Abstract

We demonstrate the measurement of two-photon excitation (TPE) spectra, used not only for fluorescence but also for photoconversion in green-to-red photoconvertible Kaede, using nonlinear Fourier-transform spectroscopy. It was found that in unphotoconverted Kaede, the TPE spectrum for photoconversion is much different to that for green-fluorescence. This is similar to the difference between the one-photon excitation of photoconversion in the neutral form and that of green-fluorescence in the ionized form.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  3. Y. Silberberg, “Quantum coherent control for nonlinear spectroscopy and microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 60(1), 277–292 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. I. Johnson, “Fluorescent probes for living cells,” Histochem. J. 30(3), 123–140 (1998).
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  6. R. Y. Tsien, “The green fluorescent protein,” Annu. Rev. Biochem. 67(1), 509–544 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. B. N. G. Giepmans, S. R. Adams, M. H. Ellisman, and R. Y. Tsien, “The fluorescent toolbox for assessing protein location and function,” Science 312(5771), 217–224 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. Ando, H. Hama, M. Yamamoto-Hino, H. Mizuno, and A. Miyawaki, “An optical marker based on the UV-induced green-to-red photoconversion of a fluorescent protein,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(20), 12651–12656 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. H. Patterson and J. Lippincott-Schwartz, “A photoactivatable GFP for selective photolabeling of proteins and cells,” Science 297(5588), 1873–1877 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. Isobe, W. Watanabe, S. Matsunaga, T. Higashi, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “Multi-spectral two-photon excited fluorescence microscopy using supercontinuum light source,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4), L167–L169 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Y. Fan, H. Fujisaki, A. Miyawaki, R. K. Tsay, R. Y. Tsien, and M. H. Ellisman, “Video-rate scanning two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy and ratio imaging with cameleons,” Biophys. J. 76(5), 2412–2420 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. N. Post, K. A. Lidke, B. Rieger, and D. J. Arndt-Jovin, “One- and two-photon photoactivation of a paGFP-fusion protein in live Drosophila embryos,” FEBS Lett. 579(2), 325–330 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. W. Watanabe, T. Shimada, S. Matsunaga, D. Kurihara, K. Fukui, S. Shin-Ichi Arimura, N. Tsutsumi, K. Isobe, and K. Itoh, “Single-organelle tracking by two-photon conversion,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2490–2498 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C. Xu and W. W. Webb, “Measurement of two-photon excitation cross sections of molecular fluorophores with data from 690 to 1050 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13(3), 481–491 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. H. Hosoi, S. Yamaguchi, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and T. Tahara, “Hidden electronic excited state of enhanced green fluorescent protein,” J. Phys. Chem. B 112(10), 2761–2763 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. P. Ogilvie, K. J. Kubarych, A. Alexandrou, and M. Joffre, “Fourier transform measurement of two-photon excitation spectra: applications to microscopy and optimal control,” Opt. Lett. 30(8), 911–913 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. K. Isobe, A. Suda, M. Tanaka, F. Kannari, H. Kawano, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Fourier-transform spectroscopy combined with a 5-fs broadband pulse for multispectral nonlinear microscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 77(6), 063832 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. Isobe, A. Suda, M. Tanaka, H. Hashimoto, F. Kannari, H. Kawano, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nonlinear optical microscopy and spectroscopy employing octave spanning pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 767–780 (2010).
  21. H. Hashimoto, K. Isobe, A. Suda, F. Kannari, H. Kawano, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Measurement of two-photon excitation spectra of fluorescent proteins with nonlinear Fourier-transform spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 49(17), 3323–3329 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. M. Schneider, S. Barozzi, I. Testa, M. Faretta, and A. Diaspro, “Two-photon activation and excitation properties of PA-GFP in the 720-920-nm region,” Biophys. J. 89(2), 1346–1352 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. P. S. Dittrich, S. P. Schäfer, and P. Schwille, “Characterization of the photoconversion on reaction of the fluorescent protein Kaede on the single-molecule level,” Biophys. J. 89(5), 3446–3455 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. B. R. Terry, E. K. Matthews, and J. Haseloff, “Molecular characterisation of recombinant green fluorescent protein by fluorescence correlation microscopy,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 217(1), 21–27 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. J. S. Marchant, G. E. Stutzmann, M. A. Leissring, F. M. LaFerla, and I. Parker, “Multiphoton-evoked color change of DsRed as an optical highlighter for cellular and subcellular labeling,” Nat. Biotechnol. 19(7), 645–649 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

K. Isobe, A. Suda, M. Tanaka, H. Hashimoto, F. Kannari, H. Kawano, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nonlinear optical microscopy and spectroscopy employing octave spanning pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 767–780 (2010).

H. Hashimoto, K. Isobe, A. Suda, F. Kannari, H. Kawano, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Measurement of two-photon excitation spectra of fluorescent proteins with nonlinear Fourier-transform spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 49(17), 3323–3329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

H. Hosoi, S. Yamaguchi, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and T. Tahara, “Hidden electronic excited state of enhanced green fluorescent protein,” J. Phys. Chem. B 112(10), 2761–2763 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. S. Makarov, M. Drobizhev, and A. Rebane, “Two-photon absorption standards in the 550-1600 nm excitation wavelength range,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4029–4047 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Isobe, A. Suda, M. Tanaka, F. Kannari, H. Kawano, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Fourier-transform spectroscopy combined with a 5-fs broadband pulse for multispectral nonlinear microscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 77(6), 063832 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

B. N. G. Giepmans, S. R. Adams, M. H. Ellisman, and R. Y. Tsien, “The fluorescent toolbox for assessing protein location and function,” Science 312(5771), 217–224 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

K. Isobe, W. Watanabe, S. Matsunaga, T. Higashi, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “Multi-spectral two-photon excited fluorescence microscopy using supercontinuum light source,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4), L167–L169 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Post, K. A. Lidke, B. Rieger, and D. J. Arndt-Jovin, “One- and two-photon photoactivation of a paGFP-fusion protein in live Drosophila embryos,” FEBS Lett. 579(2), 325–330 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schneider, S. Barozzi, I. Testa, M. Faretta, and A. Diaspro, “Two-photon activation and excitation properties of PA-GFP in the 720-920-nm region,” Biophys. J. 89(2), 1346–1352 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Dittrich, S. P. Schäfer, and P. Schwille, “Characterization of the photoconversion on reaction of the fluorescent protein Kaede on the single-molecule level,” Biophys. J. 89(5), 3446–3455 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Ogilvie, K. J. Kubarych, A. Alexandrou, and M. Joffre, “Fourier transform measurement of two-photon excitation spectra: applications to microscopy and optimal control,” Opt. Lett. 30(8), 911–913 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

R. Ando, H. Hama, M. Yamamoto-Hino, H. Mizuno, and A. Miyawaki, “An optical marker based on the UV-induced green-to-red photoconversion of a fluorescent protein,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(20), 12651–12656 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Patterson and J. Lippincott-Schwartz, “A photoactivatable GFP for selective photolabeling of proteins and cells,” Science 297(5588), 1873–1877 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

J. S. Marchant, G. E. Stutzmann, M. A. Leissring, F. M. LaFerla, and I. Parker, “Multiphoton-evoked color change of DsRed as an optical highlighter for cellular and subcellular labeling,” Nat. Biotechnol. 19(7), 645–649 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

K. König, “Multiphoton microscopy in life sciences,” J. Microsc. 200(Pt 2), 83–104 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

G. Y. Fan, H. Fujisaki, A. Miyawaki, R. K. Tsay, R. Y. Tsien, and M. H. Ellisman, “Video-rate scanning two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy and ratio imaging with cameleons,” Biophys. J. 76(5), 2412–2420 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

I. Johnson, “Fluorescent probes for living cells,” Histochem. J. 30(3), 123–140 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Y. Tsien, “The green fluorescent protein,” Annu. Rev. Biochem. 67(1), 509–544 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

C. Xu, W. Zipfel, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton fluorescence excitation: new spectral windows for biological nonlinear microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93(20), 10763–10768 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Xu and W. W. Webb, “Measurement of two-photon excitation cross sections of molecular fluorophores with data from 690 to 1050 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13(3), 481–491 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

B. R. Terry, E. K. Matthews, and J. Haseloff, “Molecular characterisation of recombinant green fluorescent protein by fluorescence correlation microscopy,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 217(1), 21–27 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adams, S. R.

B. N. G. Giepmans, S. R. Adams, M. H. Ellisman, and R. Y. Tsien, “The fluorescent toolbox for assessing protein location and function,” Science 312(5771), 217–224 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alexandrou, A.

Ando, R.

R. Ando, H. Hama, M. Yamamoto-Hino, H. Mizuno, and A. Miyawaki, “An optical marker based on the UV-induced green-to-red photoconversion of a fluorescent protein,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(20), 12651–12656 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arndt-Jovin, D. J.

J. N. Post, K. A. Lidke, B. Rieger, and D. J. Arndt-Jovin, “One- and two-photon photoactivation of a paGFP-fusion protein in live Drosophila embryos,” FEBS Lett. 579(2), 325–330 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barozzi, S.

M. Schneider, S. Barozzi, I. Testa, M. Faretta, and A. Diaspro, “Two-photon activation and excitation properties of PA-GFP in the 720-920-nm region,” Biophys. J. 89(2), 1346–1352 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denk, W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diaspro, A.

M. Schneider, S. Barozzi, I. Testa, M. Faretta, and A. Diaspro, “Two-photon activation and excitation properties of PA-GFP in the 720-920-nm region,” Biophys. J. 89(2), 1346–1352 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dittrich, P. S.

P. S. Dittrich, S. P. Schäfer, and P. Schwille, “Characterization of the photoconversion on reaction of the fluorescent protein Kaede on the single-molecule level,” Biophys. J. 89(5), 3446–3455 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drobizhev, M.

Ellisman, M. H.

B. N. G. Giepmans, S. R. Adams, M. H. Ellisman, and R. Y. Tsien, “The fluorescent toolbox for assessing protein location and function,” Science 312(5771), 217–224 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Y. Fan, H. Fujisaki, A. Miyawaki, R. K. Tsay, R. Y. Tsien, and M. H. Ellisman, “Video-rate scanning two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy and ratio imaging with cameleons,” Biophys. J. 76(5), 2412–2420 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, G. Y.

G. Y. Fan, H. Fujisaki, A. Miyawaki, R. K. Tsay, R. Y. Tsien, and M. H. Ellisman, “Video-rate scanning two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy and ratio imaging with cameleons,” Biophys. J. 76(5), 2412–2420 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faretta, M.

M. Schneider, S. Barozzi, I. Testa, M. Faretta, and A. Diaspro, “Two-photon activation and excitation properties of PA-GFP in the 720-920-nm region,” Biophys. J. 89(2), 1346–1352 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujisaki, H.

G. Y. Fan, H. Fujisaki, A. Miyawaki, R. K. Tsay, R. Y. Tsien, and M. H. Ellisman, “Video-rate scanning two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy and ratio imaging with cameleons,” Biophys. J. 76(5), 2412–2420 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukui, K.

W. Watanabe, T. Shimada, S. Matsunaga, D. Kurihara, K. Fukui, S. Shin-Ichi Arimura, N. Tsutsumi, K. Isobe, and K. Itoh, “Single-organelle tracking by two-photon conversion,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2490–2498 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Isobe, W. Watanabe, S. Matsunaga, T. Higashi, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “Multi-spectral two-photon excited fluorescence microscopy using supercontinuum light source,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4), L167–L169 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Giepmans, B. N. G.

B. N. G. Giepmans, S. R. Adams, M. H. Ellisman, and R. Y. Tsien, “The fluorescent toolbox for assessing protein location and function,” Science 312(5771), 217–224 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hama, H.

R. Ando, H. Hama, M. Yamamoto-Hino, H. Mizuno, and A. Miyawaki, “An optical marker based on the UV-induced green-to-red photoconversion of a fluorescent protein,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(20), 12651–12656 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haseloff, J.

B. R. Terry, E. K. Matthews, and J. Haseloff, “Molecular characterisation of recombinant green fluorescent protein by fluorescence correlation microscopy,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 217(1), 21–27 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hashimoto, H.

H. Hashimoto, K. Isobe, A. Suda, F. Kannari, H. Kawano, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Measurement of two-photon excitation spectra of fluorescent proteins with nonlinear Fourier-transform spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 49(17), 3323–3329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Isobe, A. Suda, M. Tanaka, H. Hashimoto, F. Kannari, H. Kawano, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nonlinear optical microscopy and spectroscopy employing octave spanning pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 767–780 (2010).

Higashi, T.

K. Isobe, W. Watanabe, S. Matsunaga, T. Higashi, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “Multi-spectral two-photon excited fluorescence microscopy using supercontinuum light source,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4), L167–L169 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hosoi, H.

H. Hosoi, S. Yamaguchi, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and T. Tahara, “Hidden electronic excited state of enhanced green fluorescent protein,” J. Phys. Chem. B 112(10), 2761–2763 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Isobe, K.

K. Isobe, A. Suda, M. Tanaka, H. Hashimoto, F. Kannari, H. Kawano, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nonlinear optical microscopy and spectroscopy employing octave spanning pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 767–780 (2010).

H. Hashimoto, K. Isobe, A. Suda, F. Kannari, H. Kawano, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Measurement of two-photon excitation spectra of fluorescent proteins with nonlinear Fourier-transform spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 49(17), 3323–3329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Isobe, A. Suda, M. Tanaka, F. Kannari, H. Kawano, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Multifarious control of two-photon excitation of multiple fluorophores achieved by phase modulation of ultra-broadband laser pulses,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13737–13746 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Isobe, A. Suda, M. Tanaka, F. Kannari, H. Kawano, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Fourier-transform spectroscopy combined with a 5-fs broadband pulse for multispectral nonlinear microscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 77(6), 063832 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Watanabe, T. Shimada, S. Matsunaga, D. Kurihara, K. Fukui, S. Shin-Ichi Arimura, N. Tsutsumi, K. Isobe, and K. Itoh, “Single-organelle tracking by two-photon conversion,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2490–2498 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Isobe, W. Watanabe, S. Matsunaga, T. Higashi, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “Multi-spectral two-photon excited fluorescence microscopy using supercontinuum light source,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4), L167–L169 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, K.

W. Watanabe, T. Shimada, S. Matsunaga, D. Kurihara, K. Fukui, S. Shin-Ichi Arimura, N. Tsutsumi, K. Isobe, and K. Itoh, “Single-organelle tracking by two-photon conversion,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2490–2498 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Isobe, W. Watanabe, S. Matsunaga, T. Higashi, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “Multi-spectral two-photon excited fluorescence microscopy using supercontinuum light source,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4), L167–L169 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Joffre, M.

Johnson, I.

I. Johnson, “Fluorescent probes for living cells,” Histochem. J. 30(3), 123–140 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kannari, F.

H. Hashimoto, K. Isobe, A. Suda, F. Kannari, H. Kawano, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Measurement of two-photon excitation spectra of fluorescent proteins with nonlinear Fourier-transform spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 49(17), 3323–3329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Isobe, A. Suda, M. Tanaka, H. Hashimoto, F. Kannari, H. Kawano, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nonlinear optical microscopy and spectroscopy employing octave spanning pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 767–780 (2010).

K. Isobe, A. Suda, M. Tanaka, F. Kannari, H. Kawano, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Multifarious control of two-photon excitation of multiple fluorophores achieved by phase modulation of ultra-broadband laser pulses,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13737–13746 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Isobe, A. Suda, M. Tanaka, F. Kannari, H. Kawano, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Fourier-transform spectroscopy combined with a 5-fs broadband pulse for multispectral nonlinear microscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 77(6), 063832 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kawano, H.

H. Hashimoto, K. Isobe, A. Suda, F. Kannari, H. Kawano, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Measurement of two-photon excitation spectra of fluorescent proteins with nonlinear Fourier-transform spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 49(17), 3323–3329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Isobe, A. Suda, M. Tanaka, H. Hashimoto, F. Kannari, H. Kawano, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nonlinear optical microscopy and spectroscopy employing octave spanning pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 767–780 (2010).

K. Isobe, A. Suda, M. Tanaka, F. Kannari, H. Kawano, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Multifarious control of two-photon excitation of multiple fluorophores achieved by phase modulation of ultra-broadband laser pulses,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13737–13746 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Isobe, A. Suda, M. Tanaka, F. Kannari, H. Kawano, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Fourier-transform spectroscopy combined with a 5-fs broadband pulse for multispectral nonlinear microscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 77(6), 063832 (2008).
[CrossRef]

König, K.

K. König, “Multiphoton microscopy in life sciences,” J. Microsc. 200(Pt 2), 83–104 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kubarych, K. J.

Kurihara, D.

LaFerla, F. M.

J. S. Marchant, G. E. Stutzmann, M. A. Leissring, F. M. LaFerla, and I. Parker, “Multiphoton-evoked color change of DsRed as an optical highlighter for cellular and subcellular labeling,” Nat. Biotechnol. 19(7), 645–649 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leissring, M. A.

J. S. Marchant, G. E. Stutzmann, M. A. Leissring, F. M. LaFerla, and I. Parker, “Multiphoton-evoked color change of DsRed as an optical highlighter for cellular and subcellular labeling,” Nat. Biotechnol. 19(7), 645–649 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lidke, K. A.

J. N. Post, K. A. Lidke, B. Rieger, and D. J. Arndt-Jovin, “One- and two-photon photoactivation of a paGFP-fusion protein in live Drosophila embryos,” FEBS Lett. 579(2), 325–330 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lippincott-Schwartz, J.

G. H. Patterson and J. Lippincott-Schwartz, “A photoactivatable GFP for selective photolabeling of proteins and cells,” Science 297(5588), 1873–1877 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Makarov, N. S.

Marchant, J. S.

J. S. Marchant, G. E. Stutzmann, M. A. Leissring, F. M. LaFerla, and I. Parker, “Multiphoton-evoked color change of DsRed as an optical highlighter for cellular and subcellular labeling,” Nat. Biotechnol. 19(7), 645–649 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsunaga, S.

W. Watanabe, T. Shimada, S. Matsunaga, D. Kurihara, K. Fukui, S. Shin-Ichi Arimura, N. Tsutsumi, K. Isobe, and K. Itoh, “Single-organelle tracking by two-photon conversion,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2490–2498 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Isobe, W. Watanabe, S. Matsunaga, T. Higashi, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “Multi-spectral two-photon excited fluorescence microscopy using supercontinuum light source,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4), L167–L169 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Matthews, E. K.

B. R. Terry, E. K. Matthews, and J. Haseloff, “Molecular characterisation of recombinant green fluorescent protein by fluorescence correlation microscopy,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 217(1), 21–27 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Midorikawa, K.

H. Hashimoto, K. Isobe, A. Suda, F. Kannari, H. Kawano, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Measurement of two-photon excitation spectra of fluorescent proteins with nonlinear Fourier-transform spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 49(17), 3323–3329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Isobe, A. Suda, M. Tanaka, H. Hashimoto, F. Kannari, H. Kawano, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nonlinear optical microscopy and spectroscopy employing octave spanning pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 767–780 (2010).

K. Isobe, A. Suda, M. Tanaka, F. Kannari, H. Kawano, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Multifarious control of two-photon excitation of multiple fluorophores achieved by phase modulation of ultra-broadband laser pulses,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13737–13746 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Isobe, A. Suda, M. Tanaka, F. Kannari, H. Kawano, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Fourier-transform spectroscopy combined with a 5-fs broadband pulse for multispectral nonlinear microscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 77(6), 063832 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miyawaki, A.

H. Hashimoto, K. Isobe, A. Suda, F. Kannari, H. Kawano, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Measurement of two-photon excitation spectra of fluorescent proteins with nonlinear Fourier-transform spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 49(17), 3323–3329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Isobe, A. Suda, M. Tanaka, H. Hashimoto, F. Kannari, H. Kawano, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nonlinear optical microscopy and spectroscopy employing octave spanning pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 767–780 (2010).

K. Isobe, A. Suda, M. Tanaka, F. Kannari, H. Kawano, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Multifarious control of two-photon excitation of multiple fluorophores achieved by phase modulation of ultra-broadband laser pulses,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13737–13746 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hosoi, S. Yamaguchi, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and T. Tahara, “Hidden electronic excited state of enhanced green fluorescent protein,” J. Phys. Chem. B 112(10), 2761–2763 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Isobe, A. Suda, M. Tanaka, F. Kannari, H. Kawano, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Fourier-transform spectroscopy combined with a 5-fs broadband pulse for multispectral nonlinear microscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 77(6), 063832 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Ando, H. Hama, M. Yamamoto-Hino, H. Mizuno, and A. Miyawaki, “An optical marker based on the UV-induced green-to-red photoconversion of a fluorescent protein,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(20), 12651–12656 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Y. Fan, H. Fujisaki, A. Miyawaki, R. K. Tsay, R. Y. Tsien, and M. H. Ellisman, “Video-rate scanning two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy and ratio imaging with cameleons,” Biophys. J. 76(5), 2412–2420 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mizuno, H.

H. Hashimoto, K. Isobe, A. Suda, F. Kannari, H. Kawano, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Measurement of two-photon excitation spectra of fluorescent proteins with nonlinear Fourier-transform spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 49(17), 3323–3329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Isobe, A. Suda, M. Tanaka, H. Hashimoto, F. Kannari, H. Kawano, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nonlinear optical microscopy and spectroscopy employing octave spanning pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 767–780 (2010).

K. Isobe, A. Suda, M. Tanaka, F. Kannari, H. Kawano, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Multifarious control of two-photon excitation of multiple fluorophores achieved by phase modulation of ultra-broadband laser pulses,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13737–13746 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hosoi, S. Yamaguchi, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and T. Tahara, “Hidden electronic excited state of enhanced green fluorescent protein,” J. Phys. Chem. B 112(10), 2761–2763 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Isobe, A. Suda, M. Tanaka, F. Kannari, H. Kawano, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Fourier-transform spectroscopy combined with a 5-fs broadband pulse for multispectral nonlinear microscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 77(6), 063832 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Ando, H. Hama, M. Yamamoto-Hino, H. Mizuno, and A. Miyawaki, “An optical marker based on the UV-induced green-to-red photoconversion of a fluorescent protein,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(20), 12651–12656 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ogilvie, J. P.

Parker, I.

J. S. Marchant, G. E. Stutzmann, M. A. Leissring, F. M. LaFerla, and I. Parker, “Multiphoton-evoked color change of DsRed as an optical highlighter for cellular and subcellular labeling,” Nat. Biotechnol. 19(7), 645–649 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patterson, G. H.

G. H. Patterson and J. Lippincott-Schwartz, “A photoactivatable GFP for selective photolabeling of proteins and cells,” Science 297(5588), 1873–1877 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Post, J. N.

J. N. Post, K. A. Lidke, B. Rieger, and D. J. Arndt-Jovin, “One- and two-photon photoactivation of a paGFP-fusion protein in live Drosophila embryos,” FEBS Lett. 579(2), 325–330 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rebane, A.

Rieger, B.

J. N. Post, K. A. Lidke, B. Rieger, and D. J. Arndt-Jovin, “One- and two-photon photoactivation of a paGFP-fusion protein in live Drosophila embryos,” FEBS Lett. 579(2), 325–330 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schäfer, S. P.

P. S. Dittrich, S. P. Schäfer, and P. Schwille, “Characterization of the photoconversion on reaction of the fluorescent protein Kaede on the single-molecule level,” Biophys. J. 89(5), 3446–3455 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schneider, M.

M. Schneider, S. Barozzi, I. Testa, M. Faretta, and A. Diaspro, “Two-photon activation and excitation properties of PA-GFP in the 720-920-nm region,” Biophys. J. 89(2), 1346–1352 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwille, P.

P. S. Dittrich, S. P. Schäfer, and P. Schwille, “Characterization of the photoconversion on reaction of the fluorescent protein Kaede on the single-molecule level,” Biophys. J. 89(5), 3446–3455 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shear, J. B.

C. Xu, W. Zipfel, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton fluorescence excitation: new spectral windows for biological nonlinear microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93(20), 10763–10768 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimada, T.

Shin-Ichi Arimura, S.

Silberberg, Y.

Y. Silberberg, “Quantum coherent control for nonlinear spectroscopy and microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 60(1), 277–292 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strickler, J. H.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stutzmann, G. E.

J. S. Marchant, G. E. Stutzmann, M. A. Leissring, F. M. LaFerla, and I. Parker, “Multiphoton-evoked color change of DsRed as an optical highlighter for cellular and subcellular labeling,” Nat. Biotechnol. 19(7), 645–649 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suda, A.

H. Hashimoto, K. Isobe, A. Suda, F. Kannari, H. Kawano, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Measurement of two-photon excitation spectra of fluorescent proteins with nonlinear Fourier-transform spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 49(17), 3323–3329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Isobe, A. Suda, M. Tanaka, H. Hashimoto, F. Kannari, H. Kawano, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nonlinear optical microscopy and spectroscopy employing octave spanning pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 767–780 (2010).

K. Isobe, A. Suda, M. Tanaka, F. Kannari, H. Kawano, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Multifarious control of two-photon excitation of multiple fluorophores achieved by phase modulation of ultra-broadband laser pulses,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13737–13746 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Isobe, A. Suda, M. Tanaka, F. Kannari, H. Kawano, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Fourier-transform spectroscopy combined with a 5-fs broadband pulse for multispectral nonlinear microscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 77(6), 063832 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tahara, T.

H. Hosoi, S. Yamaguchi, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and T. Tahara, “Hidden electronic excited state of enhanced green fluorescent protein,” J. Phys. Chem. B 112(10), 2761–2763 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, M.

K. Isobe, A. Suda, M. Tanaka, H. Hashimoto, F. Kannari, H. Kawano, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nonlinear optical microscopy and spectroscopy employing octave spanning pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 767–780 (2010).

K. Isobe, A. Suda, M. Tanaka, F. Kannari, H. Kawano, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Multifarious control of two-photon excitation of multiple fluorophores achieved by phase modulation of ultra-broadband laser pulses,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13737–13746 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Isobe, A. Suda, M. Tanaka, F. Kannari, H. Kawano, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Fourier-transform spectroscopy combined with a 5-fs broadband pulse for multispectral nonlinear microscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 77(6), 063832 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Terry, B. R.

B. R. Terry, E. K. Matthews, and J. Haseloff, “Molecular characterisation of recombinant green fluorescent protein by fluorescence correlation microscopy,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 217(1), 21–27 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Testa, I.

M. Schneider, S. Barozzi, I. Testa, M. Faretta, and A. Diaspro, “Two-photon activation and excitation properties of PA-GFP in the 720-920-nm region,” Biophys. J. 89(2), 1346–1352 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsay, R. K.

G. Y. Fan, H. Fujisaki, A. Miyawaki, R. K. Tsay, R. Y. Tsien, and M. H. Ellisman, “Video-rate scanning two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy and ratio imaging with cameleons,” Biophys. J. 76(5), 2412–2420 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsien, R. Y.

B. N. G. Giepmans, S. R. Adams, M. H. Ellisman, and R. Y. Tsien, “The fluorescent toolbox for assessing protein location and function,” Science 312(5771), 217–224 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Y. Fan, H. Fujisaki, A. Miyawaki, R. K. Tsay, R. Y. Tsien, and M. H. Ellisman, “Video-rate scanning two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy and ratio imaging with cameleons,” Biophys. J. 76(5), 2412–2420 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Y. Tsien, “The green fluorescent protein,” Annu. Rev. Biochem. 67(1), 509–544 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsutsumi, N.

Watanabe, W.

W. Watanabe, T. Shimada, S. Matsunaga, D. Kurihara, K. Fukui, S. Shin-Ichi Arimura, N. Tsutsumi, K. Isobe, and K. Itoh, “Single-organelle tracking by two-photon conversion,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2490–2498 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Isobe, W. Watanabe, S. Matsunaga, T. Higashi, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “Multi-spectral two-photon excited fluorescence microscopy using supercontinuum light source,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4), L167–L169 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Webb, W. W.

C. Xu and W. W. Webb, “Measurement of two-photon excitation cross sections of molecular fluorophores with data from 690 to 1050 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13(3), 481–491 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Xu, W. Zipfel, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton fluorescence excitation: new spectral windows for biological nonlinear microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93(20), 10763–10768 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, R. M.

C. Xu, W. Zipfel, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton fluorescence excitation: new spectral windows for biological nonlinear microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93(20), 10763–10768 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, C.

C. Xu, W. Zipfel, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton fluorescence excitation: new spectral windows for biological nonlinear microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93(20), 10763–10768 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Xu and W. W. Webb, “Measurement of two-photon excitation cross sections of molecular fluorophores with data from 690 to 1050 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13(3), 481–491 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, S.

H. Hosoi, S. Yamaguchi, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and T. Tahara, “Hidden electronic excited state of enhanced green fluorescent protein,” J. Phys. Chem. B 112(10), 2761–2763 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamamoto-Hino, M.

R. Ando, H. Hama, M. Yamamoto-Hino, H. Mizuno, and A. Miyawaki, “An optical marker based on the UV-induced green-to-red photoconversion of a fluorescent protein,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(20), 12651–12656 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zipfel, W.

C. Xu, W. Zipfel, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton fluorescence excitation: new spectral windows for biological nonlinear microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93(20), 10763–10768 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Biochem.

R. Y. Tsien, “The green fluorescent protein,” Annu. Rev. Biochem. 67(1), 509–544 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.

Y. Silberberg, “Quantum coherent control for nonlinear spectroscopy and microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 60(1), 277–292 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.

B. R. Terry, E. K. Matthews, and J. Haseloff, “Molecular characterisation of recombinant green fluorescent protein by fluorescence correlation microscopy,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 217(1), 21–27 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biophys. J.

M. Schneider, S. Barozzi, I. Testa, M. Faretta, and A. Diaspro, “Two-photon activation and excitation properties of PA-GFP in the 720-920-nm region,” Biophys. J. 89(2), 1346–1352 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Dittrich, S. P. Schäfer, and P. Schwille, “Characterization of the photoconversion on reaction of the fluorescent protein Kaede on the single-molecule level,” Biophys. J. 89(5), 3446–3455 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Y. Fan, H. Fujisaki, A. Miyawaki, R. K. Tsay, R. Y. Tsien, and M. H. Ellisman, “Video-rate scanning two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy and ratio imaging with cameleons,” Biophys. J. 76(5), 2412–2420 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

FEBS Lett.

J. N. Post, K. A. Lidke, B. Rieger, and D. J. Arndt-Jovin, “One- and two-photon photoactivation of a paGFP-fusion protein in live Drosophila embryos,” FEBS Lett. 579(2), 325–330 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Histochem. J.

I. Johnson, “Fluorescent probes for living cells,” Histochem. J. 30(3), 123–140 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

K. Isobe, A. Suda, M. Tanaka, H. Hashimoto, F. Kannari, H. Kawano, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nonlinear optical microscopy and spectroscopy employing octave spanning pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 767–780 (2010).

J. Microsc.

K. König, “Multiphoton microscopy in life sciences,” J. Microsc. 200(Pt 2), 83–104 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. Chem. B

H. Hosoi, S. Yamaguchi, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and T. Tahara, “Hidden electronic excited state of enhanced green fluorescent protein,” J. Phys. Chem. B 112(10), 2761–2763 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

K. Isobe, W. Watanabe, S. Matsunaga, T. Higashi, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “Multi-spectral two-photon excited fluorescence microscopy using supercontinuum light source,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4), L167–L169 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Biotechnol.

J. S. Marchant, G. E. Stutzmann, M. A. Leissring, F. M. LaFerla, and I. Parker, “Multiphoton-evoked color change of DsRed as an optical highlighter for cellular and subcellular labeling,” Nat. Biotechnol. 19(7), 645–649 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

K. Isobe, A. Suda, M. Tanaka, F. Kannari, H. Kawano, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Fourier-transform spectroscopy combined with a 5-fs broadband pulse for multispectral nonlinear microscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 77(6), 063832 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

C. Xu, W. Zipfel, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton fluorescence excitation: new spectral windows for biological nonlinear microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93(20), 10763–10768 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ando, H. Hama, M. Yamamoto-Hino, H. Mizuno, and A. Miyawaki, “An optical marker based on the UV-induced green-to-red photoconversion of a fluorescent protein,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(20), 12651–12656 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

G. H. Patterson and J. Lippincott-Schwartz, “A photoactivatable GFP for selective photolabeling of proteins and cells,” Science 297(5588), 1873–1877 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. N. G. Giepmans, S. R. Adams, M. H. Ellisman, and R. Y. Tsien, “The fluorescent toolbox for assessing protein location and function,” Science 312(5771), 217–224 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. PD: photodiode, BS: beam splitter, OB: objective lens, DM: dichroic mirror, PMT: photomultiplier tube, SPF: short-pass filter, BPF: band-pass filter, PH: pinhole.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Time responses of photoconverted red fluorescence signal (red solid line) and pump light (black dotted line). (b) Power dependence of photoconverted fluorescence signal. (c) IAC signal from photoconverted fluorescence.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

TPE spectra for (a) green-to-red photoconversion, (b) green fluorescence (c) red fluorescence.

Equations (1)

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σ s ( 2 ) ( ω ) φ s ( P C ) = 1 k C r φ r ( f l ) α r C s φ s ( f l ) α s S P C ( 2 ) ( ω ) S S H ( 2 ) ( ω ) 1 p ( ω 0 ) σ s ( 1 ) ( ω 0 ) .

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