Abstract

We report a novel design and operation of a highly integrated miniature handheld OCT probe, with high-speed angiography function that can be used in clinical settings for young children and infants, providing rapid, non-invasive structural and angiographic imaging of the retina and choroid. The imaging system is operated at 200 kHz, with 3D OCT and OCTA scan time of 0.8 and 3.2 seconds, respectively, and the scanning angle on the pupil is ± 36°, covering the full perifoveal region. Operator assisting features of the direct-view iris camera and on-probe display are integrated into the hand-held probe, and the fixation target can display animations to attract the attention of young subjects. Compared to conventional OCT systems, the high-speed hand-held OCT system significantly improves the operator’s experience and scanning efficiency, which is important for imaging infants. Imaging results indicate a significant reduction in total time consumption in pediatric ophthalmic imaging sessions, as well as the image quality of OCT angiography.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (2)

2017 (5)

J. Yang, L. Liu, J. P. Campbell, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Handheld optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(4), 2287–2300 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Song, J. Xu, S. Men, T. T. Shen, and R. K. Wang, “Robust numerical phase stabilization for long-range swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biophotonics 10(11), 1398–1410 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Campbell, E. Nudleman, J. Yang, O. Tan, R. V. P. Chan, M. F. Chiang, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Handheld Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Ultra-Wide-Field Optical Coherence Tomography in Retinopathy of Prematurity,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 135(9), 977–981 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. Chen and R. K. Wang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Based Angiography [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2), 1056–1082 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. H. Kashani, C.-L. Chen, J. K. Gahm, F. Zheng, G. M. Richter, P. J. Rosenfeld, Y. Shi, and R. K. Wang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography: A comprehensive review of current methods and clinical applications,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 60, 66–100 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

N. Hussain, A. Hussain, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Int. J. Retina Vitreous 2(Oct), 27–36 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, J. Wang, and R. K. Wang, “Highly efficient eigen decomposition based statistical optical microangiography,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 6(5), 557–563 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

A. Mallipatna, A. Vinekar, C. Jayadev, S. Dabir, M. Sivakumar, N. Krishnan, P. Mehta, T. Berendschot, and N. K. Yadav, “The use of handheld spectral domain optical coherence tomography in pediatric ophthalmology practice: Our experience of 975 infants and children,” Indian J. Ophthalmol. 63(7), 586–593 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Zhang, Q. Zhang, C.-L. Chen, and R. K. Wang, “Methods and Algorithms for Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Angiography: A Review and Comparison,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(10), 100901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

2013 (1)

R. S. Maldonado and C. A. Toth, “Optical coherence tomography in retinopathy of prematurity: looking beyond the vessels,” Clin. Perinatol. 40(2), 271–296 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

S. Yousefi, Z. Zhi, and R. K. Wang, “Eigendecomposition-based clutter filtering technique for optical microangiography,” IIEEE T Bio-Med Eng 58(8), 2316–2323 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. C. Lee, R. S. Maldonado, N. Sarin, R. V. O’Connell, D. K. Wallace, S. F. Freedman, M. Cotten, and C. A. Toth, “Macular features from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to indirect ophthalmoscopy in retinopathy of prematurity,” Retina 31(8), 1470–1482 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Vinekar, K. Avadhani, M. Sivakumar, P. Mahendradas, M. Kurian, S. Braganza, R. Shetty, and B. K. Shetty, “Understanding clinically undetected macular changes in early retinopathy of prematurity on spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5183–5188 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

R. H. Muni, R. P. Kohly, A. C. Charonis, and T. C. Lee, “Retinoschisis detected with handheld spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in neonates with advanced retinopathy of prematurity,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 128(1), 57–62 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. H. Muni, R. P. Kohly, E. H. Sohn, and T. C. Lee, “Hand-held spectral domain optical coherence tomography finding in shaken-baby syndrome,” Retina 30(4Suppl), S45–S50 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Maldonado, J. A. Izatt, N. Sarin, D. K. Wallace, S. Freedman, C. M. Cotten, and C. A. Toth, “Optimizing hand-held spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging for neonates, infants, and children,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2678–2685 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

S. H. Chavala, S. Farsiu, R. Maldonado, D. K. Wallace, S. F. Freedman, and C. A. Toth, “Insights into advanced retinopathy of prematurity using handheld spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging,” Ophthalmology 116(12), 2448–2456 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yokoi, M. Hiraoka, M. Miyamoto, T. Yokoi, Y. Kobayashi, S. Nishina, and N. Azuma, “Vascular abnormalities in aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity detected by fluorescein angiography,” Ophthalmology 116(7), 1377–1382 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Lorenz, K. Spasovska, H. Elflein, and N. Schneider, “Wide-field digital imaging based telemedicine for screening for acute retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Six-year results of a multicentre field study,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 247(9), 1251–1262 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Lad, T. Hernandez-Boussard, J. M. Morton, and D. M. Moshfeghi, “Incidence of retinopathy of prematurity in the United States: 1997 through 2005,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 148(3), 451–458 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

C. Gilbert, “Retinopathy of prematurity: a global perspective of the epidemics, population of babies at risk and implications for control,” Early Hum. Dev. 84(2), 77–82 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

C. Wu, R. A. Petersen, and D. K. VanderVeen, “RetCam imaging for retinopathy of prematurity screening,” J. AAPOS 10(2), 107–111 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Y. Ng, B. Lanigan, and M. O’Keefe, “Fundus fluorescein angiography in the screening for and management of retinopathy of prematurity,” J. Pediatr. Ophthalmol. Strabismus 43(2), 85–90 (2006).
[PubMed]

2005 (4)

P. H. Tomlins and R. K. Wang, “Theory, Developments and Applications of Optical Coherence Tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2519–2535 (2005).
[Crossref]

International Committee for the Classification of Retinopathy of Prematurity, “The international classification of retinopathy of prematurity revisited,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 123(7), 991–999 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Gilbert, A. Fielder, L. Gordillo, G. Quinn, R. Semiglia, P. Visintin, and A. Zin, “Characteristics of infants with severe retinopathy of prematurity in countries with low, moderate, and high levels of development: implications for screening programs,” Pediatrics 115(5), e518–e525 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. V. Good, R. J. Hardy, V. Dobson, E. A. Palmer, D. L. Phelps, M. Quintos, B. Tung, and Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity Cooperative Group, “The incidence and course of retinopathy of prematurity: findings from the early treatment for retinopathy of prematurity study,” Pediatrics 116(1), 15–23 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

2002 (1)

K. G. Yen, D. Hess, B. Burke, R. A. Johnson, W. J. Feuer, and J. T. Flynn, “Telephotoscreening to detect retinopathy of prematurity: preliminary study of the optimum time to employ digital fundus camera imaging to detect ROP,” J. AAPOS 6(2), 64–70 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

R. E. Carr, “Physiology of the Human Eye and Visual System,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 89(2), 314 (1980).
[Crossref]

Adams, G. G.

G. G. Adams, B. J. Clark, S. Fang, and M. Hill, “Retinal haemorrhages in an infant following RetCam screening for retinopathy of prematurity,” Eye (Lond.) 18(6), 652–653 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Athwal, A.

Avadhani, K.

A. Vinekar, K. Avadhani, M. Sivakumar, P. Mahendradas, M. Kurian, S. Braganza, R. Shetty, and B. K. Shetty, “Understanding clinically undetected macular changes in early retinopathy of prematurity on spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5183–5188 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azuma, N.

T. Yokoi, M. Hiraoka, M. Miyamoto, T. Yokoi, Y. Kobayashi, S. Nishina, and N. Azuma, “Vascular abnormalities in aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity detected by fluorescein angiography,” Ophthalmology 116(7), 1377–1382 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bailey, S. T.

N. Hussain, A. Hussain, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Int. J. Retina Vitreous 2(Oct), 27–36 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berendschot, T.

A. Mallipatna, A. Vinekar, C. Jayadev, S. Dabir, M. Sivakumar, N. Krishnan, P. Mehta, T. Berendschot, and N. K. Yadav, “The use of handheld spectral domain optical coherence tomography in pediatric ophthalmology practice: Our experience of 975 infants and children,” Indian J. Ophthalmol. 63(7), 586–593 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Braganza, S.

A. Vinekar, K. Avadhani, M. Sivakumar, P. Mahendradas, M. Kurian, S. Braganza, R. Shetty, and B. K. Shetty, “Understanding clinically undetected macular changes in early retinopathy of prematurity on spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5183–5188 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burke, B.

K. G. Yen, D. Hess, B. Burke, R. A. Johnson, W. J. Feuer, and J. T. Flynn, “Telephotoscreening to detect retinopathy of prematurity: preliminary study of the optimum time to employ digital fundus camera imaging to detect ROP,” J. AAPOS 6(2), 64–70 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cable, A. E.

Campbell, J. P.

J. Yang, L. Liu, J. P. Campbell, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Handheld optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(4), 2287–2300 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Campbell, E. Nudleman, J. Yang, O. Tan, R. V. P. Chan, M. F. Chiang, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Handheld Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Ultra-Wide-Field Optical Coherence Tomography in Retinopathy of Prematurity,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 135(9), 977–981 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carr, R. E.

R. E. Carr, “Physiology of the Human Eye and Visual System,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 89(2), 314 (1980).
[Crossref]

Chan, R. V. P.

J. P. Campbell, E. Nudleman, J. Yang, O. Tan, R. V. P. Chan, M. F. Chiang, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Handheld Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Ultra-Wide-Field Optical Coherence Tomography in Retinopathy of Prematurity,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 135(9), 977–981 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chao, J. R.

X. Yin, J. R. Chao, and R. K. Wang, “User-guided segmentation for volumetric retinal optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 086020 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Charonis, A. C.

R. H. Muni, R. P. Kohly, A. C. Charonis, and T. C. Lee, “Retinoschisis detected with handheld spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in neonates with advanced retinopathy of prematurity,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 128(1), 57–62 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chavala, S. H.

S. H. Chavala, S. Farsiu, R. Maldonado, D. K. Wallace, S. F. Freedman, and C. A. Toth, “Insights into advanced retinopathy of prematurity using handheld spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging,” Ophthalmology 116(12), 2448–2456 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C. L.

Chen, C.-L.

A. H. Kashani, C.-L. Chen, J. K. Gahm, F. Zheng, G. M. Richter, P. J. Rosenfeld, Y. Shi, and R. K. Wang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography: A comprehensive review of current methods and clinical applications,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 60, 66–100 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Zhang, Q. Zhang, C.-L. Chen, and R. K. Wang, “Methods and Algorithms for Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Angiography: A Review and Comparison,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(10), 100901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiang, M. F.

J. P. Campbell, E. Nudleman, J. Yang, O. Tan, R. V. P. Chan, M. F. Chiang, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Handheld Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Ultra-Wide-Field Optical Coherence Tomography in Retinopathy of Prematurity,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 135(9), 977–981 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, W.

Clark, B. J.

G. G. Adams, B. J. Clark, S. Fang, and M. Hill, “Retinal haemorrhages in an infant following RetCam screening for retinopathy of prematurity,” Eye (Lond.) 18(6), 652–653 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cotten, C. M.

R. S. Maldonado, J. A. Izatt, N. Sarin, D. K. Wallace, S. Freedman, C. M. Cotten, and C. A. Toth, “Optimizing hand-held spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging for neonates, infants, and children,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2678–2685 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cotten, M.

A. C. Lee, R. S. Maldonado, N. Sarin, R. V. O’Connell, D. K. Wallace, S. F. Freedman, M. Cotten, and C. A. Toth, “Macular features from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to indirect ophthalmoscopy in retinopathy of prematurity,” Retina 31(8), 1470–1482 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dabir, S.

A. Mallipatna, A. Vinekar, C. Jayadev, S. Dabir, M. Sivakumar, N. Krishnan, P. Mehta, T. Berendschot, and N. K. Yadav, “The use of handheld spectral domain optical coherence tomography in pediatric ophthalmology practice: Our experience of 975 infants and children,” Indian J. Ophthalmol. 63(7), 586–593 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dobson, V.

W. V. Good, R. J. Hardy, V. Dobson, E. A. Palmer, D. L. Phelps, M. Quintos, B. Tung, and Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity Cooperative Group, “The incidence and course of retinopathy of prematurity: findings from the early treatment for retinopathy of prematurity study,” Pediatrics 116(1), 15–23 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duker, J.

Duker, J. S.

Elflein, H.

B. Lorenz, K. Spasovska, H. Elflein, and N. Schneider, “Wide-field digital imaging based telemedicine for screening for acute retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Six-year results of a multicentre field study,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 247(9), 1251–1262 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

et,

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, S.

G. G. Adams, B. J. Clark, S. Fang, and M. Hill, “Retinal haemorrhages in an infant following RetCam screening for retinopathy of prematurity,” Eye (Lond.) 18(6), 652–653 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farsiu, S.

S. H. Chavala, S. Farsiu, R. Maldonado, D. K. Wallace, S. F. Freedman, and C. A. Toth, “Insights into advanced retinopathy of prematurity using handheld spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging,” Ophthalmology 116(12), 2448–2456 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feuer, W. J.

K. G. Yen, D. Hess, B. Burke, R. A. Johnson, W. J. Feuer, and J. T. Flynn, “Telephotoscreening to detect retinopathy of prematurity: preliminary study of the optimum time to employ digital fundus camera imaging to detect ROP,” J. AAPOS 6(2), 64–70 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fielder, A.

C. Gilbert, A. Fielder, L. Gordillo, G. Quinn, R. Semiglia, P. Visintin, and A. Zin, “Characteristics of infants with severe retinopathy of prematurity in countries with low, moderate, and high levels of development: implications for screening programs,” Pediatrics 115(5), e518–e525 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fierson, W. M.

W. M. Fierson, “Screening examination of Premature Infants for retinopathy of prematurity,” Pediatrics 142(6), e20183061 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flynn, J. T.

K. G. Yen, D. Hess, B. Burke, R. A. Johnson, W. J. Feuer, and J. T. Flynn, “Telephotoscreening to detect retinopathy of prematurity: preliminary study of the optimum time to employ digital fundus camera imaging to detect ROP,” J. AAPOS 6(2), 64–70 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freedman, S.

R. S. Maldonado, J. A. Izatt, N. Sarin, D. K. Wallace, S. Freedman, C. M. Cotten, and C. A. Toth, “Optimizing hand-held spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging for neonates, infants, and children,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2678–2685 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freedman, S. F.

A. C. Lee, R. S. Maldonado, N. Sarin, R. V. O’Connell, D. K. Wallace, S. F. Freedman, M. Cotten, and C. A. Toth, “Macular features from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to indirect ophthalmoscopy in retinopathy of prematurity,” Retina 31(8), 1470–1482 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Chavala, S. Farsiu, R. Maldonado, D. K. Wallace, S. F. Freedman, and C. A. Toth, “Insights into advanced retinopathy of prematurity using handheld spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging,” Ophthalmology 116(12), 2448–2456 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gahm, J. K.

A. H. Kashani, C.-L. Chen, J. K. Gahm, F. Zheng, G. M. Richter, P. J. Rosenfeld, Y. Shi, and R. K. Wang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography: A comprehensive review of current methods and clinical applications,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 60, 66–100 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gilbert, C.

C. Gilbert, “Retinopathy of prematurity: a global perspective of the epidemics, population of babies at risk and implications for control,” Early Hum. Dev. 84(2), 77–82 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Gilbert, A. Fielder, L. Gordillo, G. Quinn, R. Semiglia, P. Visintin, and A. Zin, “Characteristics of infants with severe retinopathy of prematurity in countries with low, moderate, and high levels of development: implications for screening programs,” Pediatrics 115(5), e518–e525 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Good, W. V.

W. V. Good, R. J. Hardy, V. Dobson, E. A. Palmer, D. L. Phelps, M. Quintos, B. Tung, and Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity Cooperative Group, “The incidence and course of retinopathy of prematurity: findings from the early treatment for retinopathy of prematurity study,” Pediatrics 116(1), 15–23 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gordillo, L.

C. Gilbert, A. Fielder, L. Gordillo, G. Quinn, R. Semiglia, P. Visintin, and A. Zin, “Characteristics of infants with severe retinopathy of prematurity in countries with low, moderate, and high levels of development: implications for screening programs,” Pediatrics 115(5), e518–e525 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hardy, R. J.

W. V. Good, R. J. Hardy, V. Dobson, E. A. Palmer, D. L. Phelps, M. Quintos, B. Tung, and Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity Cooperative Group, “The incidence and course of retinopathy of prematurity: findings from the early treatment for retinopathy of prematurity study,” Pediatrics 116(1), 15–23 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heisler, M.

Hernandez-Boussard, T.

E. M. Lad, T. Hernandez-Boussard, J. M. Morton, and D. M. Moshfeghi, “Incidence of retinopathy of prematurity in the United States: 1997 through 2005,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 148(3), 451–458 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hess, D.

K. G. Yen, D. Hess, B. Burke, R. A. Johnson, W. J. Feuer, and J. T. Flynn, “Telephotoscreening to detect retinopathy of prematurity: preliminary study of the optimum time to employ digital fundus camera imaging to detect ROP,” J. AAPOS 6(2), 64–70 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hill, M.

G. G. Adams, B. J. Clark, S. Fang, and M. Hill, “Retinal haemorrhages in an infant following RetCam screening for retinopathy of prematurity,” Eye (Lond.) 18(6), 652–653 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hiraoka, M.

T. Yokoi, M. Hiraoka, M. Miyamoto, T. Yokoi, Y. Kobayashi, S. Nishina, and N. Azuma, “Vascular abnormalities in aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity detected by fluorescein angiography,” Ophthalmology 116(7), 1377–1382 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hornegger, J.

Huang, D.

J. Yang, L. Liu, J. P. Campbell, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Handheld optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(4), 2287–2300 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Campbell, E. Nudleman, J. Yang, O. Tan, R. V. P. Chan, M. F. Chiang, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Handheld Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Ultra-Wide-Field Optical Coherence Tomography in Retinopathy of Prematurity,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 135(9), 977–981 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Hussain, A. Hussain, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Int. J. Retina Vitreous 2(Oct), 27–36 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hussain, A.

N. Hussain, A. Hussain, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Int. J. Retina Vitreous 2(Oct), 27–36 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hussain, N.

N. Hussain, A. Hussain, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Int. J. Retina Vitreous 2(Oct), 27–36 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwang, T. S.

N. Hussain, A. Hussain, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Int. J. Retina Vitreous 2(Oct), 27–36 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

R. S. Maldonado, J. A. Izatt, N. Sarin, D. K. Wallace, S. Freedman, C. M. Cotten, and C. A. Toth, “Optimizing hand-held spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging for neonates, infants, and children,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2678–2685 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jayadev, C.

A. Mallipatna, A. Vinekar, C. Jayadev, S. Dabir, M. Sivakumar, N. Krishnan, P. Mehta, T. Berendschot, and N. K. Yadav, “The use of handheld spectral domain optical coherence tomography in pediatric ophthalmology practice: Our experience of 975 infants and children,” Indian J. Ophthalmol. 63(7), 586–593 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jayaraman, V.

Jian, Y.

Johnson, R. A.

K. G. Yen, D. Hess, B. Burke, R. A. Johnson, W. J. Feuer, and J. T. Flynn, “Telephotoscreening to detect retinopathy of prematurity: preliminary study of the optimum time to employ digital fundus camera imaging to detect ROP,” J. AAPOS 6(2), 64–70 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ju, M. J.

Kashani, A. H.

A. H. Kashani, C.-L. Chen, J. K. Gahm, F. Zheng, G. M. Richter, P. J. Rosenfeld, Y. Shi, and R. K. Wang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography: A comprehensive review of current methods and clinical applications,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 60, 66–100 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ko, T.

Kobayashi, Y.

T. Yokoi, M. Hiraoka, M. Miyamoto, T. Yokoi, Y. Kobayashi, S. Nishina, and N. Azuma, “Vascular abnormalities in aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity detected by fluorescein angiography,” Ophthalmology 116(7), 1377–1382 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kohly, R. P.

R. H. Muni, R. P. Kohly, E. H. Sohn, and T. C. Lee, “Hand-held spectral domain optical coherence tomography finding in shaken-baby syndrome,” Retina 30(4Suppl), S45–S50 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. H. Muni, R. P. Kohly, A. C. Charonis, and T. C. Lee, “Retinoschisis detected with handheld spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in neonates with advanced retinopathy of prematurity,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 128(1), 57–62 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kowalczyk, A.

Kraus, M. F.

Krishnan, N.

A. Mallipatna, A. Vinekar, C. Jayadev, S. Dabir, M. Sivakumar, N. Krishnan, P. Mehta, T. Berendschot, and N. K. Yadav, “The use of handheld spectral domain optical coherence tomography in pediatric ophthalmology practice: Our experience of 975 infants and children,” Indian J. Ophthalmol. 63(7), 586–593 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kurian, M.

A. Vinekar, K. Avadhani, M. Sivakumar, P. Mahendradas, M. Kurian, S. Braganza, R. Shetty, and B. K. Shetty, “Understanding clinically undetected macular changes in early retinopathy of prematurity on spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5183–5188 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lad, E. M.

E. M. Lad, T. Hernandez-Boussard, J. M. Morton, and D. M. Moshfeghi, “Incidence of retinopathy of prematurity in the United States: 1997 through 2005,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 148(3), 451–458 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lanigan, B.

E. Y. Ng, B. Lanigan, and M. O’Keefe, “Fundus fluorescein angiography in the screening for and management of retinopathy of prematurity,” J. Pediatr. Ophthalmol. Strabismus 43(2), 85–90 (2006).
[PubMed]

Lee, A. C.

A. C. Lee, R. S. Maldonado, N. Sarin, R. V. O’Connell, D. K. Wallace, S. F. Freedman, M. Cotten, and C. A. Toth, “Macular features from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to indirect ophthalmoscopy in retinopathy of prematurity,” Retina 31(8), 1470–1482 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, T. C.

R. H. Muni, R. P. Kohly, A. C. Charonis, and T. C. Lee, “Retinoschisis detected with handheld spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in neonates with advanced retinopathy of prematurity,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 128(1), 57–62 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. H. Muni, R. P. Kohly, E. H. Sohn, and T. C. Lee, “Hand-held spectral domain optical coherence tomography finding in shaken-baby syndrome,” Retina 30(4Suppl), S45–S50 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, G.

J. P. Campbell, E. Nudleman, J. Yang, O. Tan, R. V. P. Chan, M. F. Chiang, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Handheld Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Ultra-Wide-Field Optical Coherence Tomography in Retinopathy of Prematurity,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 135(9), 977–981 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yang, L. Liu, J. P. Campbell, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Handheld optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(4), 2287–2300 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Hussain, A. Hussain, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Int. J. Retina Vitreous 2(Oct), 27–36 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J. J.

Liu, L.

Lorenz, B.

B. Lorenz, K. Spasovska, H. Elflein, and N. Schneider, “Wide-field digital imaging based telemedicine for screening for acute retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Six-year results of a multicentre field study,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 247(9), 1251–1262 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, C. D.

Mahendradas, P.

A. Vinekar, K. Avadhani, M. Sivakumar, P. Mahendradas, M. Kurian, S. Braganza, R. Shetty, and B. K. Shetty, “Understanding clinically undetected macular changes in early retinopathy of prematurity on spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5183–5188 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maldonado, R.

S. H. Chavala, S. Farsiu, R. Maldonado, D. K. Wallace, S. F. Freedman, and C. A. Toth, “Insights into advanced retinopathy of prematurity using handheld spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging,” Ophthalmology 116(12), 2448–2456 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maldonado, R. S.

R. S. Maldonado and C. A. Toth, “Optical coherence tomography in retinopathy of prematurity: looking beyond the vessels,” Clin. Perinatol. 40(2), 271–296 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. Lee, R. S. Maldonado, N. Sarin, R. V. O’Connell, D. K. Wallace, S. F. Freedman, M. Cotten, and C. A. Toth, “Macular features from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to indirect ophthalmoscopy in retinopathy of prematurity,” Retina 31(8), 1470–1482 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Maldonado, J. A. Izatt, N. Sarin, D. K. Wallace, S. Freedman, C. M. Cotten, and C. A. Toth, “Optimizing hand-held spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging for neonates, infants, and children,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2678–2685 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mallipatna, A.

A. Mallipatna, A. Vinekar, C. Jayadev, S. Dabir, M. Sivakumar, N. Krishnan, P. Mehta, T. Berendschot, and N. K. Yadav, “The use of handheld spectral domain optical coherence tomography in pediatric ophthalmology practice: Our experience of 975 infants and children,” Indian J. Ophthalmol. 63(7), 586–593 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mehta, P.

A. Mallipatna, A. Vinekar, C. Jayadev, S. Dabir, M. Sivakumar, N. Krishnan, P. Mehta, T. Berendschot, and N. K. Yadav, “The use of handheld spectral domain optical coherence tomography in pediatric ophthalmology practice: Our experience of 975 infants and children,” Indian J. Ophthalmol. 63(7), 586–593 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Men, S.

S. Song, J. Xu, S. Men, T. T. Shen, and R. K. Wang, “Robust numerical phase stabilization for long-range swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biophotonics 10(11), 1398–1410 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miyamoto, M.

T. Yokoi, M. Hiraoka, M. Miyamoto, T. Yokoi, Y. Kobayashi, S. Nishina, and N. Azuma, “Vascular abnormalities in aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity detected by fluorescein angiography,” Ophthalmology 116(7), 1377–1382 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morton, J. M.

E. M. Lad, T. Hernandez-Boussard, J. M. Morton, and D. M. Moshfeghi, “Incidence of retinopathy of prematurity in the United States: 1997 through 2005,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 148(3), 451–458 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moshfeghi, D. M.

E. M. Lad, T. Hernandez-Boussard, J. M. Morton, and D. M. Moshfeghi, “Incidence of retinopathy of prematurity in the United States: 1997 through 2005,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 148(3), 451–458 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muni, R. H.

R. H. Muni, R. P. Kohly, E. H. Sohn, and T. C. Lee, “Hand-held spectral domain optical coherence tomography finding in shaken-baby syndrome,” Retina 30(4Suppl), S45–S50 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. H. Muni, R. P. Kohly, A. C. Charonis, and T. C. Lee, “Retinoschisis detected with handheld spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in neonates with advanced retinopathy of prematurity,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 128(1), 57–62 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ng, E. Y.

E. Y. Ng, B. Lanigan, and M. O’Keefe, “Fundus fluorescein angiography in the screening for and management of retinopathy of prematurity,” J. Pediatr. Ophthalmol. Strabismus 43(2), 85–90 (2006).
[PubMed]

Nishina, S.

T. Yokoi, M. Hiraoka, M. Miyamoto, T. Yokoi, Y. Kobayashi, S. Nishina, and N. Azuma, “Vascular abnormalities in aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity detected by fluorescein angiography,” Ophthalmology 116(7), 1377–1382 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nudleman, E.

J. P. Campbell, E. Nudleman, J. Yang, O. Tan, R. V. P. Chan, M. F. Chiang, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Handheld Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Ultra-Wide-Field Optical Coherence Tomography in Retinopathy of Prematurity,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 135(9), 977–981 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Connell, R. V.

A. C. Lee, R. S. Maldonado, N. Sarin, R. V. O’Connell, D. K. Wallace, S. F. Freedman, M. Cotten, and C. A. Toth, “Macular features from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to indirect ophthalmoscopy in retinopathy of prematurity,” Retina 31(8), 1470–1482 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Keefe, M.

E. Y. Ng, B. Lanigan, and M. O’Keefe, “Fundus fluorescein angiography in the screening for and management of retinopathy of prematurity,” J. Pediatr. Ophthalmol. Strabismus 43(2), 85–90 (2006).
[PubMed]

Palmer, E. A.

W. V. Good, R. J. Hardy, V. Dobson, E. A. Palmer, D. L. Phelps, M. Quintos, B. Tung, and Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity Cooperative Group, “The incidence and course of retinopathy of prematurity: findings from the early treatment for retinopathy of prematurity study,” Pediatrics 116(1), 15–23 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petersen, R. A.

C. Wu, R. A. Petersen, and D. K. VanderVeen, “RetCam imaging for retinopathy of prematurity screening,” J. AAPOS 10(2), 107–111 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phelps, D. L.

W. V. Good, R. J. Hardy, V. Dobson, E. A. Palmer, D. L. Phelps, M. Quintos, B. Tung, and Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity Cooperative Group, “The incidence and course of retinopathy of prematurity: findings from the early treatment for retinopathy of prematurity study,” Pediatrics 116(1), 15–23 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Potsaid, B.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quinn, G.

C. Gilbert, A. Fielder, L. Gordillo, G. Quinn, R. Semiglia, P. Visintin, and A. Zin, “Characteristics of infants with severe retinopathy of prematurity in countries with low, moderate, and high levels of development: implications for screening programs,” Pediatrics 115(5), e518–e525 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quintos, M.

W. V. Good, R. J. Hardy, V. Dobson, E. A. Palmer, D. L. Phelps, M. Quintos, B. Tung, and Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity Cooperative Group, “The incidence and course of retinopathy of prematurity: findings from the early treatment for retinopathy of prematurity study,” Pediatrics 116(1), 15–23 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richter, G. M.

A. H. Kashani, C.-L. Chen, J. K. Gahm, F. Zheng, G. M. Richter, P. J. Rosenfeld, Y. Shi, and R. K. Wang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography: A comprehensive review of current methods and clinical applications,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 60, 66–100 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosenfeld, P. J.

A. H. Kashani, C.-L. Chen, J. K. Gahm, F. Zheng, G. M. Richter, P. J. Rosenfeld, Y. Shi, and R. K. Wang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography: A comprehensive review of current methods and clinical applications,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 60, 66–100 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sarin, N.

A. C. Lee, R. S. Maldonado, N. Sarin, R. V. O’Connell, D. K. Wallace, S. F. Freedman, M. Cotten, and C. A. Toth, “Macular features from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to indirect ophthalmoscopy in retinopathy of prematurity,” Retina 31(8), 1470–1482 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Maldonado, J. A. Izatt, N. Sarin, D. K. Wallace, S. Freedman, C. M. Cotten, and C. A. Toth, “Optimizing hand-held spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging for neonates, infants, and children,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2678–2685 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sarunic, M. V.

Schneider, N.

B. Lorenz, K. Spasovska, H. Elflein, and N. Schneider, “Wide-field digital imaging based telemedicine for screening for acute retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Six-year results of a multicentre field study,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 247(9), 1251–1262 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Semiglia, R.

C. Gilbert, A. Fielder, L. Gordillo, G. Quinn, R. Semiglia, P. Visintin, and A. Zin, “Characteristics of infants with severe retinopathy of prematurity in countries with low, moderate, and high levels of development: implications for screening programs,” Pediatrics 115(5), e518–e525 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, T. T.

S. Song, J. Xu, S. Men, T. T. Shen, and R. K. Wang, “Robust numerical phase stabilization for long-range swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biophotonics 10(11), 1398–1410 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shetty, B. K.

A. Vinekar, K. Avadhani, M. Sivakumar, P. Mahendradas, M. Kurian, S. Braganza, R. Shetty, and B. K. Shetty, “Understanding clinically undetected macular changes in early retinopathy of prematurity on spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5183–5188 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shetty, R.

A. Vinekar, K. Avadhani, M. Sivakumar, P. Mahendradas, M. Kurian, S. Braganza, R. Shetty, and B. K. Shetty, “Understanding clinically undetected macular changes in early retinopathy of prematurity on spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5183–5188 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, Y.

A. H. Kashani, C.-L. Chen, J. K. Gahm, F. Zheng, G. M. Richter, P. J. Rosenfeld, Y. Shi, and R. K. Wang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography: A comprehensive review of current methods and clinical applications,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 60, 66–100 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sivakumar, M.

A. Mallipatna, A. Vinekar, C. Jayadev, S. Dabir, M. Sivakumar, N. Krishnan, P. Mehta, T. Berendschot, and N. K. Yadav, “The use of handheld spectral domain optical coherence tomography in pediatric ophthalmology practice: Our experience of 975 infants and children,” Indian J. Ophthalmol. 63(7), 586–593 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Vinekar, K. Avadhani, M. Sivakumar, P. Mahendradas, M. Kurian, S. Braganza, R. Shetty, and B. K. Shetty, “Understanding clinically undetected macular changes in early retinopathy of prematurity on spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5183–5188 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sohn, E. H.

R. H. Muni, R. P. Kohly, E. H. Sohn, and T. C. Lee, “Hand-held spectral domain optical coherence tomography finding in shaken-baby syndrome,” Retina 30(4Suppl), S45–S50 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, S.

S. Song, J. Xu, S. Men, T. T. Shen, and R. K. Wang, “Robust numerical phase stabilization for long-range swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biophotonics 10(11), 1398–1410 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spasovska, K.

B. Lorenz, K. Spasovska, H. Elflein, and N. Schneider, “Wide-field digital imaging based telemedicine for screening for acute retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Six-year results of a multicentre field study,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 247(9), 1251–1262 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, V.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, J. P.

N. Hussain, A. Hussain, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Int. J. Retina Vitreous 2(Oct), 27–36 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, O.

J. P. Campbell, E. Nudleman, J. Yang, O. Tan, R. V. P. Chan, M. F. Chiang, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Handheld Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Ultra-Wide-Field Optical Coherence Tomography in Retinopathy of Prematurity,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 135(9), 977–981 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tomlins, P. H.

P. H. Tomlins and R. K. Wang, “Theory, Developments and Applications of Optical Coherence Tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2519–2535 (2005).
[Crossref]

Toth, C. A.

R. S. Maldonado and C. A. Toth, “Optical coherence tomography in retinopathy of prematurity: looking beyond the vessels,” Clin. Perinatol. 40(2), 271–296 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. Lee, R. S. Maldonado, N. Sarin, R. V. O’Connell, D. K. Wallace, S. F. Freedman, M. Cotten, and C. A. Toth, “Macular features from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to indirect ophthalmoscopy in retinopathy of prematurity,” Retina 31(8), 1470–1482 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Maldonado, J. A. Izatt, N. Sarin, D. K. Wallace, S. Freedman, C. M. Cotten, and C. A. Toth, “Optimizing hand-held spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging for neonates, infants, and children,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2678–2685 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Chavala, S. Farsiu, R. Maldonado, D. K. Wallace, S. F. Freedman, and C. A. Toth, “Insights into advanced retinopathy of prematurity using handheld spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging,” Ophthalmology 116(12), 2448–2456 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tung, B.

W. V. Good, R. J. Hardy, V. Dobson, E. A. Palmer, D. L. Phelps, M. Quintos, B. Tung, and Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity Cooperative Group, “The incidence and course of retinopathy of prematurity: findings from the early treatment for retinopathy of prematurity study,” Pediatrics 116(1), 15–23 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

VanderVeen, D. K.

C. Wu, R. A. Petersen, and D. K. VanderVeen, “RetCam imaging for retinopathy of prematurity screening,” J. AAPOS 10(2), 107–111 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vinekar, A.

A. Mallipatna, A. Vinekar, C. Jayadev, S. Dabir, M. Sivakumar, N. Krishnan, P. Mehta, T. Berendschot, and N. K. Yadav, “The use of handheld spectral domain optical coherence tomography in pediatric ophthalmology practice: Our experience of 975 infants and children,” Indian J. Ophthalmol. 63(7), 586–593 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Vinekar, K. Avadhani, M. Sivakumar, P. Mahendradas, M. Kurian, S. Braganza, R. Shetty, and B. K. Shetty, “Understanding clinically undetected macular changes in early retinopathy of prematurity on spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5183–5188 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Visintin, P.

C. Gilbert, A. Fielder, L. Gordillo, G. Quinn, R. Semiglia, P. Visintin, and A. Zin, “Characteristics of infants with severe retinopathy of prematurity in countries with low, moderate, and high levels of development: implications for screening programs,” Pediatrics 115(5), e518–e525 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wallace, D. K.

A. C. Lee, R. S. Maldonado, N. Sarin, R. V. O’Connell, D. K. Wallace, S. F. Freedman, M. Cotten, and C. A. Toth, “Macular features from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to indirect ophthalmoscopy in retinopathy of prematurity,” Retina 31(8), 1470–1482 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Maldonado, J. A. Izatt, N. Sarin, D. K. Wallace, S. Freedman, C. M. Cotten, and C. A. Toth, “Optimizing hand-held spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging for neonates, infants, and children,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2678–2685 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Chavala, S. Farsiu, R. Maldonado, D. K. Wallace, S. F. Freedman, and C. A. Toth, “Insights into advanced retinopathy of prematurity using handheld spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging,” Ophthalmology 116(12), 2448–2456 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

Q. Zhang, J. Wang, and R. K. Wang, “Highly efficient eigen decomposition based statistical optical microangiography,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 6(5), 557–563 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, R. K.

S. Song, J. Xu, S. Men, T. T. Shen, and R. K. Wang, “Robust numerical phase stabilization for long-range swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biophotonics 10(11), 1398–1410 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. H. Kashani, C.-L. Chen, J. K. Gahm, F. Zheng, G. M. Richter, P. J. Rosenfeld, Y. Shi, and R. K. Wang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography: A comprehensive review of current methods and clinical applications,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 60, 66–100 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. Chen and R. K. Wang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Based Angiography [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2), 1056–1082 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, J. Wang, and R. K. Wang, “Highly efficient eigen decomposition based statistical optical microangiography,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 6(5), 557–563 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Zhang, Q. Zhang, C.-L. Chen, and R. K. Wang, “Methods and Algorithms for Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Angiography: A Review and Comparison,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(10), 100901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yin, J. R. Chao, and R. K. Wang, “User-guided segmentation for volumetric retinal optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 086020 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yousefi, Z. Zhi, and R. K. Wang, “Eigendecomposition-based clutter filtering technique for optical microangiography,” IIEEE T Bio-Med Eng 58(8), 2316–2323 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. H. Tomlins and R. K. Wang, “Theory, Developments and Applications of Optical Coherence Tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2519–2535 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wojtkowski, M.

Wu, C.

C. Wu, R. A. Petersen, and D. K. VanderVeen, “RetCam imaging for retinopathy of prematurity screening,” J. AAPOS 10(2), 107–111 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

S. Song, J. Xu, S. Men, T. T. Shen, and R. K. Wang, “Robust numerical phase stabilization for long-range swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biophotonics 10(11), 1398–1410 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yadav, N. K.

A. Mallipatna, A. Vinekar, C. Jayadev, S. Dabir, M. Sivakumar, N. Krishnan, P. Mehta, T. Berendschot, and N. K. Yadav, “The use of handheld spectral domain optical coherence tomography in pediatric ophthalmology practice: Our experience of 975 infants and children,” Indian J. Ophthalmol. 63(7), 586–593 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, J.

J. P. Campbell, E. Nudleman, J. Yang, O. Tan, R. V. P. Chan, M. F. Chiang, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Handheld Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Ultra-Wide-Field Optical Coherence Tomography in Retinopathy of Prematurity,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 135(9), 977–981 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yang, L. Liu, J. P. Campbell, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Handheld optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(4), 2287–2300 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yen, K. G.

K. G. Yen, D. Hess, B. Burke, R. A. Johnson, W. J. Feuer, and J. T. Flynn, “Telephotoscreening to detect retinopathy of prematurity: preliminary study of the optimum time to employ digital fundus camera imaging to detect ROP,” J. AAPOS 6(2), 64–70 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, X.

X. Yin, J. R. Chao, and R. K. Wang, “User-guided segmentation for volumetric retinal optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 086020 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yokoi, T.

T. Yokoi, M. Hiraoka, M. Miyamoto, T. Yokoi, Y. Kobayashi, S. Nishina, and N. Azuma, “Vascular abnormalities in aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity detected by fluorescein angiography,” Ophthalmology 116(7), 1377–1382 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yokoi, M. Hiraoka, M. Miyamoto, T. Yokoi, Y. Kobayashi, S. Nishina, and N. Azuma, “Vascular abnormalities in aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity detected by fluorescein angiography,” Ophthalmology 116(7), 1377–1382 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yousefi, S.

S. Yousefi, Z. Zhi, and R. K. Wang, “Eigendecomposition-based clutter filtering technique for optical microangiography,” IIEEE T Bio-Med Eng 58(8), 2316–2323 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, A.

A. Zhang, Q. Zhang, C.-L. Chen, and R. K. Wang, “Methods and Algorithms for Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Angiography: A Review and Comparison,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(10), 100901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, M.

N. Hussain, A. Hussain, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Int. J. Retina Vitreous 2(Oct), 27–36 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

Q. Zhang, J. Wang, and R. K. Wang, “Highly efficient eigen decomposition based statistical optical microangiography,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 6(5), 557–563 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Zhang, Q. Zhang, C.-L. Chen, and R. K. Wang, “Methods and Algorithms for Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Angiography: A Review and Comparison,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(10), 100901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, F.

A. H. Kashani, C.-L. Chen, J. K. Gahm, F. Zheng, G. M. Richter, P. J. Rosenfeld, Y. Shi, and R. K. Wang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography: A comprehensive review of current methods and clinical applications,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 60, 66–100 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhi, Z.

S. Yousefi, Z. Zhi, and R. K. Wang, “Eigendecomposition-based clutter filtering technique for optical microangiography,” IIEEE T Bio-Med Eng 58(8), 2316–2323 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zin, A.

C. Gilbert, A. Fielder, L. Gordillo, G. Quinn, R. Semiglia, P. Visintin, and A. Zin, “Characteristics of infants with severe retinopathy of prematurity in countries with low, moderate, and high levels of development: implications for screening programs,” Pediatrics 115(5), e518–e525 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (2)

E. M. Lad, T. Hernandez-Boussard, J. M. Morton, and D. M. Moshfeghi, “Incidence of retinopathy of prematurity in the United States: 1997 through 2005,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 148(3), 451–458 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. E. Carr, “Physiology of the Human Eye and Visual System,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 89(2), 314 (1980).
[Crossref]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (2)

International Committee for the Classification of Retinopathy of Prematurity, “The international classification of retinopathy of prematurity revisited,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 123(7), 991–999 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. H. Muni, R. P. Kohly, A. C. Charonis, and T. C. Lee, “Retinoschisis detected with handheld spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in neonates with advanced retinopathy of prematurity,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 128(1), 57–62 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (4)

Clin. Perinatol. (1)

R. S. Maldonado and C. A. Toth, “Optical coherence tomography in retinopathy of prematurity: looking beyond the vessels,” Clin. Perinatol. 40(2), 271–296 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Early Hum. Dev. (1)

C. Gilbert, “Retinopathy of prematurity: a global perspective of the epidemics, population of babies at risk and implications for control,” Early Hum. Dev. 84(2), 77–82 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eye (Lond.) (1)

G. G. Adams, B. J. Clark, S. Fang, and M. Hill, “Retinal haemorrhages in an infant following RetCam screening for retinopathy of prematurity,” Eye (Lond.) 18(6), 652–653 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. (1)

B. Lorenz, K. Spasovska, H. Elflein, and N. Schneider, “Wide-field digital imaging based telemedicine for screening for acute retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Six-year results of a multicentre field study,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 247(9), 1251–1262 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IIEEE T Bio-Med Eng (1)

S. Yousefi, Z. Zhi, and R. K. Wang, “Eigendecomposition-based clutter filtering technique for optical microangiography,” IIEEE T Bio-Med Eng 58(8), 2316–2323 (2011).
[Crossref]

Indian J. Ophthalmol. (1)

A. Mallipatna, A. Vinekar, C. Jayadev, S. Dabir, M. Sivakumar, N. Krishnan, P. Mehta, T. Berendschot, and N. K. Yadav, “The use of handheld spectral domain optical coherence tomography in pediatric ophthalmology practice: Our experience of 975 infants and children,” Indian J. Ophthalmol. 63(7), 586–593 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Int. J. Retina Vitreous (1)

N. Hussain, A. Hussain, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Int. J. Retina Vitreous 2(Oct), 27–36 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2)

R. S. Maldonado, J. A. Izatt, N. Sarin, D. K. Wallace, S. Freedman, C. M. Cotten, and C. A. Toth, “Optimizing hand-held spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging for neonates, infants, and children,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2678–2685 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Vinekar, K. Avadhani, M. Sivakumar, P. Mahendradas, M. Kurian, S. Braganza, R. Shetty, and B. K. Shetty, “Understanding clinically undetected macular changes in early retinopathy of prematurity on spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5183–5188 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. AAPOS (2)

K. G. Yen, D. Hess, B. Burke, R. A. Johnson, W. J. Feuer, and J. T. Flynn, “Telephotoscreening to detect retinopathy of prematurity: preliminary study of the optimum time to employ digital fundus camera imaging to detect ROP,” J. AAPOS 6(2), 64–70 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wu, R. A. Petersen, and D. K. VanderVeen, “RetCam imaging for retinopathy of prematurity screening,” J. AAPOS 10(2), 107–111 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

A. Zhang, Q. Zhang, C.-L. Chen, and R. K. Wang, “Methods and Algorithms for Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Angiography: A Review and Comparison,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(10), 100901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yin, J. R. Chao, and R. K. Wang, “User-guided segmentation for volumetric retinal optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 086020 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biophotonics (1)

S. Song, J. Xu, S. Men, T. T. Shen, and R. K. Wang, “Robust numerical phase stabilization for long-range swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biophotonics 10(11), 1398–1410 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Pediatr. Ophthalmol. Strabismus (1)

E. Y. Ng, B. Lanigan, and M. O’Keefe, “Fundus fluorescein angiography in the screening for and management of retinopathy of prematurity,” J. Pediatr. Ophthalmol. Strabismus 43(2), 85–90 (2006).
[PubMed]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

P. H. Tomlins and R. K. Wang, “Theory, Developments and Applications of Optical Coherence Tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2519–2535 (2005).
[Crossref]

JAMA Ophthalmol. (1)

J. P. Campbell, E. Nudleman, J. Yang, O. Tan, R. V. P. Chan, M. F. Chiang, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Handheld Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Ultra-Wide-Field Optical Coherence Tomography in Retinopathy of Prematurity,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 135(9), 977–981 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology (2)

S. H. Chavala, S. Farsiu, R. Maldonado, D. K. Wallace, S. F. Freedman, and C. A. Toth, “Insights into advanced retinopathy of prematurity using handheld spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging,” Ophthalmology 116(12), 2448–2456 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yokoi, M. Hiraoka, M. Miyamoto, T. Yokoi, Y. Kobayashi, S. Nishina, and N. Azuma, “Vascular abnormalities in aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity detected by fluorescein angiography,” Ophthalmology 116(7), 1377–1382 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Pediatrics (3)

C. Gilbert, A. Fielder, L. Gordillo, G. Quinn, R. Semiglia, P. Visintin, and A. Zin, “Characteristics of infants with severe retinopathy of prematurity in countries with low, moderate, and high levels of development: implications for screening programs,” Pediatrics 115(5), e518–e525 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. V. Good, R. J. Hardy, V. Dobson, E. A. Palmer, D. L. Phelps, M. Quintos, B. Tung, and Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity Cooperative Group, “The incidence and course of retinopathy of prematurity: findings from the early treatment for retinopathy of prematurity study,” Pediatrics 116(1), 15–23 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. Fierson, “Screening examination of Premature Infants for retinopathy of prematurity,” Pediatrics 142(6), e20183061 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prog. Retin. Eye Res. (1)

A. H. Kashani, C.-L. Chen, J. K. Gahm, F. Zheng, G. M. Richter, P. J. Rosenfeld, Y. Shi, and R. K. Wang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography: A comprehensive review of current methods and clinical applications,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 60, 66–100 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. (1)

Q. Zhang, J. Wang, and R. K. Wang, “Highly efficient eigen decomposition based statistical optical microangiography,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 6(5), 557–563 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Retina (2)

A. C. Lee, R. S. Maldonado, N. Sarin, R. V. O’Connell, D. K. Wallace, S. F. Freedman, M. Cotten, and C. A. Toth, “Macular features from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to indirect ophthalmoscopy in retinopathy of prematurity,” Retina 31(8), 1470–1482 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. H. Muni, R. P. Kohly, E. H. Sohn, and T. C. Lee, “Hand-held spectral domain optical coherence tomography finding in shaken-baby syndrome,” Retina 30(4Suppl), S45–S50 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

M. E. Hartnett, Pediatric retina (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005).

C. Viehland, F. LaRocca, D. Tran-Viet, M. Jackson-Atogi, C. Eckard, B. Keller, C. A. Toth, and J. A. Izatt, “Imaging of pediatric pathology in the intensive care nursery using a custom handheld, ultra-compact, swept-source OCT probe,” SPIE Proc Volume 10474, Ophthalmic Technologies XXVIII; 1047416 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Geiger, F. Moosmann, Ö. Car, and B. Schuster, “Automatic camera and range sensor calibration using a single shot,” in Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2012 IEEE International Conference on(IEEE2012), pp. 3936–3943.
[Crossref]

M. A. Kirby, C. Li, W. J. Choi, G. Gregori, P. Rosenfeld, and R. Wang, “Why choroid vessels appear dark in clinical OCT images,” in Ophthalmic Technologies XXVIII (International Society for Optics and Photonics2018), p. 1047428.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Overview of hand-held ophthalmic OCT system hardware configuration. External appearance of the system is illustrated in lower right insert.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Photographs of (a) full assembly of SS-OCT system. (b) Hand-held probe in operator’s hand.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Front view of hand-held OCT probe with housing. (b) Simplified section view showing internal optical and mechanical configurations. Internal connections including optical fiber and electrical wires are omitted. Outer housing and mechanical positioning components are simplified. SCRo - Screen for operator, SCRf - Screen for subject eye fixation. Gx/Gy - Galvanometers, fs - Scanning lens, DCM1- Dichroic mirror to separate OCT beam, DCM2 - Dichroic mirror to separate iris viewer light, Ms - Reflection mirror for fixation screen. fsr – Fixation screen relay lens, fcr – iris viewer CCD relay lens, foph – Ophthalmic lens. (c) Typical iris viewer image during data acquisition (d) Examples of fixation screen display contents, upper image is a target for adult retina imaging, bottom image is for pediatric imaging.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Flow chart of data processing procedure.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Field-of-view calibration results. (a) En face projection image produced from model eye scan, with maximum field-of-view. Green circles indicate the keypoints of checkered board pattern. (b) Distortion vector map derived from (a) where contour of distortion amplitude is overlaid.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Hand-held ophthalmic OCT structural imaging results acquired from a healthy adult. (a) Wide-field (10 x 10 mm2) En-face average intensity projection of retina (b) Corresponding wide-field structural projection of choroid. (c) Two selected cross-section B-scans from 3-D scan result, imaging planes are indicated by dashed lines in en-face projection image. (d) En-face average intensity projection. (e) Two selected B-scans. All scale bars: 1 mm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Hand-held OCTA imaging results obtained from a healthy adult. Wide-field (10mm x 10mm) en face OCTA of (a) superficial retina layer, (b) deep retina layer, and (c) Color encoded OCTA of superficial and deep retina. (d) Partial enlarged images from (c) to show capillary details. Location of these two enlarged regions are indicated in (c), with white boxes. Higher magnification en face OCTA (5mm x 5mm) of macular region: (e) superficial retina layer, (f) deep retina layer. (g) Higher magnification color encoded OCTA of superficial and deep retina. All scale bars: 1 mm unless noted otherwise.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Hand-held ophthalmic OCT structural imaging results on pre-mature infants. Results obtained from an infant of 40-week gestational age, with an imaging field of view at 7.0 x 7.0mm: (a) En-face average intensity projection (b) three selected cross-section B-scans from 3-D scan result, imaging planes are indicated by dashed lines in en-face projection image. Results obtained from an infant of 28-week gestational age, with an imaging field of view at 3.6 x 3.6 mm: (c) En-face average intensity projection. (d) three selected B-scans. All scale bars: 1 mm.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 OCTA imaging results can be obtained from premature infants. Results were obtained from an infant at gestational age of 40 weeks, with a FOV of 7.0 x 7.0mm: (a-d) OCTA maximum intensity projection en face images produced from four layers, superficial retina, deep retina, choriocapillaris, and deep choroid, respectively. (e-h) higher magnification OCTA en face images were obtained from an infant at gestational age of 28 weeks, with a FOV of 3.6 x 3.6mm, which are presented in the same order as the row above. All scale bars: 1 mm.

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