Abstract

Previous studies have shown that changes in functional activity in the retina can be visualized as changes in fundus reflectivity. When the image projected on the retina is low pass filtered or defocused by covering the eye with a frosted diffuser or a negative lens, it starts growing longer and develops myopia. We have tested the hypothesis that the resulting altered retinal activity may show up as changes in fundus reflectivity. Fundus reflectivity was measured in chickens in vivo, both in visible (400-800 nm, white) and near ultraviolet (UV) light (315-380 nm). Two CCD cameras were used; a RGB camera and a camera sensitive in near UV light (peak sensitivity at 360 nm). White and UV LEDs, respectively, placed in the center of the camera lens aperture, served as light sources. Software was written to flash the LEDs and record the average brightness of the pupil that was illuminated by light reflected from the fundus. The average pixel grey level (px) in the pupil was taken as a measure of the amount of reflected light while refractive errors were corrected by trial lenses after pupil brightness was corrected for pupil size. It was found that myopic eyes had brighter pupils in UV light, compared to eyes with normal vision, no matter whether myopia was induced by diffusers or negative lenses (48 ± 9 vs. 28 ± 3, p<0.001 and 47 ± 7 vs. 27 ± 2, respectively). Using SD-OCT in alert chickens it was found that the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and the retinal ganglion cell layer (RGCL) in the central retina became thinner already at early stages of myopia development, compared to controls (31.2 ± 5.8 µm vs. 43.9 ± 2.6 µm, p<0.001 and 36.9 ± 1.2 µm vs. 44 ± 0.5 µm, respectively). While the decrease in RNFL thickness occurred concomitantly with the increase in UV reflectivity, it remains unclear whether these changes were causally linked. Thinning of the RNFL could be due to reduced neural activity in retinal ganglion cells but also due to metabolic changes in the retina during myopia development.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (3)

M. S. Tedja, R. Wojciechowski, P. G. Hysi, N. Eriksson, N. A. Furlotte, V. J. M. Verhoeven, A. I. Iglesias, M. A. Meester-Smoor, S. W. Tompson, Q. Fan, A. P. Khawaja, C. Y. Cheng, R. Höhn, K. Yamashiro, A. Wenocur, C. Grazal, T. Haller, A. Metspalu, J. Wedenoja, J. B. Jonas, Y. X. Wang, J. Xie, P. Mitchell, P. J. Foster, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, A. D. Paterson, S. M. Hosseini, R. L. Shah, C. Williams, Y. Y. Teo, Y. C. Tham, P. Gupta, W. Zhao, Y. Shi, W. Y. Saw, E. S. Tai, X. L. Sim, J. E. Huffman, O. Polašek, C. Hayward, G. Bencic, I. Rudan, J. F. Wilson, P. K. Joshi, A. Tsujikawa, F. Matsuda, K. N. Whisenhunt, T. Zeller, P. J. van der Spek, R. Haak, H. Meijers-Heijboer, E. M. van Leeuwen, S. K. Iyengar, J. H. Lass, A. Hofman, F. Rivadeneira, A. G. Uitterlinden, J. R. Vingerling, T. Lehtimäki, O. T. Raitakari, G. Biino, M. P. Concas, T. H. Schwantes-An, R. P. Igo, G. Cuellar-Partida, N. G. Martin, J. E. Craig, P. Gharahkhani, K. M. Williams, A. Nag, J. S. Rahi, P. M. Cumberland, C. Delcourt, C. Bellenguez, J. S. Ried, A. A. Bergen, T. Meitinger, C. Gieger, T. Y. Wong, A. W. Hewitt, D. A. Mackey, C. L. Simpson, N. Pfeiffer, O. Pärssinen, P. N. Baird, V. Vitart, N. Amin, C. M. van Duijn, J. E. Bailey-Wilson, T. L. Young, S. M. Saw, D. Stambolian, S. MacGregor, J. A. Guggenheim, J. Y. Tung, C. J. Hammond, and C. C. W. Klaver, “Genome-wide association meta-analysis highlights light-induced signaling as a driver for refractive error,” Nat. Genet. 50(6), 834–848 (2018).
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M. Wang, F. Schaeffel, B. Jiang, and M. Feldkaemper, “Effects of light of different spectral composition on refractive development and retinal dopamine in chicks,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(11), 4413–4424 (2018).
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A. Lazari, S. Koudelka, and C. Sampaio-Baptista, “Experience-related reductions of myelin and axon diameter in adulthood,” J. Neurophysiol. 120(4), 1772–1775 (2018).
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2017 (6)

Y. Zha, J. Zhuang, D. Lin, W. Feng, H. Zheng, and J. Cai, “Evaluation of myopia on retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured by Spectralis optical coherence tomography,” Exp. Ther. Med. 14(3), 2716–2720 (2017).
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J. L. Sinclair, M. J. Fischl, O. Alexandrova, M. Heβ, B. Grothe, C. Leibold, and C. Kopp-Scheinpflug, “Sound-evoked activity influences myelination of brainstem axons in the trapezoid body,” J. Neurosci. 37(34), 8239–8255 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Schaeffel, “Biological mechanisms of myopia,” Ophthalmologe 114(1), 5–19 (2017).
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N. Hammel, A. Belghith, R. N. Weinreb, F. A. Medeiros, N. Mendoza, and L. M. Zangwill, “Comparing the rates of retinal nerve fiber layer and ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer loss in healthy eyes and in glaucoma eyes,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 178, 38–50 (2017).
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S. Z. Li, W. Y. Yu, K. Y. Choi, C. H. Lam, Y. Lakshmanan, F. S. Wong, and H. H. Chan, “Subclinical decrease in central inner retinal activity is associated with myopia development in children,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(10), 4399–4406 (2017).
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T. J. Gawne, J. T. Siegwart, A. H. Ward, and T. T. Norton, “The wavelength composition and temporal modulation of ambient lighting strongly affect refractive development in young tree shrews,” Exp. Eye Res. 155, 75–84 (2017).
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2016 (4)

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Pfäffle, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, and G. Hüttmann, “In vivo optical imaging of physiological responses to photostimulation in human photoreceptors,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113(46), 13138–13143 (2016).
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J. W. Tideman, Q. Fan, J. R. Polling, X. Guo, S. Yazar, A. Khawaja, R. Höhn, Y. Lu, V. W. Jaddoe, K. Yamashiro, M. Yoshikawa, A. Gerhold-Ay, S. Nickels, T. Zeller, M. He, T. Boutin, G. Bencic, V. Vitart, D. A. Mackey, P. J. Foster, S. MacGregor, C. Williams, S. M. Saw, J. A. Guggenheim, and C. C. Klaver, “When do myopia genes have their effect? Comparison of genetic risks between children and adults,” Genet. Epidemiol. 40(8), 756–766 (2016).
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S. K. Gardiner, S. Demirel, J. Reynaud, and B. Fortune, “Changes in retinal nerve fiber layer reflectance intensity as a predictor of functional progression in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(3), 1221–1227 (2016).
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X. R. Huang, R. W. Knighton, W. J. Feuer, and J. Qiao, “Retinal nerve fiber layer reflectometry must consider directional reflectance,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(1), 22–33 (2016).
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2015 (1)

K. M. Williams, G. Bertelsen, P. Cumberland, C. Wolfram, V. J. Verhoeven, E. Anastasopoulos, G. H. Buitendijk, A. Cougnard-Grégoire, C. Creuzot-Garcher, M. G. Erke, R. Hogg, R. Höhn, P. Hysi, A. P. Khawaja, J. F. Korobelnik, J. Ried, J. R. Vingerling, A. Bron, J. F. Dartigues, A. Fletcher, A. Hofman, R. W. Kuijpers, R. N. Luben, K. Oxele, F. Topouzis, T. von Hanno, A. Mirshahi, P. J. Foster, C. M. van Duijn, N. Pfeiffer, C. Delcourt, C. C. Klaver, J. Rahi, C. J. Hammond, and European Eye Epidemiology (E(3)) Consortium, “Increasing Prevalence of Myopia in Europe and the Impact of Education,” Ophthalmology 122(7), 1489–1497 (2015).
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2014 (4)

P. J. Foster and Y. Jiang, “Epidemiology of myopia,” Eye (Lond.) 28(2), 202–208 (2014).
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T. Alasil, K. Wang, F. Yu, M. G. Field, H. Lee, N. Baniasadi, J. F. de Boer, A. L. Coleman, and T. C. Chen, “Correlation of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and visual fields in glaucoma: a broken stick model,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 157(5), 953–959 (2014).
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L. Zhao, Y. Wang, C. X. Chen, L. Xu, and J. B. Jonas, “Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness measured by Spectralis spectral-domain optical coherence tomography: The Beijing Eye Study,” Acta Ophthalmol. 92(1), e35–e41 (2014).
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R. S. Ashby, G. Zeng, A. J. Leotta, D. Y. Tse, and S. A. McFadden, “Egr-1 mRNA expression is a marker for the direction of mammalian ocular growth,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(9), 5911–5921 (2014).
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2013 (2)

M. Feldkaemper and F. Schaeffel, “An updated view on the role of dopamine in myopia,” Exp. Eye Res. 114, 106–119 (2013).
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X. R. Huang, R. W. Knighton, Y. Zhou, and X. P. Zhao, “Reflectance speckle of retinal nerve fiber layer reveals axonal activity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(4), 2616–2623 (2013).
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2012 (3)

G. Wollstein, L. Kagemann, R. A. Bilonick, H. Ishikawa, L. S. Folio, M. L. Gabriele, A. K. Ungar, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Retinal nerve fibre layer and visual function loss in glaucoma: the tipping point,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 96(1), 47–52 (2012).
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D. I. Flitcroft, “The complex interactions of retinal, optical and environmental factors in myopia aetiology,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 31(6), 622–660 (2012).
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A. M. Penha, E. Burkhardt, F. Schaeffel, and M. P. Feldkaemper, “Effects of intravitreal insulin and insulin signaling cascade inhibitors on emmetropization in the chick,” Mol. Vis. 18, 2608–2622 (2012).
[PubMed]

2011 (4)

Y. P. Chen, A. Prashar, J. T. Erichsen, C. H. To, P. M. Hocking, and J. A. Guggenheim, “Heritability of ocular component dimensions in chickens: genetic variants controlling susceptibility to experimentally induced myopia and pretreatment eye size are distinct,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(7), 4012–4020 (2011).
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S. X. Shao and N. J. Coletta, “Relative thickness of inner and outer retinal layers in myopia as measured with spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(14), 3207 (2011).

X. R. Huang, Y. Zhou, W. Kong, and R. W. Knighton, “Reflectance decreases before thickness changes in the retinal nerve fiber layer in glaucomatous retinas,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(9), 6737–6742 (2011).
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A. A. Moayed, S. Hariri, E. S. Song, V. Choh, and K. Bizheva, “In vivo volumetric imaging of chicken retina with ultrahigh-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(5), 1268–1274 (2011).
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2010 (1)

M. J. Kim, E. J. Lee, and T. W. Kim, “Peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer thickness profile in subjects with myopia measured using the Stratus optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94(1), 115–120 (2010).
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2009 (1)

K. D. Schweitzer, D. Ehmann, and R. García, “Nerve fibre layer changes in highly myopic eyes by optical coherence tomography,” Can. J. Ophthalmol. 44(3), e13–e16 (2009).
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2008 (1)

C. J. Wolsley, K. J. Saunders, G. Silvestri, and R. S. Anderson, “Investigation of changes in the myopic retina using multifocal electroretinograms, optical coherence tomography and peripheral resolution acuity,” Vision Res. 48(14), 1554–1561 (2008).
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2007 (1)

G. Hanazono, K. Tsunoda, K. Shinoda, K. Tsubota, Y. Miyake, and M. Tanifuji, “Intrinsic signal imaging in macaque retina reveals different types of flash-induced light reflectance changes of different origins,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(6), 2903–2912 (2007).
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2006 (5)

M. D. Abràmoff, Y. H. Kwon, D. Ts’o, P. Soliz, B. Zimmerman, J. Pokorny, and R. Kardon, “Visual stimulus-induced changes in human near-infrared fundus reflectance,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(2), 715–721 (2006).
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J. C. Chen, B. Brown, and K. L. Schmid, “Delayed mfERG responses in myopia,” Vision Res. 46(8-9), 1221–1229 (2006).
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X. R. Huang, R. W. Knighton, and L. N. Cavuoto, “Microtubule contribution to the reflectance of the retinal nerve fiber layer,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(12), 5363–5367 (2006).
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J. C. Chen, B. Brown, and K. L. Schmid, “Evaluation of inner retinal function in myopia using oscillatory potentials of the multifocal electroretinogram,” Vision Res. 46(24), 4096–4103 (2006).
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S. W. Choi and S. J. Lee, “Thickness changes in the fovea and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer depend on the degree of myopia,” Korean J. Ophthalmol. 20(4), 215–219 (2006).
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2005 (1)

C. E. Riva, E. Logean, and B. Falsini, “Visually evoked hemodynamical response and assessment of neurovascular coupling in the optic nerve and retina,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 24(2), 183–215 (2005).
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2004 (4)

M. Crittin and C. E. Riva, “Functional imaging of the human papilla and peripapillary region based on flicker-induced reflectance changes,” Neurosci. Lett. 360(3), 141–144 (2004).
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K. Tsunoda, Y. Oguchi, G. Hanazono, and M. Tanifuji, “Mapping cone- and rod-induced retinal responsiveness in macaque retina by optical imaging,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(10), 3820–3826 (2004).
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C. J. Hammond, T. Andrew, Y. T. Mak, and T. D. Spector, “A susceptibility locus for myopia in the normal population is linked to the PAX6 gene region on chromosome 11: a genomewide scan of dizygotic twins,” Am. J. Hum. Genet. 75(2), 294–304 (2004).
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J. Wallman and J. Winawer, “Homeostasis of eye growth and the question of myopia,” Neuron 43(4), 447–468 (2004).
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2003 (3)

H. L. Chan and N. Mohidin, “Variation of multifocal electroretinogram with axial length,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 23(2), 133–140 (2003).
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R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 7–16 (2003).
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R. U. Maheswari, H. Takaoka, H. Kadono, R. Homma, and M. Tanifuji, “Novel functional imaging technique from brain surface with optical coherence tomography enabling visualization of depth resolved functional structure in vivo,” J. Neurosci. Methods 124(1), 83–92 (2003).
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2002 (4)

B. A. MacVicar, D. Feighan, A. Brown, and B. Ransom, “Intrinsic optical signals in the rat optic nerve: role for K(+) uptake via NKCC1 and swelling of astrocytes,” Glia 37(2), 114–123 (2002).
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A. Seidemann and F. Schaeffel, “Effects of longitudinal chromatic aberration on accommodation and emmetropization,” Vision Res. 42(21), 2409–2417 (2002).
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D. O. Mutti, G. L. Mitchell, M. L. Moeschberger, L. A. Jones, and K. Zadnik, “Parental myopia, near work, school achievement, and children’s refractive error,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43(12), 3633–3640 (2002).
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N. P. Zagers, J. van de Kraats, T. T. Berendschot, and D. van Norren, “Simultaneous measurement of foveal spectral reflectance and cone-photoreceptor directionality,” Appl. Opt. 41(22), 4686–4696 (2002).
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2000 (3)

D. C. Hood, “Assessing retinal function with the multifocal technique,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 19(5), 607–646 (2000).
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M. Choi, S. Weiss, F. Schaeffel, A. Seidemann, H. C. Howland, B. Wilhelm, and H. Wilhelm, “Laboratory, clinical, and kindergarten test of a new eccentric infrared photorefractor (PowerRefractor),” Optom. Vis. Sci. 77(10), 537–548 (2000).
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P. J. DeLint, T. T. Berendschot, J. van de Kraats, and D. van Norren, “Slow optical changes in human photoreceptors induced by light,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41(1), 282–289 (2000).
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1999 (4)

R. Pararajasegaram, “VISION 2020-the right to sight: from strategies to action,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 128(3), 359–360 (1999).
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M. Feldkaemper, S. Diether, G. Kleine, and F. Schaeffel, “Interactions of spatial and luminance information in the retina of chickens during myopia development,” Exp. Eye Res. 68(1), 105–115 (1999).
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H. Wolburg, S. Liebner, A. Reichenbach, and H. Gerhardt, “The pecten oculi of the chicken: a model system for vascular differentiation and barrier maturation,” Int. Rev. Cytol. 187, 111–159 (1999).
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R. W. Knighton and X. R. Huang, “Directional and spectral reflectance of the rat retinal nerve fiber layer,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40(3), 639–647 (1999).
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1998 (2)

K. L. Schmid and C. F. Wildsoet, “Assessment of visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in the chick using an optokinetic nystagmus paradigm,” Vision Res. 38(17), 2629–2634 (1998).
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S. G. Kiama, J. N. Maina, J. Bhattacharjee, K. D. Weyrauch, and P. Gehr, “A scanning electron microscope study of the luminal surface specializations in the blood vessels of the pecten oculi in a diurnal bird, the black kite (Milvus migrans),” Ann. Anat. 180(5), 455–460 (1998).
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1997 (2)

H. N. Schwahn and F. Schaeffel, “Flicker parameters are different for suppression of myopia and hyperopia,” Vision Res. 37(19), 2661–2673 (1997).
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H. Kawabata and E. Adachi-Usami, “Multifocal electroretinogram in myopia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38(13), 2844–2851 (1997).
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1995 (5)

D. G. Buerk, C. E. Riva, and S. D. Cranstoun, “Frequency and luminance-dependent blood flow and K+ ion changes during flicker stimuli in cat optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(11), 2216–2227 (1995).
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B. Rohrer, P. M. Iuvone, and W. K. Stell, “Stimulation of dopaminergic amacrine cells by stroboscopic illumination or fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, FGF-2) injections: possible roles in prevention of form-deprivation myopia in the chick,” Brain Res. 686(2), 169–181 (1995).
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J. M. Gorrand and F. Delori, “A reflectometric technique for assessing photoreceptor alignment,” Vision Res. 35(7), 999–1010 (1995).
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M. C. Campbell, W. R. Bobier, and A. Roorda, “Effect of monochromatic aberrations on photorefractive patterns,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12(8), 1637–1646 (1995).
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S. A. Burns, S. Wu, F. Delori, and A. E. Elsner, “Direct measurement of human-cone-photoreceptor alignment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12(10), 2329–2338 (1995).
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1994 (1)

1992 (1)

R. W. Knighton, C. Baverez, and A. Bhattacharya, “The directional reflectance of the retinal nerve fiber layer of the toad,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33(9), 2603–2611 (1992).
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1991 (3)

C. E. Riva, S. Harino, R. D. Shonat, and B. L. Petrig, “Flicker evoked increase in optic nerve head blood flow in anesthetized cats,” Neurosci. Lett. 128(2), 291–296 (1991).
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F. Schaeffel and H. C. Howland, “Properties of the feedback loops controlling eye growth and refractive state in the chicken,” Vision Res. 31(4), 717–734 (1991).
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F. Schaeffel, B. Rohrer, T. Lemmer, and E. Zrenner, “Diurnal control of rod function in the chicken,” Vis. Neurosci. 6(6), 641–653 (1991).
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1990 (2)

A. Bill and G. O. Sperber, “Aspects of oxygen and glucose consumption in the retina: effects of high intraocular pressure and light,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 228(2), 124–127 (1990).
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A. Bill and G. O. Sperber, “Control of retinal and choroidal blood flow,” Eye (Lond.) 4(Pt 2), 319–325 (1990).
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1989 (1)

R. W. Knighton, S. G. Jacobson, and C. M. Kemp, “The spectral reflectance of the nerve fiber layer of the macaque retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 30(11), 2392–2402 (1989).
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1986 (1)

G. J. van Blokland, “Directionality and alignment of the foveal receptors, assessed with light scattered from the human fundus in vivo,” Vision Res. 26(3), 495–500 (1986).
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1983 (1)

1981 (2)

D. van Norren and J. van der Kraats, “A continuously recording retinal densitometer,” Vision Res. 21(6), 897–905 (1981).
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D. Ehrlich, “Regional specialization of the chick retina as revealed by the size and density of neurons in the ganglion cell layer,” J. Comp. Neurol. 195(4), 643–657 (1981).
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1956 (2)

W. A. Rushton, “The difference spectrum and the photosensitivity of rhodopsin in the living human eye,” J. Physiol. 134(1), 11–29 (1956).
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W. A. Rushton, “The rhodopsin density in the human rods,” J. Physiol. 134(1), 30–46 (1956).
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1954 (3)

F. W. Campbell and W. A. Rushton, “The measurement of rhodopsin in the human eye,” J. Physiol. 126(2), 36–7P (1954).
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R. Barer and S. Tkaczyk, “Refractive index of concentrated protein solutions,” Nature 173(4409), 821–822 (1954).
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R. Barer and S. Joseph, “Refractometry of Living Cells,” Part I. Basic Principles 95 (32), 399–423 (1954).

1952 (1)

W. A. Rushton, “Apparatus for analysing the light reflected from the eye of the cat,” J. Physiol. 117(4), 47P–48P (1952).
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Abràmoff, M. D.

M. D. Abràmoff, Y. H. Kwon, D. Ts’o, P. Soliz, B. Zimmerman, J. Pokorny, and R. Kardon, “Visual stimulus-induced changes in human near-infrared fundus reflectance,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(2), 715–721 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adachi-Usami, E.

H. Kawabata and E. Adachi-Usami, “Multifocal electroretinogram in myopia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38(13), 2844–2851 (1997).
[PubMed]

Alasil, T.

T. Alasil, K. Wang, F. Yu, M. G. Field, H. Lee, N. Baniasadi, J. F. de Boer, A. L. Coleman, and T. C. Chen, “Correlation of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and visual fields in glaucoma: a broken stick model,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 157(5), 953–959 (2014).
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Alexandrova, O.

J. L. Sinclair, M. J. Fischl, O. Alexandrova, M. Heβ, B. Grothe, C. Leibold, and C. Kopp-Scheinpflug, “Sound-evoked activity influences myelination of brainstem axons in the trapezoid body,” J. Neurosci. 37(34), 8239–8255 (2017).
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Amin, N.

M. S. Tedja, R. Wojciechowski, P. G. Hysi, N. Eriksson, N. A. Furlotte, V. J. M. Verhoeven, A. I. Iglesias, M. A. Meester-Smoor, S. W. Tompson, Q. Fan, A. P. Khawaja, C. Y. Cheng, R. Höhn, K. Yamashiro, A. Wenocur, C. Grazal, T. Haller, A. Metspalu, J. Wedenoja, J. B. Jonas, Y. X. Wang, J. Xie, P. Mitchell, P. J. Foster, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, A. D. Paterson, S. M. Hosseini, R. L. Shah, C. Williams, Y. Y. Teo, Y. C. Tham, P. Gupta, W. Zhao, Y. Shi, W. Y. Saw, E. S. Tai, X. L. Sim, J. E. Huffman, O. Polašek, C. Hayward, G. Bencic, I. Rudan, J. F. Wilson, P. K. Joshi, A. Tsujikawa, F. Matsuda, K. N. Whisenhunt, T. Zeller, P. J. van der Spek, R. Haak, H. Meijers-Heijboer, E. M. van Leeuwen, S. K. Iyengar, J. H. Lass, A. Hofman, F. Rivadeneira, A. G. Uitterlinden, J. R. Vingerling, T. Lehtimäki, O. T. Raitakari, G. Biino, M. P. Concas, T. H. Schwantes-An, R. P. Igo, G. Cuellar-Partida, N. G. Martin, J. E. Craig, P. Gharahkhani, K. M. Williams, A. Nag, J. S. Rahi, P. M. Cumberland, C. Delcourt, C. Bellenguez, J. S. Ried, A. A. Bergen, T. Meitinger, C. Gieger, T. Y. Wong, A. W. Hewitt, D. A. Mackey, C. L. Simpson, N. Pfeiffer, O. Pärssinen, P. N. Baird, V. Vitart, N. Amin, C. M. van Duijn, J. E. Bailey-Wilson, T. L. Young, S. M. Saw, D. Stambolian, S. MacGregor, J. A. Guggenheim, J. Y. Tung, C. J. Hammond, and C. C. W. Klaver, “Genome-wide association meta-analysis highlights light-induced signaling as a driver for refractive error,” Nat. Genet. 50(6), 834–848 (2018).
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R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 7–16 (2003).
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M. S. Tedja, R. Wojciechowski, P. G. Hysi, N. Eriksson, N. A. Furlotte, V. J. M. Verhoeven, A. I. Iglesias, M. A. Meester-Smoor, S. W. Tompson, Q. Fan, A. P. Khawaja, C. Y. Cheng, R. Höhn, K. Yamashiro, A. Wenocur, C. Grazal, T. Haller, A. Metspalu, J. Wedenoja, J. B. Jonas, Y. X. Wang, J. Xie, P. Mitchell, P. J. Foster, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, A. D. Paterson, S. M. Hosseini, R. L. Shah, C. Williams, Y. Y. Teo, Y. C. Tham, P. Gupta, W. Zhao, Y. Shi, W. Y. Saw, E. S. Tai, X. L. Sim, J. E. Huffman, O. Polašek, C. Hayward, G. Bencic, I. Rudan, J. F. Wilson, P. K. Joshi, A. Tsujikawa, F. Matsuda, K. N. Whisenhunt, T. Zeller, P. J. van der Spek, R. Haak, H. Meijers-Heijboer, E. M. van Leeuwen, S. K. Iyengar, J. H. Lass, A. Hofman, F. Rivadeneira, A. G. Uitterlinden, J. R. Vingerling, T. Lehtimäki, O. T. Raitakari, G. Biino, M. P. Concas, T. H. Schwantes-An, R. P. Igo, G. Cuellar-Partida, N. G. Martin, J. E. Craig, P. Gharahkhani, K. M. Williams, A. Nag, J. S. Rahi, P. M. Cumberland, C. Delcourt, C. Bellenguez, J. S. Ried, A. A. Bergen, T. Meitinger, C. Gieger, T. Y. Wong, A. W. Hewitt, D. A. Mackey, C. L. Simpson, N. Pfeiffer, O. Pärssinen, P. N. Baird, V. Vitart, N. Amin, C. M. van Duijn, J. E. Bailey-Wilson, T. L. Young, S. M. Saw, D. Stambolian, S. MacGregor, J. A. Guggenheim, J. Y. Tung, C. J. Hammond, and C. C. W. Klaver, “Genome-wide association meta-analysis highlights light-induced signaling as a driver for refractive error,” Nat. Genet. 50(6), 834–848 (2018).
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M. S. Tedja, R. Wojciechowski, P. G. Hysi, N. Eriksson, N. A. Furlotte, V. J. M. Verhoeven, A. I. Iglesias, M. A. Meester-Smoor, S. W. Tompson, Q. Fan, A. P. Khawaja, C. Y. Cheng, R. Höhn, K. Yamashiro, A. Wenocur, C. Grazal, T. Haller, A. Metspalu, J. Wedenoja, J. B. Jonas, Y. X. Wang, J. Xie, P. Mitchell, P. J. Foster, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, A. D. Paterson, S. M. Hosseini, R. L. Shah, C. Williams, Y. Y. Teo, Y. C. Tham, P. Gupta, W. Zhao, Y. Shi, W. Y. Saw, E. S. Tai, X. L. Sim, J. E. Huffman, O. Polašek, C. Hayward, G. Bencic, I. Rudan, J. F. Wilson, P. K. Joshi, A. Tsujikawa, F. Matsuda, K. N. Whisenhunt, T. Zeller, P. J. van der Spek, R. Haak, H. Meijers-Heijboer, E. M. van Leeuwen, S. K. Iyengar, J. H. Lass, A. Hofman, F. Rivadeneira, A. G. Uitterlinden, J. R. Vingerling, T. Lehtimäki, O. T. Raitakari, G. Biino, M. P. Concas, T. H. Schwantes-An, R. P. Igo, G. Cuellar-Partida, N. G. Martin, J. E. Craig, P. Gharahkhani, K. M. Williams, A. Nag, J. S. Rahi, P. M. Cumberland, C. Delcourt, C. Bellenguez, J. S. Ried, A. A. Bergen, T. Meitinger, C. Gieger, T. Y. Wong, A. W. Hewitt, D. A. Mackey, C. L. Simpson, N. Pfeiffer, O. Pärssinen, P. N. Baird, V. Vitart, N. Amin, C. M. van Duijn, J. E. Bailey-Wilson, T. L. Young, S. M. Saw, D. Stambolian, S. MacGregor, J. A. Guggenheim, J. Y. Tung, C. J. Hammond, and C. C. W. Klaver, “Genome-wide association meta-analysis highlights light-induced signaling as a driver for refractive error,” Nat. Genet. 50(6), 834–848 (2018).
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Grothe, B.

J. L. Sinclair, M. J. Fischl, O. Alexandrova, M. Heβ, B. Grothe, C. Leibold, and C. Kopp-Scheinpflug, “Sound-evoked activity influences myelination of brainstem axons in the trapezoid body,” J. Neurosci. 37(34), 8239–8255 (2017).
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Guggenheim, J. A.

M. S. Tedja, R. Wojciechowski, P. G. Hysi, N. Eriksson, N. A. Furlotte, V. J. M. Verhoeven, A. I. Iglesias, M. A. Meester-Smoor, S. W. Tompson, Q. Fan, A. P. Khawaja, C. Y. Cheng, R. Höhn, K. Yamashiro, A. Wenocur, C. Grazal, T. Haller, A. Metspalu, J. Wedenoja, J. B. Jonas, Y. X. Wang, J. Xie, P. Mitchell, P. J. Foster, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, A. D. Paterson, S. M. Hosseini, R. L. Shah, C. Williams, Y. Y. Teo, Y. C. Tham, P. Gupta, W. Zhao, Y. Shi, W. Y. Saw, E. S. Tai, X. L. Sim, J. E. Huffman, O. Polašek, C. Hayward, G. Bencic, I. Rudan, J. F. Wilson, P. K. Joshi, A. Tsujikawa, F. Matsuda, K. N. Whisenhunt, T. Zeller, P. J. van der Spek, R. Haak, H. Meijers-Heijboer, E. M. van Leeuwen, S. K. Iyengar, J. H. Lass, A. Hofman, F. Rivadeneira, A. G. Uitterlinden, J. R. Vingerling, T. Lehtimäki, O. T. Raitakari, G. Biino, M. P. Concas, T. H. Schwantes-An, R. P. Igo, G. Cuellar-Partida, N. G. Martin, J. E. Craig, P. Gharahkhani, K. M. Williams, A. Nag, J. S. Rahi, P. M. Cumberland, C. Delcourt, C. Bellenguez, J. S. Ried, A. A. Bergen, T. Meitinger, C. Gieger, T. Y. Wong, A. W. Hewitt, D. A. Mackey, C. L. Simpson, N. Pfeiffer, O. Pärssinen, P. N. Baird, V. Vitart, N. Amin, C. M. van Duijn, J. E. Bailey-Wilson, T. L. Young, S. M. Saw, D. Stambolian, S. MacGregor, J. A. Guggenheim, J. Y. Tung, C. J. Hammond, and C. C. W. Klaver, “Genome-wide association meta-analysis highlights light-induced signaling as a driver for refractive error,” Nat. Genet. 50(6), 834–848 (2018).
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J. W. Tideman, Q. Fan, J. R. Polling, X. Guo, S. Yazar, A. Khawaja, R. Höhn, Y. Lu, V. W. Jaddoe, K. Yamashiro, M. Yoshikawa, A. Gerhold-Ay, S. Nickels, T. Zeller, M. He, T. Boutin, G. Bencic, V. Vitart, D. A. Mackey, P. J. Foster, S. MacGregor, C. Williams, S. M. Saw, J. A. Guggenheim, and C. C. Klaver, “When do myopia genes have their effect? Comparison of genetic risks between children and adults,” Genet. Epidemiol. 40(8), 756–766 (2016).
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Y. P. Chen, A. Prashar, J. T. Erichsen, C. H. To, P. M. Hocking, and J. A. Guggenheim, “Heritability of ocular component dimensions in chickens: genetic variants controlling susceptibility to experimentally induced myopia and pretreatment eye size are distinct,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(7), 4012–4020 (2011).
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Guillaud, M.

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 7–16 (2003).
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Guo, X.

J. W. Tideman, Q. Fan, J. R. Polling, X. Guo, S. Yazar, A. Khawaja, R. Höhn, Y. Lu, V. W. Jaddoe, K. Yamashiro, M. Yoshikawa, A. Gerhold-Ay, S. Nickels, T. Zeller, M. He, T. Boutin, G. Bencic, V. Vitart, D. A. Mackey, P. J. Foster, S. MacGregor, C. Williams, S. M. Saw, J. A. Guggenheim, and C. C. Klaver, “When do myopia genes have their effect? Comparison of genetic risks between children and adults,” Genet. Epidemiol. 40(8), 756–766 (2016).
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Gupta, P.

M. S. Tedja, R. Wojciechowski, P. G. Hysi, N. Eriksson, N. A. Furlotte, V. J. M. Verhoeven, A. I. Iglesias, M. A. Meester-Smoor, S. W. Tompson, Q. Fan, A. P. Khawaja, C. Y. Cheng, R. Höhn, K. Yamashiro, A. Wenocur, C. Grazal, T. Haller, A. Metspalu, J. Wedenoja, J. B. Jonas, Y. X. Wang, J. Xie, P. Mitchell, P. J. Foster, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, A. D. Paterson, S. M. Hosseini, R. L. Shah, C. Williams, Y. Y. Teo, Y. C. Tham, P. Gupta, W. Zhao, Y. Shi, W. Y. Saw, E. S. Tai, X. L. Sim, J. E. Huffman, O. Polašek, C. Hayward, G. Bencic, I. Rudan, J. F. Wilson, P. K. Joshi, A. Tsujikawa, F. Matsuda, K. N. Whisenhunt, T. Zeller, P. J. van der Spek, R. Haak, H. Meijers-Heijboer, E. M. van Leeuwen, S. K. Iyengar, J. H. Lass, A. Hofman, F. Rivadeneira, A. G. Uitterlinden, J. R. Vingerling, T. Lehtimäki, O. T. Raitakari, G. Biino, M. P. Concas, T. H. Schwantes-An, R. P. Igo, G. Cuellar-Partida, N. G. Martin, J. E. Craig, P. Gharahkhani, K. M. Williams, A. Nag, J. S. Rahi, P. M. Cumberland, C. Delcourt, C. Bellenguez, J. S. Ried, A. A. Bergen, T. Meitinger, C. Gieger, T. Y. Wong, A. W. Hewitt, D. A. Mackey, C. L. Simpson, N. Pfeiffer, O. Pärssinen, P. N. Baird, V. Vitart, N. Amin, C. M. van Duijn, J. E. Bailey-Wilson, T. L. Young, S. M. Saw, D. Stambolian, S. MacGregor, J. A. Guggenheim, J. Y. Tung, C. J. Hammond, and C. C. W. Klaver, “Genome-wide association meta-analysis highlights light-induced signaling as a driver for refractive error,” Nat. Genet. 50(6), 834–848 (2018).
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Haak, R.

M. S. Tedja, R. Wojciechowski, P. G. Hysi, N. Eriksson, N. A. Furlotte, V. J. M. Verhoeven, A. I. Iglesias, M. A. Meester-Smoor, S. W. Tompson, Q. Fan, A. P. Khawaja, C. Y. Cheng, R. Höhn, K. Yamashiro, A. Wenocur, C. Grazal, T. Haller, A. Metspalu, J. Wedenoja, J. B. Jonas, Y. X. Wang, J. Xie, P. Mitchell, P. J. Foster, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, A. D. Paterson, S. M. Hosseini, R. L. Shah, C. Williams, Y. Y. Teo, Y. C. Tham, P. Gupta, W. Zhao, Y. Shi, W. Y. Saw, E. S. Tai, X. L. Sim, J. E. Huffman, O. Polašek, C. Hayward, G. Bencic, I. Rudan, J. F. Wilson, P. K. Joshi, A. Tsujikawa, F. Matsuda, K. N. Whisenhunt, T. Zeller, P. J. van der Spek, R. Haak, H. Meijers-Heijboer, E. M. van Leeuwen, S. K. Iyengar, J. H. Lass, A. Hofman, F. Rivadeneira, A. G. Uitterlinden, J. R. Vingerling, T. Lehtimäki, O. T. Raitakari, G. Biino, M. P. Concas, T. H. Schwantes-An, R. P. Igo, G. Cuellar-Partida, N. G. Martin, J. E. Craig, P. Gharahkhani, K. M. Williams, A. Nag, J. S. Rahi, P. M. Cumberland, C. Delcourt, C. Bellenguez, J. S. Ried, A. A. Bergen, T. Meitinger, C. Gieger, T. Y. Wong, A. W. Hewitt, D. A. Mackey, C. L. Simpson, N. Pfeiffer, O. Pärssinen, P. N. Baird, V. Vitart, N. Amin, C. M. van Duijn, J. E. Bailey-Wilson, T. L. Young, S. M. Saw, D. Stambolian, S. MacGregor, J. A. Guggenheim, J. Y. Tung, C. J. Hammond, and C. C. W. Klaver, “Genome-wide association meta-analysis highlights light-induced signaling as a driver for refractive error,” Nat. Genet. 50(6), 834–848 (2018).
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Haller, T.

M. S. Tedja, R. Wojciechowski, P. G. Hysi, N. Eriksson, N. A. Furlotte, V. J. M. Verhoeven, A. I. Iglesias, M. A. Meester-Smoor, S. W. Tompson, Q. Fan, A. P. Khawaja, C. Y. Cheng, R. Höhn, K. Yamashiro, A. Wenocur, C. Grazal, T. Haller, A. Metspalu, J. Wedenoja, J. B. Jonas, Y. X. Wang, J. Xie, P. Mitchell, P. J. Foster, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, A. D. Paterson, S. M. Hosseini, R. L. Shah, C. Williams, Y. Y. Teo, Y. C. Tham, P. Gupta, W. Zhao, Y. Shi, W. Y. Saw, E. S. Tai, X. L. Sim, J. E. Huffman, O. Polašek, C. Hayward, G. Bencic, I. Rudan, J. F. Wilson, P. K. Joshi, A. Tsujikawa, F. Matsuda, K. N. Whisenhunt, T. Zeller, P. J. van der Spek, R. Haak, H. Meijers-Heijboer, E. M. van Leeuwen, S. K. Iyengar, J. H. Lass, A. Hofman, F. Rivadeneira, A. G. Uitterlinden, J. R. Vingerling, T. Lehtimäki, O. T. Raitakari, G. Biino, M. P. Concas, T. H. Schwantes-An, R. P. Igo, G. Cuellar-Partida, N. G. Martin, J. E. Craig, P. Gharahkhani, K. M. Williams, A. Nag, J. S. Rahi, P. M. Cumberland, C. Delcourt, C. Bellenguez, J. S. Ried, A. A. Bergen, T. Meitinger, C. Gieger, T. Y. Wong, A. W. Hewitt, D. A. Mackey, C. L. Simpson, N. Pfeiffer, O. Pärssinen, P. N. Baird, V. Vitart, N. Amin, C. M. van Duijn, J. E. Bailey-Wilson, T. L. Young, S. M. Saw, D. Stambolian, S. MacGregor, J. A. Guggenheim, J. Y. Tung, C. J. Hammond, and C. C. W. Klaver, “Genome-wide association meta-analysis highlights light-induced signaling as a driver for refractive error,” Nat. Genet. 50(6), 834–848 (2018).
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Hammel, N.

N. Hammel, A. Belghith, R. N. Weinreb, F. A. Medeiros, N. Mendoza, and L. M. Zangwill, “Comparing the rates of retinal nerve fiber layer and ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer loss in healthy eyes and in glaucoma eyes,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 178, 38–50 (2017).
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Hammond, C. J.

M. S. Tedja, R. Wojciechowski, P. G. Hysi, N. Eriksson, N. A. Furlotte, V. J. M. Verhoeven, A. I. Iglesias, M. A. Meester-Smoor, S. W. Tompson, Q. Fan, A. P. Khawaja, C. Y. Cheng, R. Höhn, K. Yamashiro, A. Wenocur, C. Grazal, T. Haller, A. Metspalu, J. Wedenoja, J. B. Jonas, Y. X. Wang, J. Xie, P. Mitchell, P. J. Foster, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, A. D. Paterson, S. M. Hosseini, R. L. Shah, C. Williams, Y. Y. Teo, Y. C. Tham, P. Gupta, W. Zhao, Y. Shi, W. Y. Saw, E. S. Tai, X. L. Sim, J. E. Huffman, O. Polašek, C. Hayward, G. Bencic, I. Rudan, J. F. Wilson, P. K. Joshi, A. Tsujikawa, F. Matsuda, K. N. Whisenhunt, T. Zeller, P. J. van der Spek, R. Haak, H. Meijers-Heijboer, E. M. van Leeuwen, S. K. Iyengar, J. H. Lass, A. Hofman, F. Rivadeneira, A. G. Uitterlinden, J. R. Vingerling, T. Lehtimäki, O. T. Raitakari, G. Biino, M. P. Concas, T. H. Schwantes-An, R. P. Igo, G. Cuellar-Partida, N. G. Martin, J. E. Craig, P. Gharahkhani, K. M. Williams, A. Nag, J. S. Rahi, P. M. Cumberland, C. Delcourt, C. Bellenguez, J. S. Ried, A. A. Bergen, T. Meitinger, C. Gieger, T. Y. Wong, A. W. Hewitt, D. A. Mackey, C. L. Simpson, N. Pfeiffer, O. Pärssinen, P. N. Baird, V. Vitart, N. Amin, C. M. van Duijn, J. E. Bailey-Wilson, T. L. Young, S. M. Saw, D. Stambolian, S. MacGregor, J. A. Guggenheim, J. Y. Tung, C. J. Hammond, and C. C. W. Klaver, “Genome-wide association meta-analysis highlights light-induced signaling as a driver for refractive error,” Nat. Genet. 50(6), 834–848 (2018).
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Hanazono, G.

G. Hanazono, K. Tsunoda, K. Shinoda, K. Tsubota, Y. Miyake, and M. Tanifuji, “Intrinsic signal imaging in macaque retina reveals different types of flash-induced light reflectance changes of different origins,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(6), 2903–2912 (2007).
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Harino, S.

C. E. Riva, S. Harino, R. D. Shonat, and B. L. Petrig, “Flicker evoked increase in optic nerve head blood flow in anesthetized cats,” Neurosci. Lett. 128(2), 291–296 (1991).
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Hariri, S.

Hayward, C.

M. S. Tedja, R. Wojciechowski, P. G. Hysi, N. Eriksson, N. A. Furlotte, V. J. M. Verhoeven, A. I. Iglesias, M. A. Meester-Smoor, S. W. Tompson, Q. Fan, A. P. Khawaja, C. Y. Cheng, R. Höhn, K. Yamashiro, A. Wenocur, C. Grazal, T. Haller, A. Metspalu, J. Wedenoja, J. B. Jonas, Y. X. Wang, J. Xie, P. Mitchell, P. J. Foster, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, A. D. Paterson, S. M. Hosseini, R. L. Shah, C. Williams, Y. Y. Teo, Y. C. Tham, P. Gupta, W. Zhao, Y. Shi, W. Y. Saw, E. S. Tai, X. L. Sim, J. E. Huffman, O. Polašek, C. Hayward, G. Bencic, I. Rudan, J. F. Wilson, P. K. Joshi, A. Tsujikawa, F. Matsuda, K. N. Whisenhunt, T. Zeller, P. J. van der Spek, R. Haak, H. Meijers-Heijboer, E. M. van Leeuwen, S. K. Iyengar, J. H. Lass, A. Hofman, F. Rivadeneira, A. G. Uitterlinden, J. R. Vingerling, T. Lehtimäki, O. T. Raitakari, G. Biino, M. P. Concas, T. H. Schwantes-An, R. P. Igo, G. Cuellar-Partida, N. G. Martin, J. E. Craig, P. Gharahkhani, K. M. Williams, A. Nag, J. S. Rahi, P. M. Cumberland, C. Delcourt, C. Bellenguez, J. S. Ried, A. A. Bergen, T. Meitinger, C. Gieger, T. Y. Wong, A. W. Hewitt, D. A. Mackey, C. L. Simpson, N. Pfeiffer, O. Pärssinen, P. N. Baird, V. Vitart, N. Amin, C. M. van Duijn, J. E. Bailey-Wilson, T. L. Young, S. M. Saw, D. Stambolian, S. MacGregor, J. A. Guggenheim, J. Y. Tung, C. J. Hammond, and C. C. W. Klaver, “Genome-wide association meta-analysis highlights light-induced signaling as a driver for refractive error,” Nat. Genet. 50(6), 834–848 (2018).
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He, M.

J. W. Tideman, Q. Fan, J. R. Polling, X. Guo, S. Yazar, A. Khawaja, R. Höhn, Y. Lu, V. W. Jaddoe, K. Yamashiro, M. Yoshikawa, A. Gerhold-Ay, S. Nickels, T. Zeller, M. He, T. Boutin, G. Bencic, V. Vitart, D. A. Mackey, P. J. Foster, S. MacGregor, C. Williams, S. M. Saw, J. A. Guggenheim, and C. C. Klaver, “When do myopia genes have their effect? Comparison of genetic risks between children and adults,” Genet. Epidemiol. 40(8), 756–766 (2016).
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Heß, M.

J. L. Sinclair, M. J. Fischl, O. Alexandrova, M. Heβ, B. Grothe, C. Leibold, and C. Kopp-Scheinpflug, “Sound-evoked activity influences myelination of brainstem axons in the trapezoid body,” J. Neurosci. 37(34), 8239–8255 (2017).
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Hewitt, A. W.

M. S. Tedja, R. Wojciechowski, P. G. Hysi, N. Eriksson, N. A. Furlotte, V. J. M. Verhoeven, A. I. Iglesias, M. A. Meester-Smoor, S. W. Tompson, Q. Fan, A. P. Khawaja, C. Y. Cheng, R. Höhn, K. Yamashiro, A. Wenocur, C. Grazal, T. Haller, A. Metspalu, J. Wedenoja, J. B. Jonas, Y. X. Wang, J. Xie, P. Mitchell, P. J. Foster, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, A. D. Paterson, S. M. Hosseini, R. L. Shah, C. Williams, Y. Y. Teo, Y. C. Tham, P. Gupta, W. Zhao, Y. Shi, W. Y. Saw, E. S. Tai, X. L. Sim, J. E. Huffman, O. Polašek, C. Hayward, G. Bencic, I. Rudan, J. F. Wilson, P. K. Joshi, A. Tsujikawa, F. Matsuda, K. N. Whisenhunt, T. Zeller, P. J. van der Spek, R. Haak, H. Meijers-Heijboer, E. M. van Leeuwen, S. K. Iyengar, J. H. Lass, A. Hofman, F. Rivadeneira, A. G. Uitterlinden, J. R. Vingerling, T. Lehtimäki, O. T. Raitakari, G. Biino, M. P. Concas, T. H. Schwantes-An, R. P. Igo, G. Cuellar-Partida, N. G. Martin, J. E. Craig, P. Gharahkhani, K. M. Williams, A. Nag, J. S. Rahi, P. M. Cumberland, C. Delcourt, C. Bellenguez, J. S. Ried, A. A. Bergen, T. Meitinger, C. Gieger, T. Y. Wong, A. W. Hewitt, D. A. Mackey, C. L. Simpson, N. Pfeiffer, O. Pärssinen, P. N. Baird, V. Vitart, N. Amin, C. M. van Duijn, J. E. Bailey-Wilson, T. L. Young, S. M. Saw, D. Stambolian, S. MacGregor, J. A. Guggenheim, J. Y. Tung, C. J. Hammond, and C. C. W. Klaver, “Genome-wide association meta-analysis highlights light-induced signaling as a driver for refractive error,” Nat. Genet. 50(6), 834–848 (2018).
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Hillmann, D.

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Pfäffle, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, and G. Hüttmann, “In vivo optical imaging of physiological responses to photostimulation in human photoreceptors,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113(46), 13138–13143 (2016).
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Hocking, P. M.

Y. P. Chen, A. Prashar, J. T. Erichsen, C. H. To, P. M. Hocking, and J. A. Guggenheim, “Heritability of ocular component dimensions in chickens: genetic variants controlling susceptibility to experimentally induced myopia and pretreatment eye size are distinct,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(7), 4012–4020 (2011).
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Hofman, A.

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K. M. Williams, G. Bertelsen, P. Cumberland, C. Wolfram, V. J. Verhoeven, E. Anastasopoulos, G. H. Buitendijk, A. Cougnard-Grégoire, C. Creuzot-Garcher, M. G. Erke, R. Hogg, R. Höhn, P. Hysi, A. P. Khawaja, J. F. Korobelnik, J. Ried, J. R. Vingerling, A. Bron, J. F. Dartigues, A. Fletcher, A. Hofman, R. W. Kuijpers, R. N. Luben, K. Oxele, F. Topouzis, T. von Hanno, A. Mirshahi, P. J. Foster, C. M. van Duijn, N. Pfeiffer, C. Delcourt, C. C. Klaver, J. Rahi, C. J. Hammond, and European Eye Epidemiology (E(3)) Consortium, “Increasing Prevalence of Myopia in Europe and the Impact of Education,” Ophthalmology 122(7), 1489–1497 (2015).
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Hogg, R.

K. M. Williams, G. Bertelsen, P. Cumberland, C. Wolfram, V. J. Verhoeven, E. Anastasopoulos, G. H. Buitendijk, A. Cougnard-Grégoire, C. Creuzot-Garcher, M. G. Erke, R. Hogg, R. Höhn, P. Hysi, A. P. Khawaja, J. F. Korobelnik, J. Ried, J. R. Vingerling, A. Bron, J. F. Dartigues, A. Fletcher, A. Hofman, R. W. Kuijpers, R. N. Luben, K. Oxele, F. Topouzis, T. von Hanno, A. Mirshahi, P. J. Foster, C. M. van Duijn, N. Pfeiffer, C. Delcourt, C. C. Klaver, J. Rahi, C. J. Hammond, and European Eye Epidemiology (E(3)) Consortium, “Increasing Prevalence of Myopia in Europe and the Impact of Education,” Ophthalmology 122(7), 1489–1497 (2015).
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Höhn, R.

M. S. Tedja, R. Wojciechowski, P. G. Hysi, N. Eriksson, N. A. Furlotte, V. J. M. Verhoeven, A. I. Iglesias, M. A. Meester-Smoor, S. W. Tompson, Q. Fan, A. P. Khawaja, C. Y. Cheng, R. Höhn, K. Yamashiro, A. Wenocur, C. Grazal, T. Haller, A. Metspalu, J. Wedenoja, J. B. Jonas, Y. X. Wang, J. Xie, P. Mitchell, P. J. Foster, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, A. D. Paterson, S. M. Hosseini, R. L. Shah, C. Williams, Y. Y. Teo, Y. C. Tham, P. Gupta, W. Zhao, Y. Shi, W. Y. Saw, E. S. Tai, X. L. Sim, J. E. Huffman, O. Polašek, C. Hayward, G. Bencic, I. Rudan, J. F. Wilson, P. K. Joshi, A. Tsujikawa, F. Matsuda, K. N. Whisenhunt, T. Zeller, P. J. van der Spek, R. Haak, H. Meijers-Heijboer, E. M. van Leeuwen, S. K. Iyengar, J. H. Lass, A. Hofman, F. Rivadeneira, A. G. Uitterlinden, J. R. Vingerling, T. Lehtimäki, O. T. Raitakari, G. Biino, M. P. Concas, T. H. Schwantes-An, R. P. Igo, G. Cuellar-Partida, N. G. Martin, J. E. Craig, P. Gharahkhani, K. M. Williams, A. Nag, J. S. Rahi, P. M. Cumberland, C. Delcourt, C. Bellenguez, J. S. Ried, A. A. Bergen, T. Meitinger, C. Gieger, T. Y. Wong, A. W. Hewitt, D. A. Mackey, C. L. Simpson, N. Pfeiffer, O. Pärssinen, P. N. Baird, V. Vitart, N. Amin, C. M. van Duijn, J. E. Bailey-Wilson, T. L. Young, S. M. Saw, D. Stambolian, S. MacGregor, J. A. Guggenheim, J. Y. Tung, C. J. Hammond, and C. C. W. Klaver, “Genome-wide association meta-analysis highlights light-induced signaling as a driver for refractive error,” Nat. Genet. 50(6), 834–848 (2018).
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Hüttmann, G.

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Pfäffle, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, and G. Hüttmann, “In vivo optical imaging of physiological responses to photostimulation in human photoreceptors,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113(46), 13138–13143 (2016).
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Hysi, P.

K. M. Williams, G. Bertelsen, P. Cumberland, C. Wolfram, V. J. Verhoeven, E. Anastasopoulos, G. H. Buitendijk, A. Cougnard-Grégoire, C. Creuzot-Garcher, M. G. Erke, R. Hogg, R. Höhn, P. Hysi, A. P. Khawaja, J. F. Korobelnik, J. Ried, J. R. Vingerling, A. Bron, J. F. Dartigues, A. Fletcher, A. Hofman, R. W. Kuijpers, R. N. Luben, K. Oxele, F. Topouzis, T. von Hanno, A. Mirshahi, P. J. Foster, C. M. van Duijn, N. Pfeiffer, C. Delcourt, C. C. Klaver, J. Rahi, C. J. Hammond, and European Eye Epidemiology (E(3)) Consortium, “Increasing Prevalence of Myopia in Europe and the Impact of Education,” Ophthalmology 122(7), 1489–1497 (2015).
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Hysi, P. G.

M. S. Tedja, R. Wojciechowski, P. G. Hysi, N. Eriksson, N. A. Furlotte, V. J. M. Verhoeven, A. I. Iglesias, M. A. Meester-Smoor, S. W. Tompson, Q. Fan, A. P. Khawaja, C. Y. Cheng, R. Höhn, K. Yamashiro, A. Wenocur, C. Grazal, T. Haller, A. Metspalu, J. Wedenoja, J. B. Jonas, Y. X. Wang, J. Xie, P. Mitchell, P. J. Foster, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, A. D. Paterson, S. M. Hosseini, R. L. Shah, C. Williams, Y. Y. Teo, Y. C. Tham, P. Gupta, W. Zhao, Y. Shi, W. Y. Saw, E. S. Tai, X. L. Sim, J. E. Huffman, O. Polašek, C. Hayward, G. Bencic, I. Rudan, J. F. Wilson, P. K. Joshi, A. Tsujikawa, F. Matsuda, K. N. Whisenhunt, T. Zeller, P. J. van der Spek, R. Haak, H. Meijers-Heijboer, E. M. van Leeuwen, S. K. Iyengar, J. H. Lass, A. Hofman, F. Rivadeneira, A. G. Uitterlinden, J. R. Vingerling, T. Lehtimäki, O. T. Raitakari, G. Biino, M. P. Concas, T. H. Schwantes-An, R. P. Igo, G. Cuellar-Partida, N. G. Martin, J. E. Craig, P. Gharahkhani, K. M. Williams, A. Nag, J. S. Rahi, P. M. Cumberland, C. Delcourt, C. Bellenguez, J. S. Ried, A. A. Bergen, T. Meitinger, C. Gieger, T. Y. Wong, A. W. Hewitt, D. A. Mackey, C. L. Simpson, N. Pfeiffer, O. Pärssinen, P. N. Baird, V. Vitart, N. Amin, C. M. van Duijn, J. E. Bailey-Wilson, T. L. Young, S. M. Saw, D. Stambolian, S. MacGregor, J. A. Guggenheim, J. Y. Tung, C. J. Hammond, and C. C. W. Klaver, “Genome-wide association meta-analysis highlights light-induced signaling as a driver for refractive error,” Nat. Genet. 50(6), 834–848 (2018).
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Iglesias, A. I.

M. S. Tedja, R. Wojciechowski, P. G. Hysi, N. Eriksson, N. A. Furlotte, V. J. M. Verhoeven, A. I. Iglesias, M. A. Meester-Smoor, S. W. Tompson, Q. Fan, A. P. Khawaja, C. Y. Cheng, R. Höhn, K. Yamashiro, A. Wenocur, C. Grazal, T. Haller, A. Metspalu, J. Wedenoja, J. B. Jonas, Y. X. Wang, J. Xie, P. Mitchell, P. J. Foster, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, A. D. Paterson, S. M. Hosseini, R. L. Shah, C. Williams, Y. Y. Teo, Y. C. Tham, P. Gupta, W. Zhao, Y. Shi, W. Y. Saw, E. S. Tai, X. L. Sim, J. E. Huffman, O. Polašek, C. Hayward, G. Bencic, I. Rudan, J. F. Wilson, P. K. Joshi, A. Tsujikawa, F. Matsuda, K. N. Whisenhunt, T. Zeller, P. J. van der Spek, R. Haak, H. Meijers-Heijboer, E. M. van Leeuwen, S. K. Iyengar, J. H. Lass, A. Hofman, F. Rivadeneira, A. G. Uitterlinden, J. R. Vingerling, T. Lehtimäki, O. T. Raitakari, G. Biino, M. P. Concas, T. H. Schwantes-An, R. P. Igo, G. Cuellar-Partida, N. G. Martin, J. E. Craig, P. Gharahkhani, K. M. Williams, A. Nag, J. S. Rahi, P. M. Cumberland, C. Delcourt, C. Bellenguez, J. S. Ried, A. A. Bergen, T. Meitinger, C. Gieger, T. Y. Wong, A. W. Hewitt, D. A. Mackey, C. L. Simpson, N. Pfeiffer, O. Pärssinen, P. N. Baird, V. Vitart, N. Amin, C. M. van Duijn, J. E. Bailey-Wilson, T. L. Young, S. M. Saw, D. Stambolian, S. MacGregor, J. A. Guggenheim, J. Y. Tung, C. J. Hammond, and C. C. W. Klaver, “Genome-wide association meta-analysis highlights light-induced signaling as a driver for refractive error,” Nat. Genet. 50(6), 834–848 (2018).
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Igo, R. P.

M. S. Tedja, R. Wojciechowski, P. G. Hysi, N. Eriksson, N. A. Furlotte, V. J. M. Verhoeven, A. I. Iglesias, M. A. Meester-Smoor, S. W. Tompson, Q. Fan, A. P. Khawaja, C. Y. Cheng, R. Höhn, K. Yamashiro, A. Wenocur, C. Grazal, T. Haller, A. Metspalu, J. Wedenoja, J. B. Jonas, Y. X. Wang, J. Xie, P. Mitchell, P. J. Foster, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, A. D. Paterson, S. M. Hosseini, R. L. Shah, C. Williams, Y. Y. Teo, Y. C. Tham, P. Gupta, W. Zhao, Y. Shi, W. Y. Saw, E. S. Tai, X. L. Sim, J. E. Huffman, O. Polašek, C. Hayward, G. Bencic, I. Rudan, J. F. Wilson, P. K. Joshi, A. Tsujikawa, F. Matsuda, K. N. Whisenhunt, T. Zeller, P. J. van der Spek, R. Haak, H. Meijers-Heijboer, E. M. van Leeuwen, S. K. Iyengar, J. H. Lass, A. Hofman, F. Rivadeneira, A. G. Uitterlinden, J. R. Vingerling, T. Lehtimäki, O. T. Raitakari, G. Biino, M. P. Concas, T. H. Schwantes-An, R. P. Igo, G. Cuellar-Partida, N. G. Martin, J. E. Craig, P. Gharahkhani, K. M. Williams, A. Nag, J. S. Rahi, P. M. Cumberland, C. Delcourt, C. Bellenguez, J. S. Ried, A. A. Bergen, T. Meitinger, C. Gieger, T. Y. Wong, A. W. Hewitt, D. A. Mackey, C. L. Simpson, N. Pfeiffer, O. Pärssinen, P. N. Baird, V. Vitart, N. Amin, C. M. van Duijn, J. E. Bailey-Wilson, T. L. Young, S. M. Saw, D. Stambolian, S. MacGregor, J. A. Guggenheim, J. Y. Tung, C. J. Hammond, and C. C. W. Klaver, “Genome-wide association meta-analysis highlights light-induced signaling as a driver for refractive error,” Nat. Genet. 50(6), 834–848 (2018).
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Iyengar, S. K.

M. S. Tedja, R. Wojciechowski, P. G. Hysi, N. Eriksson, N. A. Furlotte, V. J. M. Verhoeven, A. I. Iglesias, M. A. Meester-Smoor, S. W. Tompson, Q. Fan, A. P. Khawaja, C. Y. Cheng, R. Höhn, K. Yamashiro, A. Wenocur, C. Grazal, T. Haller, A. Metspalu, J. Wedenoja, J. B. Jonas, Y. X. Wang, J. Xie, P. Mitchell, P. J. Foster, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, A. D. Paterson, S. M. Hosseini, R. L. Shah, C. Williams, Y. Y. Teo, Y. C. Tham, P. Gupta, W. Zhao, Y. Shi, W. Y. Saw, E. S. Tai, X. L. Sim, J. E. Huffman, O. Polašek, C. Hayward, G. Bencic, I. Rudan, J. F. Wilson, P. K. Joshi, A. Tsujikawa, F. Matsuda, K. N. Whisenhunt, T. Zeller, P. J. van der Spek, R. Haak, H. Meijers-Heijboer, E. M. van Leeuwen, S. K. Iyengar, J. H. Lass, A. Hofman, F. Rivadeneira, A. G. Uitterlinden, J. R. Vingerling, T. Lehtimäki, O. T. Raitakari, G. Biino, M. P. Concas, T. H. Schwantes-An, R. P. Igo, G. Cuellar-Partida, N. G. Martin, J. E. Craig, P. Gharahkhani, K. M. Williams, A. Nag, J. S. Rahi, P. M. Cumberland, C. Delcourt, C. Bellenguez, J. S. Ried, A. A. Bergen, T. Meitinger, C. Gieger, T. Y. Wong, A. W. Hewitt, D. A. Mackey, C. L. Simpson, N. Pfeiffer, O. Pärssinen, P. N. Baird, V. Vitart, N. Amin, C. M. van Duijn, J. E. Bailey-Wilson, T. L. Young, S. M. Saw, D. Stambolian, S. MacGregor, J. A. Guggenheim, J. Y. Tung, C. J. Hammond, and C. C. W. Klaver, “Genome-wide association meta-analysis highlights light-induced signaling as a driver for refractive error,” Nat. Genet. 50(6), 834–848 (2018).
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K. M. Williams, G. Bertelsen, P. Cumberland, C. Wolfram, V. J. Verhoeven, E. Anastasopoulos, G. H. Buitendijk, A. Cougnard-Grégoire, C. Creuzot-Garcher, M. G. Erke, R. Hogg, R. Höhn, P. Hysi, A. P. Khawaja, J. F. Korobelnik, J. Ried, J. R. Vingerling, A. Bron, J. F. Dartigues, A. Fletcher, A. Hofman, R. W. Kuijpers, R. N. Luben, K. Oxele, F. Topouzis, T. von Hanno, A. Mirshahi, P. J. Foster, C. M. van Duijn, N. Pfeiffer, C. Delcourt, C. C. Klaver, J. Rahi, C. J. Hammond, and European Eye Epidemiology (E(3)) Consortium, “Increasing Prevalence of Myopia in Europe and the Impact of Education,” Ophthalmology 122(7), 1489–1497 (2015).
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M. S. Tedja, R. Wojciechowski, P. G. Hysi, N. Eriksson, N. A. Furlotte, V. J. M. Verhoeven, A. I. Iglesias, M. A. Meester-Smoor, S. W. Tompson, Q. Fan, A. P. Khawaja, C. Y. Cheng, R. Höhn, K. Yamashiro, A. Wenocur, C. Grazal, T. Haller, A. Metspalu, J. Wedenoja, J. B. Jonas, Y. X. Wang, J. Xie, P. Mitchell, P. J. Foster, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, A. D. Paterson, S. M. Hosseini, R. L. Shah, C. Williams, Y. Y. Teo, Y. C. Tham, P. Gupta, W. Zhao, Y. Shi, W. Y. Saw, E. S. Tai, X. L. Sim, J. E. Huffman, O. Polašek, C. Hayward, G. Bencic, I. Rudan, J. F. Wilson, P. K. Joshi, A. Tsujikawa, F. Matsuda, K. N. Whisenhunt, T. Zeller, P. J. van der Spek, R. Haak, H. Meijers-Heijboer, E. M. van Leeuwen, S. K. Iyengar, J. H. Lass, A. Hofman, F. Rivadeneira, A. G. Uitterlinden, J. R. Vingerling, T. Lehtimäki, O. T. Raitakari, G. Biino, M. P. Concas, T. H. Schwantes-An, R. P. Igo, G. Cuellar-Partida, N. G. Martin, J. E. Craig, P. Gharahkhani, K. M. Williams, A. Nag, J. S. Rahi, P. M. Cumberland, C. Delcourt, C. Bellenguez, J. S. Ried, A. A. Bergen, T. Meitinger, C. Gieger, T. Y. Wong, A. W. Hewitt, D. A. Mackey, C. L. Simpson, N. Pfeiffer, O. Pärssinen, P. N. Baird, V. Vitart, N. Amin, C. M. van Duijn, J. E. Bailey-Wilson, T. L. Young, S. M. Saw, D. Stambolian, S. MacGregor, J. A. Guggenheim, J. Y. Tung, C. J. Hammond, and C. C. W. Klaver, “Genome-wide association meta-analysis highlights light-induced signaling as a driver for refractive error,” Nat. Genet. 50(6), 834–848 (2018).
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Wilhelm, H.

M. Choi, S. Weiss, F. Schaeffel, A. Seidemann, H. C. Howland, B. Wilhelm, and H. Wilhelm, “Laboratory, clinical, and kindergarten test of a new eccentric infrared photorefractor (PowerRefractor),” Optom. Vis. Sci. 77(10), 537–548 (2000).
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Williams, C.

M. S. Tedja, R. Wojciechowski, P. G. Hysi, N. Eriksson, N. A. Furlotte, V. J. M. Verhoeven, A. I. Iglesias, M. A. Meester-Smoor, S. W. Tompson, Q. Fan, A. P. Khawaja, C. Y. Cheng, R. Höhn, K. Yamashiro, A. Wenocur, C. Grazal, T. Haller, A. Metspalu, J. Wedenoja, J. B. Jonas, Y. X. Wang, J. Xie, P. Mitchell, P. J. Foster, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, A. D. Paterson, S. M. Hosseini, R. L. Shah, C. Williams, Y. Y. Teo, Y. C. Tham, P. Gupta, W. Zhao, Y. Shi, W. Y. Saw, E. S. Tai, X. L. Sim, J. E. Huffman, O. Polašek, C. Hayward, G. Bencic, I. Rudan, J. F. Wilson, P. K. Joshi, A. Tsujikawa, F. Matsuda, K. N. Whisenhunt, T. Zeller, P. J. van der Spek, R. Haak, H. Meijers-Heijboer, E. M. van Leeuwen, S. K. Iyengar, J. H. Lass, A. Hofman, F. Rivadeneira, A. G. Uitterlinden, J. R. Vingerling, T. Lehtimäki, O. T. Raitakari, G. Biino, M. P. Concas, T. H. Schwantes-An, R. P. Igo, G. Cuellar-Partida, N. G. Martin, J. E. Craig, P. Gharahkhani, K. M. Williams, A. Nag, J. S. Rahi, P. M. Cumberland, C. Delcourt, C. Bellenguez, J. S. Ried, A. A. Bergen, T. Meitinger, C. Gieger, T. Y. Wong, A. W. Hewitt, D. A. Mackey, C. L. Simpson, N. Pfeiffer, O. Pärssinen, P. N. Baird, V. Vitart, N. Amin, C. M. van Duijn, J. E. Bailey-Wilson, T. L. Young, S. M. Saw, D. Stambolian, S. MacGregor, J. A. Guggenheim, J. Y. Tung, C. J. Hammond, and C. C. W. Klaver, “Genome-wide association meta-analysis highlights light-induced signaling as a driver for refractive error,” Nat. Genet. 50(6), 834–848 (2018).
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Williams, K. M.

M. S. Tedja, R. Wojciechowski, P. G. Hysi, N. Eriksson, N. A. Furlotte, V. J. M. Verhoeven, A. I. Iglesias, M. A. Meester-Smoor, S. W. Tompson, Q. Fan, A. P. Khawaja, C. Y. Cheng, R. Höhn, K. Yamashiro, A. Wenocur, C. Grazal, T. Haller, A. Metspalu, J. Wedenoja, J. B. Jonas, Y. X. Wang, J. Xie, P. Mitchell, P. J. Foster, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, A. D. Paterson, S. M. Hosseini, R. L. Shah, C. Williams, Y. Y. Teo, Y. C. Tham, P. Gupta, W. Zhao, Y. Shi, W. Y. Saw, E. S. Tai, X. L. Sim, J. E. Huffman, O. Polašek, C. Hayward, G. Bencic, I. Rudan, J. F. Wilson, P. K. Joshi, A. Tsujikawa, F. Matsuda, K. N. Whisenhunt, T. Zeller, P. J. van der Spek, R. Haak, H. Meijers-Heijboer, E. M. van Leeuwen, S. K. Iyengar, J. H. Lass, A. Hofman, F. Rivadeneira, A. G. Uitterlinden, J. R. Vingerling, T. Lehtimäki, O. T. Raitakari, G. Biino, M. P. Concas, T. H. Schwantes-An, R. P. Igo, G. Cuellar-Partida, N. G. Martin, J. E. Craig, P. Gharahkhani, K. M. Williams, A. Nag, J. S. Rahi, P. M. Cumberland, C. Delcourt, C. Bellenguez, J. S. Ried, A. A. Bergen, T. Meitinger, C. Gieger, T. Y. Wong, A. W. Hewitt, D. A. Mackey, C. L. Simpson, N. Pfeiffer, O. Pärssinen, P. N. Baird, V. Vitart, N. Amin, C. M. van Duijn, J. E. Bailey-Wilson, T. L. Young, S. M. Saw, D. Stambolian, S. MacGregor, J. A. Guggenheim, J. Y. Tung, C. J. Hammond, and C. C. W. Klaver, “Genome-wide association meta-analysis highlights light-induced signaling as a driver for refractive error,” Nat. Genet. 50(6), 834–848 (2018).
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Wilson, J. F.

M. S. Tedja, R. Wojciechowski, P. G. Hysi, N. Eriksson, N. A. Furlotte, V. J. M. Verhoeven, A. I. Iglesias, M. A. Meester-Smoor, S. W. Tompson, Q. Fan, A. P. Khawaja, C. Y. Cheng, R. Höhn, K. Yamashiro, A. Wenocur, C. Grazal, T. Haller, A. Metspalu, J. Wedenoja, J. B. Jonas, Y. X. Wang, J. Xie, P. Mitchell, P. J. Foster, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, A. D. Paterson, S. M. Hosseini, R. L. Shah, C. Williams, Y. Y. Teo, Y. C. Tham, P. Gupta, W. Zhao, Y. Shi, W. Y. Saw, E. S. Tai, X. L. Sim, J. E. Huffman, O. Polašek, C. Hayward, G. Bencic, I. Rudan, J. F. Wilson, P. K. Joshi, A. Tsujikawa, F. Matsuda, K. N. Whisenhunt, T. Zeller, P. J. van der Spek, R. Haak, H. Meijers-Heijboer, E. M. van Leeuwen, S. K. Iyengar, J. H. Lass, A. Hofman, F. Rivadeneira, A. G. Uitterlinden, J. R. Vingerling, T. Lehtimäki, O. T. Raitakari, G. Biino, M. P. Concas, T. H. Schwantes-An, R. P. Igo, G. Cuellar-Partida, N. G. Martin, J. E. Craig, P. Gharahkhani, K. M. Williams, A. Nag, J. S. Rahi, P. M. Cumberland, C. Delcourt, C. Bellenguez, J. S. Ried, A. A. Bergen, T. Meitinger, C. Gieger, T. Y. Wong, A. W. Hewitt, D. A. Mackey, C. L. Simpson, N. Pfeiffer, O. Pärssinen, P. N. Baird, V. Vitart, N. Amin, C. M. van Duijn, J. E. Bailey-Wilson, T. L. Young, S. M. Saw, D. Stambolian, S. MacGregor, J. A. Guggenheim, J. Y. Tung, C. J. Hammond, and C. C. W. Klaver, “Genome-wide association meta-analysis highlights light-induced signaling as a driver for refractive error,” Nat. Genet. 50(6), 834–848 (2018).
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M. S. Tedja, R. Wojciechowski, P. G. Hysi, N. Eriksson, N. A. Furlotte, V. J. M. Verhoeven, A. I. Iglesias, M. A. Meester-Smoor, S. W. Tompson, Q. Fan, A. P. Khawaja, C. Y. Cheng, R. Höhn, K. Yamashiro, A. Wenocur, C. Grazal, T. Haller, A. Metspalu, J. Wedenoja, J. B. Jonas, Y. X. Wang, J. Xie, P. Mitchell, P. J. Foster, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, A. D. Paterson, S. M. Hosseini, R. L. Shah, C. Williams, Y. Y. Teo, Y. C. Tham, P. Gupta, W. Zhao, Y. Shi, W. Y. Saw, E. S. Tai, X. L. Sim, J. E. Huffman, O. Polašek, C. Hayward, G. Bencic, I. Rudan, J. F. Wilson, P. K. Joshi, A. Tsujikawa, F. Matsuda, K. N. Whisenhunt, T. Zeller, P. J. van der Spek, R. Haak, H. Meijers-Heijboer, E. M. van Leeuwen, S. K. Iyengar, J. H. Lass, A. Hofman, F. Rivadeneira, A. G. Uitterlinden, J. R. Vingerling, T. Lehtimäki, O. T. Raitakari, G. Biino, M. P. Concas, T. H. Schwantes-An, R. P. Igo, G. Cuellar-Partida, N. G. Martin, J. E. Craig, P. Gharahkhani, K. M. Williams, A. Nag, J. S. Rahi, P. M. Cumberland, C. Delcourt, C. Bellenguez, J. S. Ried, A. A. Bergen, T. Meitinger, C. Gieger, T. Y. Wong, A. W. Hewitt, D. A. Mackey, C. L. Simpson, N. Pfeiffer, O. Pärssinen, P. N. Baird, V. Vitart, N. Amin, C. M. van Duijn, J. E. Bailey-Wilson, T. L. Young, S. M. Saw, D. Stambolian, S. MacGregor, J. A. Guggenheim, J. Y. Tung, C. J. Hammond, and C. C. W. Klaver, “Genome-wide association meta-analysis highlights light-induced signaling as a driver for refractive error,” Nat. Genet. 50(6), 834–848 (2018).
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Xie, J.

M. S. Tedja, R. Wojciechowski, P. G. Hysi, N. Eriksson, N. A. Furlotte, V. J. M. Verhoeven, A. I. Iglesias, M. A. Meester-Smoor, S. W. Tompson, Q. Fan, A. P. Khawaja, C. Y. Cheng, R. Höhn, K. Yamashiro, A. Wenocur, C. Grazal, T. Haller, A. Metspalu, J. Wedenoja, J. B. Jonas, Y. X. Wang, J. Xie, P. Mitchell, P. J. Foster, B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, A. D. Paterson, S. M. Hosseini, R. L. Shah, C. Williams, Y. Y. Teo, Y. C. Tham, P. Gupta, W. Zhao, Y. Shi, W. Y. Saw, E. S. Tai, X. L. Sim, J. E. Huffman, O. Polašek, C. Hayward, G. Bencic, I. Rudan, J. F. Wilson, P. K. Joshi, A. Tsujikawa, F. Matsuda, K. N. Whisenhunt, T. Zeller, P. J. van der Spek, R. Haak, H. Meijers-Heijboer, E. M. van Leeuwen, S. K. Iyengar, J. H. Lass, A. Hofman, F. Rivadeneira, A. G. Uitterlinden, J. R. Vingerling, T. Lehtimäki, O. T. Raitakari, G. Biino, M. P. Concas, T. H. Schwantes-An, R. P. Igo, G. Cuellar-Partida, N. G. Martin, J. E. Craig, P. Gharahkhani, K. M. Williams, A. Nag, J. S. Rahi, P. M. Cumberland, C. Delcourt, C. Bellenguez, J. S. Ried, A. A. Bergen, T. Meitinger, C. Gieger, T. Y. Wong, A. W. Hewitt, D. A. Mackey, C. L. Simpson, N. Pfeiffer, O. Pärssinen, P. N. Baird, V. Vitart, N. Amin, C. M. van Duijn, J. E. Bailey-Wilson, T. L. Young, S. M. Saw, D. Stambolian, S. MacGregor, J. A. Guggenheim, J. Y. Tung, C. J. Hammond, and C. C. W. Klaver, “Genome-wide association meta-analysis highlights light-induced signaling as a driver for refractive error,” Nat. Genet. 50(6), 834–848 (2018).
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J. W. Tideman, Q. Fan, J. R. Polling, X. Guo, S. Yazar, A. Khawaja, R. Höhn, Y. Lu, V. W. Jaddoe, K. Yamashiro, M. Yoshikawa, A. Gerhold-Ay, S. Nickels, T. Zeller, M. He, T. Boutin, G. Bencic, V. Vitart, D. A. Mackey, P. J. Foster, S. MacGregor, C. Williams, S. M. Saw, J. A. Guggenheim, and C. C. Klaver, “When do myopia genes have their effect? Comparison of genetic risks between children and adults,” Genet. Epidemiol. 40(8), 756–766 (2016).
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Yazar, S.

J. W. Tideman, Q. Fan, J. R. Polling, X. Guo, S. Yazar, A. Khawaja, R. Höhn, Y. Lu, V. W. Jaddoe, K. Yamashiro, M. Yoshikawa, A. Gerhold-Ay, S. Nickels, T. Zeller, M. He, T. Boutin, G. Bencic, V. Vitart, D. A. Mackey, P. J. Foster, S. MacGregor, C. Williams, S. M. Saw, J. A. Guggenheim, and C. C. Klaver, “When do myopia genes have their effect? Comparison of genetic risks between children and adults,” Genet. Epidemiol. 40(8), 756–766 (2016).
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Yoshikawa, M.

J. W. Tideman, Q. Fan, J. R. Polling, X. Guo, S. Yazar, A. Khawaja, R. Höhn, Y. Lu, V. W. Jaddoe, K. Yamashiro, M. Yoshikawa, A. Gerhold-Ay, S. Nickels, T. Zeller, M. He, T. Boutin, G. Bencic, V. Vitart, D. A. Mackey, P. J. Foster, S. MacGregor, C. Williams, S. M. Saw, J. A. Guggenheim, and C. C. Klaver, “When do myopia genes have their effect? Comparison of genetic risks between children and adults,” Genet. Epidemiol. 40(8), 756–766 (2016).
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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Time points of data collection. Treatment with negative lenses (n = 5) or diffusers (n = 10) started at day 0, when chicks were 10 days old and was continued for 7 days. After 40 hours, chicks had refractive error shifts of less than 1.5D (except for one), on the fifth day they were not yet fully myopic (refractive error shift less than 3D; referred to “pre-myopic” stage), and on the last day of the experiment, 9 chicks developed myopia (2 treated with negative lenses and 7 treated with diffusers).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (A) Screenshot of the software output. The software grabbed a frame while the LED in the center of the camera aperture was flashed for 25 msec. The user could mark the pupil margins by mouse click. The software determined the average pixel grey levels in the image of the pupil, together with its standard deviation. It also automatically corrected for differences in pupil diameters. With the color camera, RGB channels were separately analyzed (four pictures on the right). (B) Because the set-up matched the optics of isotropic photorefraction, refractive errors had a strong impact on pupil brightness. Light returning from the fundus is focused in space at distances that depend on the refractive error of the eye. Accordingly, light distributions and pupil brightness vary in the camera plane. To minimize the impact of this factor, refractive error of each eye was corrected by trial lenses during the measurements.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 OCT B-scan of the retinal layers in an alert chicken. The dashed box includes the region of the area centralis. The segments of retinal thickness were analyzed (1) retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) plus the retinal ganglion cell layer (GC), marked in red, (2) the sum of inner plexiform layer (IPL), inner nuclear layer (INL), outer plexiform layer (OPL), outer nuclear layer (ONL), photoreceptors (PR) and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) thickness (marked in blue). For comparison, a conventional histological section is shown on the right. Note that all retinal layers, the choroid (CH) and the two layers of the sclera (SC), fibrous and cartilaginous layer, are clearly visible in both, OCT and histological images.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (A) Refractive development in individual chickens treated with either diffusers (black lines) or negative lenses (grey lines). The solid thick line denotes the average refraction of the control eyes. Nine out of 15 chickens developed myopia within 7 days, with an average myopic shift of 3.6D. Four eyes did not develop myopia although they were growing more than their untreated fellow eyes. Two chickens were “non-responders” with less than 1D of relative myopic shift (dashed lines). (B) Average refractions of each group, excluding the two “non-responders” (diffuser n = 8, lens n = 5, control n = 13) during the treatment period. Refraction at day 7 was −1.3 ± 2.1D in the group treated with diffusers and −0.3 ± 1.3D in the group treated with negative lenses. Control eyes remained slightly hyperopic during the whole experiment with an average refraction of 2.3 ± 0.2D. Error bars represent standard deviations.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Correlation between changes in refractive errors and axial length. There was a large inter-individual variability in myopia development in the 15 chickens in the two groups, treated with either diffusers (open symbols) or negative lenses (filled symbols). Measurements were taken at the end of the treatment period after 7 days. Each data point denotes one chicken. Differences between both eyes in axial lengths between treated and control eye (Δ axial length) were correlated with differences in refractive errors.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Pupil brightness during a flash of (A) near-UV and (B) visible broadband white light in untreated control eyes and after induction of myopia.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Differences in fundus reflectivity in UV light (A, B, C) and RNFL + RGCL thickness (D, E, F) between treated and control eyes at the three time points of measurement (40 hours, “pre-myopic state”, myopia). Dots represent data of individual eyes. Line plots (G, H) denote changes in fundus reflectivity in UV light (G) and RNFL + RGCL thickness (H) over time, including baseline measurements in all animals (dotted lines). After exclusion of data of two non-responders, there were 8 chicks in the diffuser group and 5 in the lens-treated group. (A, B) UV reflectivity started to increase from the first days of treatment with diffusers. (C) Fundus reflectivity was about 40% higher in the myopic eyes than in controls after 7 days of treatment. (D, E) Significant thinning of the RNFL + RGCL was detected between the third and fifth day of the experiment. (F) The effect was larger in eyes that were treated with diffusers. (paired Student’s t-test for treated vs. control eye, un-paired Student’s t-test with Bonferroni correction for diffuser vs. lens vs. control eye). (G) In both, diffuser (black line) and negative lens (grey line) treated eyes, UV fundus reflectivity increased significantly over time. (H) In treated eyes, a decrease in RNFL + RGCL thickness was measured. Control eyes (dashed lines) remained unchanged over 7 days of experiment. Error bars represent standard error. Significance levels * p< 0.05; ** p<0.01; ***p<0.001.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (A) Correlations between changes in refraction and fundus reflectivity in UV light. Fundus reflectivity in UV light increased with increasing myopia (open symbols: diffusers, R = 0.82, p<0.0001; filled symbols: lenses, R = 0.77, p<0.001). (B) Correlations between changes in refraction and thickness of RNFL + RGCL. Thickness declined with increasing myopia in eyes with diffusers (R = 0.82, p<0.001), but not in eyes with negative lenses (R = 0.19, p = 0.49). Each data point represents one chicken. Data are pooled from the three time points of measurement. Data of the two non-responders were excluded.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Correlations between the thickness of the RNFL + RGCL and fundus reflectivity in UV light. In eyes treated with diffusers, the two variables were clearly correlated (R = 0.64, p<0.001) but there was only a trend in lens-treated eyes. As in Fig. 8, data are pooled from all time points of measurement and do not include data from two non-responders.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Changes in fundus reflectivity in UV light during the first 5 hours of diffuser wear. Eyes with diffusers developed higher reflectivity compared with fellow eyes with unobstructed vision (39 ± 6.3px vs. 30 ± 2.1px, paired Student’s t-test p<0.01). Each dot represents data from an individual animal. Error bars represent standard errors. Significance levels * p< 0.05; ** p<0.01; ***p<0.001.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Proposed biomarker of myopia development. Compared to control eyes with normal visual exposure (open circles in the bottom) eyes developing myopia had thinner RNFL + RGCL and higher UV reflectivity (encircled in red). Data from the last day of experiment which included only animals which developed myopia after 7 days of treatment (DM: n = 7 and LIM: n = 2).