. Dove, “A target-selected Apc-mutant rat kindred enhances the modeling of familial human colon cancer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(10), 4036–4041 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duvoll-Young, J.

S. Yoneya, T. Saito, Y. Komatsu, I. Koyama, K. Takahashi, and J. Duvoll-Young, “Binding properties of indocyanine green in human blood,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39(7), 1286–1290 (1998).
[PubMed]

Ebeid, B.

A. Gado, B. Ebeid, A. Abdelmohsen, and A. Axon, “Improving the Yield of Histological Sampling in Patients With Suspected Colorectal Cancer During Colonoscopy by Introducing a Colonoscopy Quality Assurance Program,” Gastroenterol. Res. 4(4), 157–161 (2011).
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Fard, A. M.

G. J. Ughi, H. Wang, E. Gerbaud, J. A. Gardecki, A. M. Fard, E. Hamidi, P. Vacas-Jacques, M. Rosenberg, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Clinical Characterization of Coronary Atherosclerosis With Dual-Modality OCT and Near-Infrared Autofluorescence Imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 9(11), 1304–1314 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferguson, R. D.

Ferlay, J.

F. Bray, J. Ferlay, I. Soerjomataram, R. L. Siegel, L. A. Torre, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 68(6), 394–424 (2018).
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Figueiredo, M.

T. H. Tsai, O. O. Ahsen, H. C. Lee, K. Liang, M. Figueiredo, Y. K. Tao, M. G. Giacomelli, B. M. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, Q. Huang, A. E. Cable, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Endoscopic optical coherence angiography enables 3-dimensional visualization of subsurface microvasculature,” Gastroenterology 147(6), 1219–1221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

T. H. Tsai, O. O. Ahsen, H. C. Lee, K. Liang, M. Figueiredo, Y. K. Tao, M. G. Giacomelli, B. M. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, Q. Huang, A. E. Cable, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Endoscopic optical coherence angiography enables 3-dimensional visualization of subsurface microvasculature,” Gastroenterology 147(6), 1219–1221 (2014).
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Gado, A.

A. Gado, B. Ebeid, A. Abdelmohsen, and A. Axon, “Improving the Yield of Histological Sampling in Patients With Suspected Colorectal Cancer During Colonoscopy by Introducing a Colonoscopy Quality Assurance Program,” Gastroenterol. Res. 4(4), 157–161 (2011).
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Gardecki, J. A.

G. J. Ughi, H. Wang, E. Gerbaud, J. A. Gardecki, A. M. Fard, E. Hamidi, P. Vacas-Jacques, M. Rosenberg, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Clinical Characterization of Coronary Atherosclerosis With Dual-Modality OCT and Near-Infrared Autofluorescence Imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 9(11), 1304–1314 (2016).
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Gardiner, G.

V. X. Yang, S. J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(7), 879–890 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gerbaud, E.

G. J. Ughi, H. Wang, E. Gerbaud, J. A. Gardecki, A. M. Fard, E. Hamidi, P. Vacas-Jacques, M. Rosenberg, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Clinical Characterization of Coronary Atherosclerosis With Dual-Modality OCT and Near-Infrared Autofluorescence Imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 9(11), 1304–1314 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giacomelli, M. G.

T. H. Tsai, O. O. Ahsen, H. C. Lee, K. Liang, M. Figueiredo, Y. K. Tao, M. G. Giacomelli, B. M. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, Q. Huang, A. E. Cable, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Endoscopic optical coherence angiography enables 3-dimensional visualization of subsurface microvasculature,” Gastroenterology 147(6), 1219–1221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gordon, M. L.

V. X. Yang, S. J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(7), 879–890 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gould, M. N.

J. M. Amos-Landgraf, L. N. Kwong, C. M. Kendziorski, M. Reichelderfer, J. Torrealba, J. Weichert, J. D. Haag, K. S. Chen, J. L. Waller, M. N. Gould, and W. F. Dove, “A target-selected Apc-mutant rat kindred enhances the modeling of familial human colon cancer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(10), 4036–4041 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Griffiths, G.

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haag, J. D.

J. M. Amos-Landgraf, L. N. Kwong, C. M. Kendziorski, M. Reichelderfer, J. Torrealba, J. Weichert, J. D. Haag, K. S. Chen, J. L. Waller, M. N. Gould, and W. F. Dove, “A target-selected Apc-mutant rat kindred enhances the modeling of familial human colon cancer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(10), 4036–4041 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haber, G. B.

V. X. Yang, S. J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(7), 879–890 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hajdu, S. I.

S. J. Winawer, S. D. Leidner, S. I. Hajdu, and P. Sherlock, “Colonoscopic biopsy and cytology in the diagnosis of colon cancer,” Cancer 42(6), 2849–2853 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hamidi, E.

G. J. Ughi, H. Wang, E. Gerbaud, J. A. Gardecki, A. M. Fard, E. Hamidi, P. Vacas-Jacques, M. Rosenberg, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Clinical Characterization of Coronary Atherosclerosis With Dual-Modality OCT and Near-Infrared Autofluorescence Imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 9(11), 1304–1314 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hammer, D. X.

Harewood, G. C.

G. C. Harewood, “Assessment of clinical impact of endoscopic ultrasound on rectal cancer,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 99(4), 623–627 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hariri, L. P.

Heidari, E.

Y. Li, J. Jing, E. Heidari, J. Zhu, Y. Qu, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography for Characterization of Atherosclerosis with a 1.7 Micron Swept-Source Laser,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 14525 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hohert, G.

Horgan, S.

J. C. DeLong, J. M. Chakedis, A. Hosseini, K. J. Kelly, S. Horgan, and M. Bouvet, “Indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence-guided laparoscopic adrenalectomy,” J. Surg. Oncol. 112(6), 650–653 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hosseini, A.

J. C. DeLong, J. M. Chakedis, A. Hosseini, K. J. Kelly, S. Horgan, and M. Bouvet, “Indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence-guided laparoscopic adrenalectomy,” J. Surg. Oncol. 112(6), 650–653 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Q.

T. H. Tsai, O. O. Ahsen, H. C. Lee, K. Liang, M. Figueiredo, Y. K. Tao, M. G. Giacomelli, B. M. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, Q. Huang, A. E. Cable, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Endoscopic optical coherence angiography enables 3-dimensional visualization of subsurface microvasculature,” Gastroenterology 147(6), 1219–1221 (2014).
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Huo, T.

Iftimia, N.

Iishi, H.

K. Iseki, M. Tatsuta, H. Iishi, N. Sakai, H. Yano, and S. Ishiguro, “Effectiveness of the near-infrared electronic endoscope for diagnosis of the depth of involvement of gastric cancers,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 52(6), 755–762 (2000).
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K. Iseki, M. Tatsuta, H. Iishi, N. Sakai, H. Yano, and S. Ishiguro, “Effectiveness of the near-infrared electronic endoscope for diagnosis of the depth of involvement of gastric cancers,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 52(6), 755–762 (2000).
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Ishiguro, S.

K. Iseki, M. Tatsuta, H. Iishi, N. Sakai, H. Yano, and S. Ishiguro, “Effectiveness of the near-infrared electronic endoscope for diagnosis of the depth of involvement of gastric cancers,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 52(6), 755–762 (2000).
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Iyer, A. K.

Jaffer, F. A.

G. J. Ughi, H. Wang, E. Gerbaud, J. A. Gardecki, A. M. Fard, E. Hamidi, P. Vacas-Jacques, M. Rosenberg, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Clinical Characterization of Coronary Atherosclerosis With Dual-Modality OCT and Near-Infrared Autofluorescence Imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 9(11), 1304–1314 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jayaraman, V.

T. H. Tsai, O. O. Ahsen, H. C. Lee, K. Liang, M. Figueiredo, Y. K. Tao, M. G. Giacomelli, B. M. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, Q. Huang, A. E. Cable, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Endoscopic optical coherence angiography enables 3-dimensional visualization of subsurface microvasculature,” Gastroenterology 147(6), 1219–1221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jemal, A.

F. Bray, J. Ferlay, I. Soerjomataram, R. L. Siegel, L. A. Torre, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 68(6), 394–424 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, J.

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jing, J.

Kandel, G.

V. X. Yang, S. J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(7), 879–890 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kelly, K. J.

J. C. DeLong, J. M. Chakedis, A. Hosseini, K. J. Kelly, S. Horgan, and M. Bouvet, “Indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence-guided laparoscopic adrenalectomy,” J. Surg. Oncol. 112(6), 650–653 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kendziorski, C. M.

J. M. Amos-Landgraf, L. N. Kwong, C. M. Kendziorski, M. Reichelderfer, J. Torrealba, J. Weichert, J. D. Haag, K. S. Chen, J. L. Waller, M. N. Gould, and W. F. Dove, “A target-selected Apc-mutant rat kindred enhances the modeling of familial human colon cancer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(10), 4036–4041 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. W.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Komatsu, Y.

S. Yoneya, T. Saito, Y. Komatsu, I. Koyama, K. Takahashi, and J. Duvoll-Young, “Binding properties of indocyanine green in human blood,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39(7), 1286–1290 (1998).
[PubMed]

Kortan, P.

V. X. Yang, S. J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(7), 879–890 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koyama, I.

S. Yoneya, T. Saito, Y. Komatsu, I. Koyama, K. Takahashi, and J. Duvoll-Young, “Binding properties of indocyanine green in human blood,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39(7), 1286–1290 (1998).
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Kubo, T.

T. Kubo and T. Akasaka, “Optical coherence tomography imaging: current status and future perspectives : Current and future developments in OCT,” Cardiovasc. Interv. Ther. 25(1), 2–10 (2010).
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Kwong, L. N.

J. M. Amos-Landgraf, L. N. Kwong, C. M. Kendziorski, M. Reichelderfer, J. Torrealba, J. Weichert, J. D. Haag, K. S. Chen, J. L. Waller, M. N. Gould, and W. F. Dove, “A target-selected Apc-mutant rat kindred enhances the modeling of familial human colon cancer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(10), 4036–4041 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lam, S.

Lane, P.

Lee, A. M.

Lee, H. C.

T. H. Tsai, O. O. Ahsen, H. C. Lee, K. Liang, M. Figueiredo, Y. K. Tao, M. G. Giacomelli, B. M. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, Q. Huang, A. E. Cable, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Endoscopic optical coherence angiography enables 3-dimensional visualization of subsurface microvasculature,” Gastroenterology 147(6), 1219–1221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leidner, S. D.

S. J. Winawer, S. D. Leidner, S. I. Hajdu, and P. Sherlock, “Colonoscopic biopsy and cytology in the diagnosis of colon cancer,” Cancer 42(6), 2849–2853 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.

H. Wang, X. Li, B. W. C. Tse, H. Yang, C. A. Thorling, Y. Liu, M. Touraud, J. B. Chouane, X. Liu, M. S. Roberts, and X. Liang, “Indocyanine green-incorporating nanoparticles for cancer theranostics,” Theranostics 8(5), 1227–1242 (2018).
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J. Mavadia, J. Xi, Y. Chen, and X. Li, “An all-fiber-optic endoscopy platform for simultaneous OCT and fluorescence imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(11), 2851–2859 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

Liang, K.

T. H. Tsai, O. O. Ahsen, H. C. Lee, K. Liang, M. Figueiredo, Y. K. Tao, M. G. Giacomelli, B. M. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, Q. Huang, A. E. Cable, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Endoscopic optical coherence angiography enables 3-dimensional visualization of subsurface microvasculature,” Gastroenterology 147(6), 1219–1221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, X.

H. Wang, X. Li, B. W. C. Tse, H. Yang, C. A. Thorling, Y. Liu, M. Touraud, J. B. Chouane, X. Liu, M. S. Roberts, and X. Liang, “Indocyanine green-incorporating nanoparticles for cancer theranostics,” Theranostics 8(5), 1227–1242 (2018).
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Liu, X.

H. Wang, X. Li, B. W. C. Tse, H. Yang, C. A. Thorling, Y. Liu, M. Touraud, J. B. Chouane, X. Liu, M. S. Roberts, and X. Liang, “Indocyanine green-incorporating nanoparticles for cancer theranostics,” Theranostics 8(5), 1227–1242 (2018).
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Liu, Y.

H. Wang, X. Li, B. W. C. Tse, H. Yang, C. A. Thorling, Y. Liu, M. Touraud, J. B. Chouane, X. Liu, M. S. Roberts, and X. Liang, “Indocyanine green-incorporating nanoparticles for cancer theranostics,” Theranostics 8(5), 1227–1242 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lue, N.

Ma, H.

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, T.

MacAulay, C.

Marcon, N. E.

V. X. Yang, S. J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(7), 879–890 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mascagni, D.

D. Mascagni, L. Corbellini, P. Urciuoli, and G. Di Matteo, “Endoluminal ultrasound for early detection of local recurrence of rectal cancer,” Br. J. Surg. 76(11), 1176–1180 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mashimo, H.

T. H. Tsai, O. O. Ahsen, H. C. Lee, K. Liang, M. Figueiredo, Y. K. Tao, M. G. Giacomelli, B. M. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, Q. Huang, A. E. Cable, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Endoscopic optical coherence angiography enables 3-dimensional visualization of subsurface microvasculature,” Gastroenterology 147(6), 1219–1221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mavadia, J.

McCarthy, J. R.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miao, Y.

Morse, T.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mujat, M.

Namati, E.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ntziachristos, V.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pahlevaninezhad, H.

Pitman, M.

Potsaid, B. M.

T. H. Tsai, O. O. Ahsen, H. C. Lee, K. Liang, M. Figueiredo, Y. K. Tao, M. G. Giacomelli, B. M. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, Q. Huang, A. E. Cable, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Endoscopic optical coherence angiography enables 3-dimensional visualization of subsurface microvasculature,” Gastroenterology 147(6), 1219–1221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qi, B.

V. X. Yang, S. J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(7), 879–890 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qu, Y.

Y. Li, J. Jing, E. Heidari, J. Zhu, Y. Qu, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography for Characterization of Atherosclerosis with a 1.7 Micron Swept-Source Laser,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 14525 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Li, J. Jing, Y. Qu, Y. Miao, B. Zhang, T. Ma, M. Yu, Q. Zhou, and Z. Chen, “Fully integrated optical coherence tomography, ultrasound, and indocyanine green-based fluorescence tri-modality system for intravascular imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2), 1036–1044 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reichelderfer, M.

J. M. Amos-Landgraf, L. N. Kwong, C. M. Kendziorski, M. Reichelderfer, J. Torrealba, J. Weichert, J. D. Haag, K. S. Chen, J. L. Waller, M. N. Gould, and W. F. Dove, “A target-selected Apc-mutant rat kindred enhances the modeling of familial human colon cancer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(10), 4036–4041 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reitsma, J. B.

J. C. van Rijn, J. B. Reitsma, J. Stoker, P. M. Bossuyt, S. J. van Deventer, and E. Dekker, “Polyp miss rate determined by tandem colonoscopy: a systematic review,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 101(2), 343–350 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rice, P. F.

A. M. Winkler, P. F. Rice, J. Weichsel, J. M. Watson, M. V. Backer, J. M. Backer, and J. K. Barton, “In vivo, dual-modality OCT/LIF imaging using a novel VEGF receptor-targeted NIR fluorescent probe in the AOM-treated mouse model,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 13(6), 1173–1182 (2011).
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Roberts, M. S.

H. Wang, X. Li, B. W. C. Tse, H. Yang, C. A. Thorling, Y. Liu, M. Touraud, J. B. Chouane, X. Liu, M. S. Roberts, and X. Liang, “Indocyanine green-incorporating nanoparticles for cancer theranostics,” Theranostics 8(5), 1227–1242 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roney, C. A.

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosenberg, M.

G. J. Ughi, H. Wang, E. Gerbaud, J. A. Gardecki, A. M. Fard, E. Hamidi, P. Vacas-Jacques, M. Rosenberg, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Clinical Characterization of Coronary Atherosclerosis With Dual-Modality OCT and Near-Infrared Autofluorescence Imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 9(11), 1304–1314 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saito, T.

S. Yoneya, T. Saito, Y. Komatsu, I. Koyama, K. Takahashi, and J. Duvoll-Young, “Binding properties of indocyanine green in human blood,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39(7), 1286–1290 (1998).
[PubMed]

Sakai, N.

K. Iseki, M. Tatsuta, H. Iishi, N. Sakai, H. Yano, and S. Ishiguro, “Effectiveness of the near-infrared electronic endoscope for diagnosis of the depth of involvement of gastric cancers,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 52(6), 755–762 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shaipanich, T.

Shen, R.

R. Shen, Y. Zhang, and T. Wang, “Indocyanine Green Fluorescence Angiography and the Incidence of Anastomotic Leak After Colorectal Resection for Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-analysis,” Dis. Colon Rectum 61(10), 1228–1234 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sherlock, P.

S. J. Winawer, S. D. Leidner, S. I. Hajdu, and P. Sherlock, “Colonoscopic biopsy and cytology in the diagnosis of colon cancer,” Cancer 42(6), 2849–2853 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shishkov, M.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shubochkin, R.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siegel, R. L.

F. Bray, J. Ferlay, I. Soerjomataram, R. L. Siegel, L. A. Torre, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 68(6), 394–424 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soerjomataram, I.

F. Bray, J. Ferlay, I. Soerjomataram, R. L. Siegel, L. A. Torre, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 68(6), 394–424 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stoker, J.

J. C. van Rijn, J. B. Reitsma, J. Stoker, P. M. Bossuyt, S. J. van Deventer, and E. Dekker, “Polyp miss rate determined by tandem colonoscopy: a systematic review,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 101(2), 343–350 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Summers, R. M.

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takahashi, K.

S. Yoneya, T. Saito, Y. Komatsu, I. Koyama, K. Takahashi, and J. Duvoll-Young, “Binding properties of indocyanine green in human blood,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39(7), 1286–1290 (1998).
[PubMed]

Tang, S. J.

V. X. Yang, S. J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(7), 879–890 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tao, Y. K.

T. H. Tsai, O. O. Ahsen, H. C. Lee, K. Liang, M. Figueiredo, Y. K. Tao, M. G. Giacomelli, B. M. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, Q. Huang, A. E. Cable, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Endoscopic optical coherence angiography enables 3-dimensional visualization of subsurface microvasculature,” Gastroenterology 147(6), 1219–1221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tatsuta, M.

K. Iseki, M. Tatsuta, H. Iishi, N. Sakai, H. Yano, and S. Ishiguro, “Effectiveness of the near-infrared electronic endoscope for diagnosis of the depth of involvement of gastric cancers,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 52(6), 755–762 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

G. J. Ughi, H. Wang, E. Gerbaud, J. A. Gardecki, A. M. Fard, E. Hamidi, P. Vacas-Jacques, M. Rosenberg, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Clinical Characterization of Coronary Atherosclerosis With Dual-Modality OCT and Near-Infrared Autofluorescence Imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 9(11), 1304–1314 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thorling, C. A.

H. Wang, X. Li, B. W. C. Tse, H. Yang, C. A. Thorling, Y. Liu, M. Touraud, J. B. Chouane, X. Liu, M. S. Roberts, and X. Liang, “Indocyanine green-incorporating nanoparticles for cancer theranostics,” Theranostics 8(5), 1227–1242 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Torre, L. A.

F. Bray, J. Ferlay, I. Soerjomataram, R. L. Siegel, L. A. Torre, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 68(6), 394–424 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Torrealba, J.

J. M. Amos-Landgraf, L. N. Kwong, C. M. Kendziorski, M. Reichelderfer, J. Torrealba, J. Weichert, J. D. Haag, K. S. Chen, J. L. Waller, M. N. Gould, and W. F. Dove, “A target-selected Apc-mutant rat kindred enhances the modeling of familial human colon cancer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(10), 4036–4041 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Touraud, M.

H. Wang, X. Li, B. W. C. Tse, H. Yang, C. A. Thorling, Y. Liu, M. Touraud, J. B. Chouane, X. Liu, M. S. Roberts, and X. Liang, “Indocyanine green-incorporating nanoparticles for cancer theranostics,” Theranostics 8(5), 1227–1242 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsai, T. H.

T. H. Tsai, O. O. Ahsen, H. C. Lee, K. Liang, M. Figueiredo, Y. K. Tao, M. G. Giacomelli, B. M. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, Q. Huang, A. E. Cable, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Endoscopic optical coherence angiography enables 3-dimensional visualization of subsurface microvasculature,” Gastroenterology 147(6), 1219–1221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tse, B. W. C.

H. Wang, X. Li, B. W. C. Tse, H. Yang, C. A. Thorling, Y. Liu, M. Touraud, J. B. Chouane, X. Liu, M. S. Roberts, and X. Liang, “Indocyanine green-incorporating nanoparticles for cancer theranostics,” Theranostics 8(5), 1227–1242 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tumlinson, A. R.

Ughi, G. J.

G. J. Ughi, H. Wang, E. Gerbaud, J. A. Gardecki, A. M. Fard, E. Hamidi, P. Vacas-Jacques, M. Rosenberg, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Clinical Characterization of Coronary Atherosclerosis With Dual-Modality OCT and Near-Infrared Autofluorescence Imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 9(11), 1304–1314 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Urciuoli, P.

D. Mascagni, L. Corbellini, P. Urciuoli, and G. Di Matteo, “Endoluminal ultrasound for early detection of local recurrence of rectal cancer,” Br. J. Surg. 76(11), 1176–1180 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Utzinger, U.

Vacas-Jacques, P.

G. J. Ughi, H. Wang, E. Gerbaud, J. A. Gardecki, A. M. Fard, E. Hamidi, P. Vacas-Jacques, M. Rosenberg, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Clinical Characterization of Coronary Atherosclerosis With Dual-Modality OCT and Near-Infrared Autofluorescence Imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 9(11), 1304–1314 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Deventer, S. J.

J. C. van Rijn, J. B. Reitsma, J. Stoker, P. M. Bossuyt, S. J. van Deventer, and E. Dekker, “Polyp miss rate determined by tandem colonoscopy: a systematic review,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 101(2), 343–350 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Rijn, J. C.

J. C. van Rijn, J. B. Reitsma, J. Stoker, P. M. Bossuyt, S. J. van Deventer, and E. Dekker, “Polyp miss rate determined by tandem colonoscopy: a systematic review,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 101(2), 343–350 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vitkin, I. A.

V. X. Yang, S. J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(7), 879–890 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Waller, J. L.

J. M. Amos-Landgraf, L. N. Kwong, C. M. Kendziorski, M. Reichelderfer, J. Torrealba, J. Weichert, J. D. Haag, K. S. Chen, J. L. Waller, M. N. Gould, and W. F. Dove, “A target-selected Apc-mutant rat kindred enhances the modeling of familial human colon cancer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(10), 4036–4041 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, X. Li, B. W. C. Tse, H. Yang, C. A. Thorling, Y. Liu, M. Touraud, J. B. Chouane, X. Liu, M. S. Roberts, and X. Liang, “Indocyanine green-incorporating nanoparticles for cancer theranostics,” Theranostics 8(5), 1227–1242 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Ughi, H. Wang, E. Gerbaud, J. A. Gardecki, A. M. Fard, E. Hamidi, P. Vacas-Jacques, M. Rosenberg, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Clinical Characterization of Coronary Atherosclerosis With Dual-Modality OCT and Near-Infrared Autofluorescence Imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 9(11), 1304–1314 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, T.

R. Shen, Y. Zhang, and T. Wang, “Indocyanine Green Fluorescence Angiography and the Incidence of Anastomotic Leak After Colorectal Resection for Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-analysis,” Dis. Colon Rectum 61(10), 1228–1234 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watson, J. M.

A. M. Winkler, P. F. Rice, J. Weichsel, J. M. Watson, M. V. Backer, J. M. Backer, and J. K. Barton, “In vivo, dual-modality OCT/LIF imaging using a novel VEGF receptor-targeted NIR fluorescent probe in the AOM-treated mouse model,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 13(6), 1173–1182 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weichert, J.

J. M. Amos-Landgraf, L. N. Kwong, C. M. Kendziorski, M. Reichelderfer, J. Torrealba, J. Weichert, J. D. Haag, K. S. Chen, J. L. Waller, M. N. Gould, and W. F. Dove, “A target-selected Apc-mutant rat kindred enhances the modeling of familial human colon cancer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(10), 4036–4041 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weichsel, J.

A. M. Winkler, P. F. Rice, J. Weichsel, J. M. Watson, M. V. Backer, J. M. Backer, and J. K. Barton, “In vivo, dual-modality OCT/LIF imaging using a novel VEGF receptor-targeted NIR fluorescent probe in the AOM-treated mouse model,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 13(6), 1173–1182 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wierwille, J.

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

V. X. Yang, S. J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(7), 879–890 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Winawer, S. J.

S. J. Winawer, S. D. Leidner, S. I. Hajdu, and P. Sherlock, “Colonoscopic biopsy and cytology in the diagnosis of colon cancer,” Cancer 42(6), 2849–2853 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Winkler, A. M.

A. M. Winkler, P. F. Rice, J. Weichsel, J. M. Watson, M. V. Backer, J. M. Backer, and J. K. Barton, “In vivo, dual-modality OCT/LIF imaging using a novel VEGF receptor-targeted NIR fluorescent probe in the AOM-treated mouse model,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 13(6), 1173–1182 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xi, J.

Xu, B.

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, H.

H. Wang, X. Li, B. W. C. Tse, H. Yang, C. A. Thorling, Y. Liu, M. Touraud, J. B. Chouane, X. Liu, M. S. Roberts, and X. Liang, “Indocyanine green-incorporating nanoparticles for cancer theranostics,” Theranostics 8(5), 1227–1242 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Q.

Yang, V. X.

V. X. Yang, S. J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(7), 879–890 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yano, H.

K. Iseki, M. Tatsuta, H. Iishi, N. Sakai, H. Yano, and S. Ishiguro, “Effectiveness of the near-infrared electronic endoscope for diagnosis of the depth of involvement of gastric cancers,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 52(6), 755–762 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoneya, S.

S. Yoneya, T. Saito, Y. Komatsu, I. Koyama, K. Takahashi, and J. Duvoll-Young, “Binding properties of indocyanine green in human blood,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39(7), 1286–1290 (1998).
[PubMed]

Yoo, H.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, J.

Yu, M.

Yuan, S.

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, B.

Zhang, Y.

R. Shen, Y. Zhang, and T. Wang, “Indocyanine Green Fluorescence Angiography and the Incidence of Anastomotic Leak After Colorectal Resection for Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-analysis,” Dis. Colon Rectum 61(10), 1228–1234 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Q.

Zhu, J.

Y. Li, J. Jing, E. Heidari, J. Zhu, Y. Qu, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography for Characterization of Atherosclerosis with a 1.7 Micron Swept-Source Laser,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 14525 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Gastroenterol. (2)

J. C. van Rijn, J. B. Reitsma, J. Stoker, P. M. Bossuyt, S. J. van Deventer, and E. Dekker, “Polyp miss rate determined by tandem colonoscopy: a systematic review,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 101(2), 343–350 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. C. Harewood, “Assessment of clinical impact of endoscopic ultrasound on rectal cancer,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 99(4), 623–627 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biomed. Opt. Express (3)

Br. J. Surg. (1)

D. Mascagni, L. Corbellini, P. Urciuoli, and G. Di Matteo, “Endoluminal ultrasound for early detection of local recurrence of rectal cancer,” Br. J. Surg. 76(11), 1176–1180 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

CA Cancer J. Clin. (1)

F. Bray, J. Ferlay, I. Soerjomataram, R. L. Siegel, L. A. Torre, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 68(6), 394–424 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cancer (1)

S. J. Winawer, S. D. Leidner, S. I. Hajdu, and P. Sherlock, “Colonoscopic biopsy and cytology in the diagnosis of colon cancer,” Cancer 42(6), 2849–2853 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cardiovasc. Interv. Ther. (1)

T. Kubo and T. Akasaka, “Optical coherence tomography imaging: current status and future perspectives : Current and future developments in OCT,” Cardiovasc. Interv. Ther. 25(1), 2–10 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dis. Colon Rectum (1)

R. Shen, Y. Zhang, and T. Wang, “Indocyanine Green Fluorescence Angiography and the Incidence of Anastomotic Leak After Colorectal Resection for Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-analysis,” Dis. Colon Rectum 61(10), 1228–1234 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gastroenterol. Res. (1)

A. Gado, B. Ebeid, A. Abdelmohsen, and A. Axon, “Improving the Yield of Histological Sampling in Patients With Suspected Colorectal Cancer During Colonoscopy by Introducing a Colonoscopy Quality Assurance Program,” Gastroenterol. Res. 4(4), 157–161 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gastroenterology (1)

T. H. Tsai, O. O. Ahsen, H. C. Lee, K. Liang, M. Figueiredo, Y. K. Tao, M. G. Giacomelli, B. M. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, Q. Huang, A. E. Cable, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Endoscopic optical coherence angiography enables 3-dimensional visualization of subsurface microvasculature,” Gastroenterology 147(6), 1219–1221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gastrointest. Endosc. (2)

K. Iseki, M. Tatsuta, H. Iishi, N. Sakai, H. Yano, and S. Ishiguro, “Effectiveness of the near-infrared electronic endoscope for diagnosis of the depth of involvement of gastric cancers,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 52(6), 755–762 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. X. Yang, S. J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(7), 879–890 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

S. Yoneya, T. Saito, Y. Komatsu, I. Koyama, K. Takahashi, and J. Duvoll-Young, “Binding properties of indocyanine green in human blood,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39(7), 1286–1290 (1998).
[PubMed]

J. Surg. Oncol. (1)

J. C. DeLong, J. M. Chakedis, A. Hosseini, K. J. Kelly, S. Horgan, and M. Bouvet, “Indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence-guided laparoscopic adrenalectomy,” J. Surg. Oncol. 112(6), 650–653 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging (1)

G. J. Ughi, H. Wang, E. Gerbaud, J. A. Gardecki, A. M. Fard, E. Hamidi, P. Vacas-Jacques, M. Rosenberg, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Clinical Characterization of Coronary Atherosclerosis With Dual-Modality OCT and Near-Infrared Autofluorescence Imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 9(11), 1304–1314 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mol. Imaging Biol. (1)

A. M. Winkler, P. F. Rice, J. Weichsel, J. M. Watson, M. V. Backer, J. M. Backer, and J. K. Barton, “In vivo, dual-modality OCT/LIF imaging using a novel VEGF receptor-targeted NIR fluorescent probe in the AOM-treated mouse model,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 13(6), 1173–1182 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Med. (1)

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

J. M. Amos-Landgraf, L. N. Kwong, C. M. Kendziorski, M. Reichelderfer, J. Torrealba, J. Weichert, J. D. Haag, K. S. Chen, J. L. Waller, M. N. Gould, and W. F. Dove, “A target-selected Apc-mutant rat kindred enhances the modeling of familial human colon cancer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(10), 4036–4041 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

Y. Li, J. Jing, E. Heidari, J. Zhu, Y. Qu, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography for Characterization of Atherosclerosis with a 1.7 Micron Swept-Source Laser,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 14525 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Theranostics (1)

H. Wang, X. Li, B. W. C. Tse, H. Yang, C. A. Thorling, Y. Liu, M. Touraud, J. B. Chouane, X. Liu, M. S. Roberts, and X. Liang, “Indocyanine green-incorporating nanoparticles for cancer theranostics,” Theranostics 8(5), 1227–1242 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

Y. Li, Z. K. Zhu, J. C. Jing, J. J. Chen, A. E. Heidari, Y. M. He, J. Zhu, T. Ma, M. Y. Yu, Q. F. Zhou, and Z. P. Chen, “High-Speed Integrated Endoscopic Photoacoustic and Ultrasound Imaging System,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 25, 1 (2019).
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Y. Li, R. Lin, C. Liu, J. Chen, H. Liu, R. Zheng, X. Gong, and L. Song, “In vivo photoacoustic/ultrasonic dual‐modality endoscopy with a miniaturized full field‐of‐view catheter,” J. Biophoton. 11, e201800034 (2018).
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T. S. Kirtane and M. S. Wagh, “Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT): Advances in Gastrointestinal Imaging,” Gastroent. Res. Pract. 2014, 376367 (2014).
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B. W. Stewart and C. Wild, International Agency for Research on Cancer, and World Health Organization, World cancer report2014, pp. xiv, 630 pages.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Overall design of endoscopic multimodality OCT and NIR fluorescence system. (b) Multimodality imaging probe. WDM: wavelength division multiplexer. PMT: photomultiplier tube. DCF coupler: double clad fiber coupler. OCT: optical coherence tomography. CW: continuous wavelength. GRIN: gradient index.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Unfolded NIR fluorescence images of rectal wall with different time points. (a) NIR fluorescence image at week 1. (b) NIR fluorescence image at week 4. (c) NIR fluorescence image at week 8. (d) Photo of the excised rectum. Scale bar: 1mm
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Combined OCT and NIR fluorescence B-scan images of colorectal wall with different time points: (I) week 1, (II) week 4, (III) week 8. Green dashed boxes: abnormal lesions. Yellow arrows: small gaps between different layers.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Combined OCT and NIR fluorescence images and en face NIR fluorescence images of colorectal wall. (a)-(f) Combined OCT and NIR fluorescence images at different longitudinal positions. (g) En face NIR fluorescence images.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 3D OCT and NIR fluorescence images. (a)-(f) En face 3D images of colorectal wall with different views (field of view: 0°-360°). (g)-(h) Volumetric 3D images of colorectal wall (field of view: 0°-250°).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Normal rectum. (a) The combined OCT and NIR fluorescence image. (b) Enlarged view of the dashed box in (a). (c) Histology. M: mucosa; SM: submucosa; MP: muscularis propria.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Hyperplastic polyp. (a) The combined OCT and NIR fluorescence image. (b) Enlarged view of the dashed box in (a). (c) Histology. HP: hyperplastic polyp.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Adenomatous polyp. (a) The combined OCT and NIR fluorescence image. (b) Enlarged view of the dashed box in (a). (c) Histology. AP: adenomatous polyp.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Adenocarcinoma. (a) The combined OCT and NIR fluorescence image. (b) Enlarged view of the dashed box in (a). (c) Histology.

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