Abstract

We examined intensity and shape differences in 378 repeated spectroscopic measures of the cervix. We examined causes of variability such as presence of precancer or cancer, pathologic tissue type, menopausal status, hormone or oral contraceptive use, and age; as well as technology related variables like generation of device and provider making exam. Age, device generation, and provider were statistically significantly related to intensity differences. Provider and device generation were related to shape differences. We examined the order of measurements and found a decreased intensity in the second measurement due to hemoglobin absorption. 96% of repeat measurements had classification concordance of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. J. Freeberg, D. Serachitopol, N. McKinnon, R. Price, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, and B. Pikkula, “Fluorescence and reflectance device variability throughout the progression of a phase II clinical trial to detect and screen for cervical neoplasia using a fiber optic probe,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034015 (2007).
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  2. N. Marín, N. MacKinnon, C. MacAulay, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, D. Serachitopol, B. Pikkula, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Calibration standards for multicenter clinical trials of fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(1), 014010 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S.B. Cantor, J.M. Yamal, M. Guillaud, D.D. Cox, E.N. Atkinson, J.L. Benedet, D. Miller, T. Ehlen, J. Matisic, D. van Niekerk, M. Bertrand, A. Milbourne, H. Rhodes, A. Malpica, G. Staerkel, S. Nader-Eftekhari, K. Adler-Storthz, M.E. Scheurer, K. Basen-Engquist, E. Shinn, L.A. West, A.T. Vlastos, X. Tao, J.R. Beck, C. MacAulay, and M. Follen, “Accuracy of optical spectroscopy for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: testing a device as an adjunct to colposcopy,” Int. J. Cancer (accepted for resubmission).
  4. S. K. Chang, M. Dawood, G. Staerkel, U. Utzinger, E. N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Fluorescence spectroscopy for cervical precancer detection: Is there variance across the menstrual cycle?” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(4), 595–602 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. B. Pikkula, D. Serachitopol, C. MacAulay, N. Mackinnon, J. S. Lee, D. D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Multicenter clinical trials of in vivo fluorescence: are the measurements equivalent?” Proc SPIE 6430–64301Q (2007).
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    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

H. Zhu, M. Vannucci, and D. D. Cox, “A Bayesian Hierarchical Model for Classification with Selection of Functional Predictors,” Biometrics 66(2), 463–473 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

B. M. Pikkula, O. Shuhatovich, R. L. Price, D. M. Serachitopol, M. Follen, N. McKinnon, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, J. S. Lee, E. N. Atkinson, and D. D. Cox, “Instrumentation as a source of variability in the application of fluorescence spectroscopic devices for detecting cervical neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034014 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Arifler, I. Pavlova, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from collagen fiber networks: micro-optical properties of normal and neoplastic stroma,” Biophys. J. 92(9), 3260–3274 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Freeberg, D. Serachitopol, N. McKinnon, R. Price, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, and B. Pikkula, “Fluorescence and reflectance device variability throughout the progression of a phase II clinical trial to detect and screen for cervical neoplasia using a fiber optic probe,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034015 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

N. Marín, N. MacKinnon, C. MacAulay, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, D. Serachitopol, B. Pikkula, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Calibration standards for multicenter clinical trials of fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(1), 014010 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. S. Lee, O. Shuhatovich, R. Price, B. Pikkula, M. Follen, N. McKinnon, C. Macaulay, B. Knight, R. Richards-Kortum, and D. D. Cox, “Design and preliminary analysis of a study to assess intra-device and inter-device variability of fluorescence spectroscopy instruments for detecting cervical neoplasia,” Gynecol. Oncol. 99(3), S98–S111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

A. Nath, K. Rivoire, S. Chang, D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Effect of probe pressure on cervical fluorescence spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 523–533 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Rivoire, A. Nath, D. D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “The effects of repeated spectroscopic pressure measurements on fluorescence intensity in the cervix,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 191(5), 1606–1617 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

C. Brookner, U. Utzinger, M. Follen, R. Richards-Kortum, D. D. Cox, and E. N. Atkinson, “Effects of biographical variables on cervical fluorescence emission spectra,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 479–483 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 7–16 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Pavlova, K. Sokolov, R. Drezek, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Microanatomical and biochemical origins of normal and precancerous cervical autofluorescence using laser-scanning fluorescence confocal microscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 77(5), 550–555 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Cox, S. K. Chang, M. Dawood, G. Staerkel, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Detecting the signal of the menstrual cycle in fluorescence spectroscopy of the cervix,” Appl. Spectrosc. 57(1), 67–72 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. K. Chang, M. Dawood, G. Staerkel, U. Utzinger, E. N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Fluorescence spectroscopy for cervical precancer detection: Is there variance across the menstrual cycle?” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(4), 595–602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

R. Drezek, C. Brookner, I. Pavlova, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Autofluorescence microscopy of fresh cervical-tissue sections reveals alterations in tissue biochmistry with dysplasia,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73(6), 636–641 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and implication,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(4), 385–396 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Ramanujam, R. Richards-Kortum, S. Thomsen, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, M. Follen, and B. Chance, “Low Temperature Fluorescence Imaging of Freeze-trapped Human Cervical Tissues,” Opt. Express 8(6), 335–343 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

C. Brookner, M. Follen, I. Boiko, J. Galvan, S. Thomsen, A. Malpica, S. Suzuki, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Autofluorescence patterns in short-term cultures of normal cervical tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. 71(6), 730–736 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Adler-Storthz, K.

S.B. Cantor, J.M. Yamal, M. Guillaud, D.D. Cox, E.N. Atkinson, J.L. Benedet, D. Miller, T. Ehlen, J. Matisic, D. van Niekerk, M. Bertrand, A. Milbourne, H. Rhodes, A. Malpica, G. Staerkel, S. Nader-Eftekhari, K. Adler-Storthz, M.E. Scheurer, K. Basen-Engquist, E. Shinn, L.A. West, A.T. Vlastos, X. Tao, J.R. Beck, C. MacAulay, and M. Follen, “Accuracy of optical spectroscopy for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: testing a device as an adjunct to colposcopy,” Int. J. Cancer (accepted for resubmission).

Arifler, D.

D. Arifler, I. Pavlova, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from collagen fiber networks: micro-optical properties of normal and neoplastic stroma,” Biophys. J. 92(9), 3260–3274 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Atkinson, E. N.

B. M. Pikkula, O. Shuhatovich, R. L. Price, D. M. Serachitopol, M. Follen, N. McKinnon, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, J. S. Lee, E. N. Atkinson, and D. D. Cox, “Instrumentation as a source of variability in the application of fluorescence spectroscopic devices for detecting cervical neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034014 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Freeberg, D. Serachitopol, N. McKinnon, R. Price, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, and B. Pikkula, “Fluorescence and reflectance device variability throughout the progression of a phase II clinical trial to detect and screen for cervical neoplasia using a fiber optic probe,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034015 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Marín, N. MacKinnon, C. MacAulay, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, D. Serachitopol, B. Pikkula, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Calibration standards for multicenter clinical trials of fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(1), 014010 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Nath, K. Rivoire, S. Chang, D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Effect of probe pressure on cervical fluorescence spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 523–533 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Rivoire, A. Nath, D. D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “The effects of repeated spectroscopic pressure measurements on fluorescence intensity in the cervix,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 191(5), 1606–1617 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Brookner, U. Utzinger, M. Follen, R. Richards-Kortum, D. D. Cox, and E. N. Atkinson, “Effects of biographical variables on cervical fluorescence emission spectra,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 479–483 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Chang, M. Dawood, G. Staerkel, U. Utzinger, E. N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Fluorescence spectroscopy for cervical precancer detection: Is there variance across the menstrual cycle?” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(4), 595–602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Atkinson, E.N.

S.B. Cantor, J.M. Yamal, M. Guillaud, D.D. Cox, E.N. Atkinson, J.L. Benedet, D. Miller, T. Ehlen, J. Matisic, D. van Niekerk, M. Bertrand, A. Milbourne, H. Rhodes, A. Malpica, G. Staerkel, S. Nader-Eftekhari, K. Adler-Storthz, M.E. Scheurer, K. Basen-Engquist, E. Shinn, L.A. West, A.T. Vlastos, X. Tao, J.R. Beck, C. MacAulay, and M. Follen, “Accuracy of optical spectroscopy for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: testing a device as an adjunct to colposcopy,” Int. J. Cancer (accepted for resubmission).

Basen-Engquist, K.

S.B. Cantor, J.M. Yamal, M. Guillaud, D.D. Cox, E.N. Atkinson, J.L. Benedet, D. Miller, T. Ehlen, J. Matisic, D. van Niekerk, M. Bertrand, A. Milbourne, H. Rhodes, A. Malpica, G. Staerkel, S. Nader-Eftekhari, K. Adler-Storthz, M.E. Scheurer, K. Basen-Engquist, E. Shinn, L.A. West, A.T. Vlastos, X. Tao, J.R. Beck, C. MacAulay, and M. Follen, “Accuracy of optical spectroscopy for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: testing a device as an adjunct to colposcopy,” Int. J. Cancer (accepted for resubmission).

Beck, J.R.

S.B. Cantor, J.M. Yamal, M. Guillaud, D.D. Cox, E.N. Atkinson, J.L. Benedet, D. Miller, T. Ehlen, J. Matisic, D. van Niekerk, M. Bertrand, A. Milbourne, H. Rhodes, A. Malpica, G. Staerkel, S. Nader-Eftekhari, K. Adler-Storthz, M.E. Scheurer, K. Basen-Engquist, E. Shinn, L.A. West, A.T. Vlastos, X. Tao, J.R. Beck, C. MacAulay, and M. Follen, “Accuracy of optical spectroscopy for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: testing a device as an adjunct to colposcopy,” Int. J. Cancer (accepted for resubmission).

Benedet, J.L.

S.B. Cantor, J.M. Yamal, M. Guillaud, D.D. Cox, E.N. Atkinson, J.L. Benedet, D. Miller, T. Ehlen, J. Matisic, D. van Niekerk, M. Bertrand, A. Milbourne, H. Rhodes, A. Malpica, G. Staerkel, S. Nader-Eftekhari, K. Adler-Storthz, M.E. Scheurer, K. Basen-Engquist, E. Shinn, L.A. West, A.T. Vlastos, X. Tao, J.R. Beck, C. MacAulay, and M. Follen, “Accuracy of optical spectroscopy for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: testing a device as an adjunct to colposcopy,” Int. J. Cancer (accepted for resubmission).

Bertrand, M.

S.B. Cantor, J.M. Yamal, M. Guillaud, D.D. Cox, E.N. Atkinson, J.L. Benedet, D. Miller, T. Ehlen, J. Matisic, D. van Niekerk, M. Bertrand, A. Milbourne, H. Rhodes, A. Malpica, G. Staerkel, S. Nader-Eftekhari, K. Adler-Storthz, M.E. Scheurer, K. Basen-Engquist, E. Shinn, L.A. West, A.T. Vlastos, X. Tao, J.R. Beck, C. MacAulay, and M. Follen, “Accuracy of optical spectroscopy for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: testing a device as an adjunct to colposcopy,” Int. J. Cancer (accepted for resubmission).

Boiko, I.

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 7–16 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Drezek, C. Brookner, I. Pavlova, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Autofluorescence microscopy of fresh cervical-tissue sections reveals alterations in tissue biochmistry with dysplasia,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73(6), 636–641 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and implication,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(4), 385–396 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Brookner, M. Follen, I. Boiko, J. Galvan, S. Thomsen, A. Malpica, S. Suzuki, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Autofluorescence patterns in short-term cultures of normal cervical tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. 71(6), 730–736 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brookner, C.

C. Brookner, U. Utzinger, M. Follen, R. Richards-Kortum, D. D. Cox, and E. N. Atkinson, “Effects of biographical variables on cervical fluorescence emission spectra,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 479–483 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Drezek, C. Brookner, I. Pavlova, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Autofluorescence microscopy of fresh cervical-tissue sections reveals alterations in tissue biochmistry with dysplasia,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73(6), 636–641 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Brookner, M. Follen, I. Boiko, J. Galvan, S. Thomsen, A. Malpica, S. Suzuki, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Autofluorescence patterns in short-term cultures of normal cervical tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. 71(6), 730–736 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cantor, S.B.

S.B. Cantor, J.M. Yamal, M. Guillaud, D.D. Cox, E.N. Atkinson, J.L. Benedet, D. Miller, T. Ehlen, J. Matisic, D. van Niekerk, M. Bertrand, A. Milbourne, H. Rhodes, A. Malpica, G. Staerkel, S. Nader-Eftekhari, K. Adler-Storthz, M.E. Scheurer, K. Basen-Engquist, E. Shinn, L.A. West, A.T. Vlastos, X. Tao, J.R. Beck, C. MacAulay, and M. Follen, “Accuracy of optical spectroscopy for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: testing a device as an adjunct to colposcopy,” Int. J. Cancer (accepted for resubmission).

Chance, B.

Chang, S.

A. Nath, K. Rivoire, S. Chang, D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Effect of probe pressure on cervical fluorescence spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 523–533 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. K.

N. Marín, N. MacKinnon, C. MacAulay, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, D. Serachitopol, B. Pikkula, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Calibration standards for multicenter clinical trials of fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(1), 014010 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Cox, S. K. Chang, M. Dawood, G. Staerkel, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Detecting the signal of the menstrual cycle in fluorescence spectroscopy of the cervix,” Appl. Spectrosc. 57(1), 67–72 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Chang, M. Dawood, G. Staerkel, U. Utzinger, E. N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Fluorescence spectroscopy for cervical precancer detection: Is there variance across the menstrual cycle?” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(4), 595–602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Collier, T.

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 7–16 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cox, D.

A. Nath, K. Rivoire, S. Chang, D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Effect of probe pressure on cervical fluorescence spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 523–533 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cox, D. D.

H. Zhu, M. Vannucci, and D. D. Cox, “A Bayesian Hierarchical Model for Classification with Selection of Functional Predictors,” Biometrics 66(2), 463–473 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Pikkula, O. Shuhatovich, R. L. Price, D. M. Serachitopol, M. Follen, N. McKinnon, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, J. S. Lee, E. N. Atkinson, and D. D. Cox, “Instrumentation as a source of variability in the application of fluorescence spectroscopic devices for detecting cervical neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034014 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Freeberg, D. Serachitopol, N. McKinnon, R. Price, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, and B. Pikkula, “Fluorescence and reflectance device variability throughout the progression of a phase II clinical trial to detect and screen for cervical neoplasia using a fiber optic probe,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034015 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Marín, N. MacKinnon, C. MacAulay, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, D. Serachitopol, B. Pikkula, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Calibration standards for multicenter clinical trials of fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(1), 014010 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Lee, O. Shuhatovich, R. Price, B. Pikkula, M. Follen, N. McKinnon, C. Macaulay, B. Knight, R. Richards-Kortum, and D. D. Cox, “Design and preliminary analysis of a study to assess intra-device and inter-device variability of fluorescence spectroscopy instruments for detecting cervical neoplasia,” Gynecol. Oncol. 99(3), S98–S111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Rivoire, A. Nath, D. D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “The effects of repeated spectroscopic pressure measurements on fluorescence intensity in the cervix,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 191(5), 1606–1617 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Cox, S. K. Chang, M. Dawood, G. Staerkel, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Detecting the signal of the menstrual cycle in fluorescence spectroscopy of the cervix,” Appl. Spectrosc. 57(1), 67–72 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Brookner, U. Utzinger, M. Follen, R. Richards-Kortum, D. D. Cox, and E. N. Atkinson, “Effects of biographical variables on cervical fluorescence emission spectra,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 479–483 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cox, D.D.

S.B. Cantor, J.M. Yamal, M. Guillaud, D.D. Cox, E.N. Atkinson, J.L. Benedet, D. Miller, T. Ehlen, J. Matisic, D. van Niekerk, M. Bertrand, A. Milbourne, H. Rhodes, A. Malpica, G. Staerkel, S. Nader-Eftekhari, K. Adler-Storthz, M.E. Scheurer, K. Basen-Engquist, E. Shinn, L.A. West, A.T. Vlastos, X. Tao, J.R. Beck, C. MacAulay, and M. Follen, “Accuracy of optical spectroscopy for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: testing a device as an adjunct to colposcopy,” Int. J. Cancer (accepted for resubmission).

Dawood, M.

D. D. Cox, S. K. Chang, M. Dawood, G. Staerkel, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Detecting the signal of the menstrual cycle in fluorescence spectroscopy of the cervix,” Appl. Spectrosc. 57(1), 67–72 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Chang, M. Dawood, G. Staerkel, U. Utzinger, E. N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Fluorescence spectroscopy for cervical precancer detection: Is there variance across the menstrual cycle?” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(4), 595–602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Drezek, R.

I. Pavlova, K. Sokolov, R. Drezek, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Microanatomical and biochemical origins of normal and precancerous cervical autofluorescence using laser-scanning fluorescence confocal microscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 77(5), 550–555 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 7–16 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Drezek, C. Brookner, I. Pavlova, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Autofluorescence microscopy of fresh cervical-tissue sections reveals alterations in tissue biochmistry with dysplasia,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73(6), 636–641 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and implication,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(4), 385–396 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ehlen, T.

S.B. Cantor, J.M. Yamal, M. Guillaud, D.D. Cox, E.N. Atkinson, J.L. Benedet, D. Miller, T. Ehlen, J. Matisic, D. van Niekerk, M. Bertrand, A. Milbourne, H. Rhodes, A. Malpica, G. Staerkel, S. Nader-Eftekhari, K. Adler-Storthz, M.E. Scheurer, K. Basen-Engquist, E. Shinn, L.A. West, A.T. Vlastos, X. Tao, J.R. Beck, C. MacAulay, and M. Follen, “Accuracy of optical spectroscopy for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: testing a device as an adjunct to colposcopy,” Int. J. Cancer (accepted for resubmission).

Follen, M.

B. M. Pikkula, O. Shuhatovich, R. L. Price, D. M. Serachitopol, M. Follen, N. McKinnon, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, J. S. Lee, E. N. Atkinson, and D. D. Cox, “Instrumentation as a source of variability in the application of fluorescence spectroscopic devices for detecting cervical neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034014 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Freeberg, D. Serachitopol, N. McKinnon, R. Price, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, and B. Pikkula, “Fluorescence and reflectance device variability throughout the progression of a phase II clinical trial to detect and screen for cervical neoplasia using a fiber optic probe,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034015 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Marín, N. MacKinnon, C. MacAulay, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, D. Serachitopol, B. Pikkula, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Calibration standards for multicenter clinical trials of fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(1), 014010 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Lee, O. Shuhatovich, R. Price, B. Pikkula, M. Follen, N. McKinnon, C. Macaulay, B. Knight, R. Richards-Kortum, and D. D. Cox, “Design and preliminary analysis of a study to assess intra-device and inter-device variability of fluorescence spectroscopy instruments for detecting cervical neoplasia,” Gynecol. Oncol. 99(3), S98–S111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Rivoire, A. Nath, D. D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “The effects of repeated spectroscopic pressure measurements on fluorescence intensity in the cervix,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 191(5), 1606–1617 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Nath, K. Rivoire, S. Chang, D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Effect of probe pressure on cervical fluorescence spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 523–533 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Brookner, U. Utzinger, M. Follen, R. Richards-Kortum, D. D. Cox, and E. N. Atkinson, “Effects of biographical variables on cervical fluorescence emission spectra,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 479–483 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 7–16 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Pavlova, K. Sokolov, R. Drezek, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Microanatomical and biochemical origins of normal and precancerous cervical autofluorescence using laser-scanning fluorescence confocal microscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 77(5), 550–555 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Cox, S. K. Chang, M. Dawood, G. Staerkel, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Detecting the signal of the menstrual cycle in fluorescence spectroscopy of the cervix,” Appl. Spectrosc. 57(1), 67–72 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Chang, M. Dawood, G. Staerkel, U. Utzinger, E. N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Fluorescence spectroscopy for cervical precancer detection: Is there variance across the menstrual cycle?” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(4), 595–602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Ramanujam, R. Richards-Kortum, S. Thomsen, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, M. Follen, and B. Chance, “Low Temperature Fluorescence Imaging of Freeze-trapped Human Cervical Tissues,” Opt. Express 8(6), 335–343 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and implication,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(4), 385–396 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Drezek, C. Brookner, I. Pavlova, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Autofluorescence microscopy of fresh cervical-tissue sections reveals alterations in tissue biochmistry with dysplasia,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73(6), 636–641 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Brookner, M. Follen, I. Boiko, J. Galvan, S. Thomsen, A. Malpica, S. Suzuki, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Autofluorescence patterns in short-term cultures of normal cervical tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. 71(6), 730–736 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S.B. Cantor, J.M. Yamal, M. Guillaud, D.D. Cox, E.N. Atkinson, J.L. Benedet, D. Miller, T. Ehlen, J. Matisic, D. van Niekerk, M. Bertrand, A. Milbourne, H. Rhodes, A. Malpica, G. Staerkel, S. Nader-Eftekhari, K. Adler-Storthz, M.E. Scheurer, K. Basen-Engquist, E. Shinn, L.A. West, A.T. Vlastos, X. Tao, J.R. Beck, C. MacAulay, and M. Follen, “Accuracy of optical spectroscopy for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: testing a device as an adjunct to colposcopy,” Int. J. Cancer (accepted for resubmission).

Freeberg, J.

J. Freeberg, D. Serachitopol, N. McKinnon, R. Price, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, and B. Pikkula, “Fluorescence and reflectance device variability throughout the progression of a phase II clinical trial to detect and screen for cervical neoplasia using a fiber optic probe,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034015 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Galvan, J.

C. Brookner, M. Follen, I. Boiko, J. Galvan, S. Thomsen, A. Malpica, S. Suzuki, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Autofluorescence patterns in short-term cultures of normal cervical tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. 71(6), 730–736 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gillenwater, A.

D. Arifler, I. Pavlova, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from collagen fiber networks: micro-optical properties of normal and neoplastic stroma,” Biophys. J. 92(9), 3260–3274 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guillaud, M.

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 7–16 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S.B. Cantor, J.M. Yamal, M. Guillaud, D.D. Cox, E.N. Atkinson, J.L. Benedet, D. Miller, T. Ehlen, J. Matisic, D. van Niekerk, M. Bertrand, A. Milbourne, H. Rhodes, A. Malpica, G. Staerkel, S. Nader-Eftekhari, K. Adler-Storthz, M.E. Scheurer, K. Basen-Engquist, E. Shinn, L.A. West, A.T. Vlastos, X. Tao, J.R. Beck, C. MacAulay, and M. Follen, “Accuracy of optical spectroscopy for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: testing a device as an adjunct to colposcopy,” Int. J. Cancer (accepted for resubmission).

Knight, B.

J. S. Lee, O. Shuhatovich, R. Price, B. Pikkula, M. Follen, N. McKinnon, C. Macaulay, B. Knight, R. Richards-Kortum, and D. D. Cox, “Design and preliminary analysis of a study to assess intra-device and inter-device variability of fluorescence spectroscopy instruments for detecting cervical neoplasia,” Gynecol. Oncol. 99(3), S98–S111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. S.

B. M. Pikkula, O. Shuhatovich, R. L. Price, D. M. Serachitopol, M. Follen, N. McKinnon, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, J. S. Lee, E. N. Atkinson, and D. D. Cox, “Instrumentation as a source of variability in the application of fluorescence spectroscopic devices for detecting cervical neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034014 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Lee, O. Shuhatovich, R. Price, B. Pikkula, M. Follen, N. McKinnon, C. Macaulay, B. Knight, R. Richards-Kortum, and D. D. Cox, “Design and preliminary analysis of a study to assess intra-device and inter-device variability of fluorescence spectroscopy instruments for detecting cervical neoplasia,” Gynecol. Oncol. 99(3), S98–S111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lotan, R.

R. Drezek, C. Brookner, I. Pavlova, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Autofluorescence microscopy of fresh cervical-tissue sections reveals alterations in tissue biochmistry with dysplasia,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73(6), 636–641 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Brookner, M. Follen, I. Boiko, J. Galvan, S. Thomsen, A. Malpica, S. Suzuki, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Autofluorescence patterns in short-term cultures of normal cervical tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. 71(6), 730–736 (2000).
[CrossRef]

MacAulay, C.

J. Freeberg, D. Serachitopol, N. McKinnon, R. Price, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, and B. Pikkula, “Fluorescence and reflectance device variability throughout the progression of a phase II clinical trial to detect and screen for cervical neoplasia using a fiber optic probe,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034015 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Pikkula, O. Shuhatovich, R. L. Price, D. M. Serachitopol, M. Follen, N. McKinnon, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, J. S. Lee, E. N. Atkinson, and D. D. Cox, “Instrumentation as a source of variability in the application of fluorescence spectroscopic devices for detecting cervical neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034014 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Marín, N. MacKinnon, C. MacAulay, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, D. Serachitopol, B. Pikkula, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Calibration standards for multicenter clinical trials of fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(1), 014010 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Lee, O. Shuhatovich, R. Price, B. Pikkula, M. Follen, N. McKinnon, C. Macaulay, B. Knight, R. Richards-Kortum, and D. D. Cox, “Design and preliminary analysis of a study to assess intra-device and inter-device variability of fluorescence spectroscopy instruments for detecting cervical neoplasia,” Gynecol. Oncol. 99(3), S98–S111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 7–16 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S.B. Cantor, J.M. Yamal, M. Guillaud, D.D. Cox, E.N. Atkinson, J.L. Benedet, D. Miller, T. Ehlen, J. Matisic, D. van Niekerk, M. Bertrand, A. Milbourne, H. Rhodes, A. Malpica, G. Staerkel, S. Nader-Eftekhari, K. Adler-Storthz, M.E. Scheurer, K. Basen-Engquist, E. Shinn, L.A. West, A.T. Vlastos, X. Tao, J.R. Beck, C. MacAulay, and M. Follen, “Accuracy of optical spectroscopy for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: testing a device as an adjunct to colposcopy,” Int. J. Cancer (accepted for resubmission).

MacKinnon, N.

N. Marín, N. MacKinnon, C. MacAulay, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, D. Serachitopol, B. Pikkula, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Calibration standards for multicenter clinical trials of fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(1), 014010 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mahadevan-Jansen, A.

Malpica, A.

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 7–16 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Pavlova, K. Sokolov, R. Drezek, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Microanatomical and biochemical origins of normal and precancerous cervical autofluorescence using laser-scanning fluorescence confocal microscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 77(5), 550–555 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and implication,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(4), 385–396 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Drezek, C. Brookner, I. Pavlova, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Autofluorescence microscopy of fresh cervical-tissue sections reveals alterations in tissue biochmistry with dysplasia,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73(6), 636–641 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Brookner, M. Follen, I. Boiko, J. Galvan, S. Thomsen, A. Malpica, S. Suzuki, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Autofluorescence patterns in short-term cultures of normal cervical tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. 71(6), 730–736 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S.B. Cantor, J.M. Yamal, M. Guillaud, D.D. Cox, E.N. Atkinson, J.L. Benedet, D. Miller, T. Ehlen, J. Matisic, D. van Niekerk, M. Bertrand, A. Milbourne, H. Rhodes, A. Malpica, G. Staerkel, S. Nader-Eftekhari, K. Adler-Storthz, M.E. Scheurer, K. Basen-Engquist, E. Shinn, L.A. West, A.T. Vlastos, X. Tao, J.R. Beck, C. MacAulay, and M. Follen, “Accuracy of optical spectroscopy for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: testing a device as an adjunct to colposcopy,” Int. J. Cancer (accepted for resubmission).

Marín, N.

N. Marín, N. MacKinnon, C. MacAulay, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, D. Serachitopol, B. Pikkula, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Calibration standards for multicenter clinical trials of fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(1), 014010 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matisic, J.

S.B. Cantor, J.M. Yamal, M. Guillaud, D.D. Cox, E.N. Atkinson, J.L. Benedet, D. Miller, T. Ehlen, J. Matisic, D. van Niekerk, M. Bertrand, A. Milbourne, H. Rhodes, A. Malpica, G. Staerkel, S. Nader-Eftekhari, K. Adler-Storthz, M.E. Scheurer, K. Basen-Engquist, E. Shinn, L.A. West, A.T. Vlastos, X. Tao, J.R. Beck, C. MacAulay, and M. Follen, “Accuracy of optical spectroscopy for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: testing a device as an adjunct to colposcopy,” Int. J. Cancer (accepted for resubmission).

McKinnon, N.

B. M. Pikkula, O. Shuhatovich, R. L. Price, D. M. Serachitopol, M. Follen, N. McKinnon, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, J. S. Lee, E. N. Atkinson, and D. D. Cox, “Instrumentation as a source of variability in the application of fluorescence spectroscopic devices for detecting cervical neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034014 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Freeberg, D. Serachitopol, N. McKinnon, R. Price, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, and B. Pikkula, “Fluorescence and reflectance device variability throughout the progression of a phase II clinical trial to detect and screen for cervical neoplasia using a fiber optic probe,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034015 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Lee, O. Shuhatovich, R. Price, B. Pikkula, M. Follen, N. McKinnon, C. Macaulay, B. Knight, R. Richards-Kortum, and D. D. Cox, “Design and preliminary analysis of a study to assess intra-device and inter-device variability of fluorescence spectroscopy instruments for detecting cervical neoplasia,” Gynecol. Oncol. 99(3), S98–S111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Milbourne, A.

S.B. Cantor, J.M. Yamal, M. Guillaud, D.D. Cox, E.N. Atkinson, J.L. Benedet, D. Miller, T. Ehlen, J. Matisic, D. van Niekerk, M. Bertrand, A. Milbourne, H. Rhodes, A. Malpica, G. Staerkel, S. Nader-Eftekhari, K. Adler-Storthz, M.E. Scheurer, K. Basen-Engquist, E. Shinn, L.A. West, A.T. Vlastos, X. Tao, J.R. Beck, C. MacAulay, and M. Follen, “Accuracy of optical spectroscopy for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: testing a device as an adjunct to colposcopy,” Int. J. Cancer (accepted for resubmission).

Miller, D.

S.B. Cantor, J.M. Yamal, M. Guillaud, D.D. Cox, E.N. Atkinson, J.L. Benedet, D. Miller, T. Ehlen, J. Matisic, D. van Niekerk, M. Bertrand, A. Milbourne, H. Rhodes, A. Malpica, G. Staerkel, S. Nader-Eftekhari, K. Adler-Storthz, M.E. Scheurer, K. Basen-Engquist, E. Shinn, L.A. West, A.T. Vlastos, X. Tao, J.R. Beck, C. MacAulay, and M. Follen, “Accuracy of optical spectroscopy for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: testing a device as an adjunct to colposcopy,” Int. J. Cancer (accepted for resubmission).

Nader-Eftekhari, S.

S.B. Cantor, J.M. Yamal, M. Guillaud, D.D. Cox, E.N. Atkinson, J.L. Benedet, D. Miller, T. Ehlen, J. Matisic, D. van Niekerk, M. Bertrand, A. Milbourne, H. Rhodes, A. Malpica, G. Staerkel, S. Nader-Eftekhari, K. Adler-Storthz, M.E. Scheurer, K. Basen-Engquist, E. Shinn, L.A. West, A.T. Vlastos, X. Tao, J.R. Beck, C. MacAulay, and M. Follen, “Accuracy of optical spectroscopy for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: testing a device as an adjunct to colposcopy,” Int. J. Cancer (accepted for resubmission).

Nath, A.

A. Nath, K. Rivoire, S. Chang, D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Effect of probe pressure on cervical fluorescence spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 523–533 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Rivoire, A. Nath, D. D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “The effects of repeated spectroscopic pressure measurements on fluorescence intensity in the cervix,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 191(5), 1606–1617 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pavlova, I.

D. Arifler, I. Pavlova, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from collagen fiber networks: micro-optical properties of normal and neoplastic stroma,” Biophys. J. 92(9), 3260–3274 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Pavlova, K. Sokolov, R. Drezek, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Microanatomical and biochemical origins of normal and precancerous cervical autofluorescence using laser-scanning fluorescence confocal microscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 77(5), 550–555 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Drezek, C. Brookner, I. Pavlova, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Autofluorescence microscopy of fresh cervical-tissue sections reveals alterations in tissue biochmistry with dysplasia,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73(6), 636–641 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pikkula, B.

J. Freeberg, D. Serachitopol, N. McKinnon, R. Price, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, and B. Pikkula, “Fluorescence and reflectance device variability throughout the progression of a phase II clinical trial to detect and screen for cervical neoplasia using a fiber optic probe,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034015 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Marín, N. MacKinnon, C. MacAulay, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, D. Serachitopol, B. Pikkula, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Calibration standards for multicenter clinical trials of fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(1), 014010 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Lee, O. Shuhatovich, R. Price, B. Pikkula, M. Follen, N. McKinnon, C. Macaulay, B. Knight, R. Richards-Kortum, and D. D. Cox, “Design and preliminary analysis of a study to assess intra-device and inter-device variability of fluorescence spectroscopy instruments for detecting cervical neoplasia,” Gynecol. Oncol. 99(3), S98–S111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pikkula, B. M.

B. M. Pikkula, O. Shuhatovich, R. L. Price, D. M. Serachitopol, M. Follen, N. McKinnon, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, J. S. Lee, E. N. Atkinson, and D. D. Cox, “Instrumentation as a source of variability in the application of fluorescence spectroscopic devices for detecting cervical neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034014 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Price, R.

J. Freeberg, D. Serachitopol, N. McKinnon, R. Price, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, and B. Pikkula, “Fluorescence and reflectance device variability throughout the progression of a phase II clinical trial to detect and screen for cervical neoplasia using a fiber optic probe,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034015 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Lee, O. Shuhatovich, R. Price, B. Pikkula, M. Follen, N. McKinnon, C. Macaulay, B. Knight, R. Richards-Kortum, and D. D. Cox, “Design and preliminary analysis of a study to assess intra-device and inter-device variability of fluorescence spectroscopy instruments for detecting cervical neoplasia,” Gynecol. Oncol. 99(3), S98–S111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Price, R. L.

B. M. Pikkula, O. Shuhatovich, R. L. Price, D. M. Serachitopol, M. Follen, N. McKinnon, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, J. S. Lee, E. N. Atkinson, and D. D. Cox, “Instrumentation as a source of variability in the application of fluorescence spectroscopic devices for detecting cervical neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034014 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ramanujam, N.

Rhodes, H.

S.B. Cantor, J.M. Yamal, M. Guillaud, D.D. Cox, E.N. Atkinson, J.L. Benedet, D. Miller, T. Ehlen, J. Matisic, D. van Niekerk, M. Bertrand, A. Milbourne, H. Rhodes, A. Malpica, G. Staerkel, S. Nader-Eftekhari, K. Adler-Storthz, M.E. Scheurer, K. Basen-Engquist, E. Shinn, L.A. West, A.T. Vlastos, X. Tao, J.R. Beck, C. MacAulay, and M. Follen, “Accuracy of optical spectroscopy for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: testing a device as an adjunct to colposcopy,” Int. J. Cancer (accepted for resubmission).

Richards-Kortum, R.

D. Arifler, I. Pavlova, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from collagen fiber networks: micro-optical properties of normal and neoplastic stroma,” Biophys. J. 92(9), 3260–3274 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Pikkula, O. Shuhatovich, R. L. Price, D. M. Serachitopol, M. Follen, N. McKinnon, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, J. S. Lee, E. N. Atkinson, and D. D. Cox, “Instrumentation as a source of variability in the application of fluorescence spectroscopic devices for detecting cervical neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034014 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Freeberg, D. Serachitopol, N. McKinnon, R. Price, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, and B. Pikkula, “Fluorescence and reflectance device variability throughout the progression of a phase II clinical trial to detect and screen for cervical neoplasia using a fiber optic probe,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034015 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Marín, N. MacKinnon, C. MacAulay, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, D. Serachitopol, B. Pikkula, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Calibration standards for multicenter clinical trials of fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(1), 014010 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Lee, O. Shuhatovich, R. Price, B. Pikkula, M. Follen, N. McKinnon, C. Macaulay, B. Knight, R. Richards-Kortum, and D. D. Cox, “Design and preliminary analysis of a study to assess intra-device and inter-device variability of fluorescence spectroscopy instruments for detecting cervical neoplasia,” Gynecol. Oncol. 99(3), S98–S111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Rivoire, A. Nath, D. D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “The effects of repeated spectroscopic pressure measurements on fluorescence intensity in the cervix,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 191(5), 1606–1617 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Nath, K. Rivoire, S. Chang, D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Effect of probe pressure on cervical fluorescence spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 523–533 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Brookner, U. Utzinger, M. Follen, R. Richards-Kortum, D. D. Cox, and E. N. Atkinson, “Effects of biographical variables on cervical fluorescence emission spectra,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 479–483 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 7–16 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Pavlova, K. Sokolov, R. Drezek, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Microanatomical and biochemical origins of normal and precancerous cervical autofluorescence using laser-scanning fluorescence confocal microscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 77(5), 550–555 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Cox, S. K. Chang, M. Dawood, G. Staerkel, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Detecting the signal of the menstrual cycle in fluorescence spectroscopy of the cervix,” Appl. Spectrosc. 57(1), 67–72 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Chang, M. Dawood, G. Staerkel, U. Utzinger, E. N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Fluorescence spectroscopy for cervical precancer detection: Is there variance across the menstrual cycle?” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(4), 595–602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Ramanujam, R. Richards-Kortum, S. Thomsen, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, M. Follen, and B. Chance, “Low Temperature Fluorescence Imaging of Freeze-trapped Human Cervical Tissues,” Opt. Express 8(6), 335–343 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and implication,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(4), 385–396 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Drezek, C. Brookner, I. Pavlova, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Autofluorescence microscopy of fresh cervical-tissue sections reveals alterations in tissue biochmistry with dysplasia,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73(6), 636–641 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Brookner, M. Follen, I. Boiko, J. Galvan, S. Thomsen, A. Malpica, S. Suzuki, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Autofluorescence patterns in short-term cultures of normal cervical tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. 71(6), 730–736 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rivoire, K.

K. Rivoire, A. Nath, D. D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “The effects of repeated spectroscopic pressure measurements on fluorescence intensity in the cervix,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 191(5), 1606–1617 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Nath, K. Rivoire, S. Chang, D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Effect of probe pressure on cervical fluorescence spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 523–533 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Scheurer, M.E.

S.B. Cantor, J.M. Yamal, M. Guillaud, D.D. Cox, E.N. Atkinson, J.L. Benedet, D. Miller, T. Ehlen, J. Matisic, D. van Niekerk, M. Bertrand, A. Milbourne, H. Rhodes, A. Malpica, G. Staerkel, S. Nader-Eftekhari, K. Adler-Storthz, M.E. Scheurer, K. Basen-Engquist, E. Shinn, L.A. West, A.T. Vlastos, X. Tao, J.R. Beck, C. MacAulay, and M. Follen, “Accuracy of optical spectroscopy for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: testing a device as an adjunct to colposcopy,” Int. J. Cancer (accepted for resubmission).

Serachitopol, D.

J. Freeberg, D. Serachitopol, N. McKinnon, R. Price, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, and B. Pikkula, “Fluorescence and reflectance device variability throughout the progression of a phase II clinical trial to detect and screen for cervical neoplasia using a fiber optic probe,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034015 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Marín, N. MacKinnon, C. MacAulay, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, D. Serachitopol, B. Pikkula, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Calibration standards for multicenter clinical trials of fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(1), 014010 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Serachitopol, D. M.

B. M. Pikkula, O. Shuhatovich, R. L. Price, D. M. Serachitopol, M. Follen, N. McKinnon, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, J. S. Lee, E. N. Atkinson, and D. D. Cox, “Instrumentation as a source of variability in the application of fluorescence spectroscopic devices for detecting cervical neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034014 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shinn, E.

S.B. Cantor, J.M. Yamal, M. Guillaud, D.D. Cox, E.N. Atkinson, J.L. Benedet, D. Miller, T. Ehlen, J. Matisic, D. van Niekerk, M. Bertrand, A. Milbourne, H. Rhodes, A. Malpica, G. Staerkel, S. Nader-Eftekhari, K. Adler-Storthz, M.E. Scheurer, K. Basen-Engquist, E. Shinn, L.A. West, A.T. Vlastos, X. Tao, J.R. Beck, C. MacAulay, and M. Follen, “Accuracy of optical spectroscopy for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: testing a device as an adjunct to colposcopy,” Int. J. Cancer (accepted for resubmission).

Shuhatovich, O.

B. M. Pikkula, O. Shuhatovich, R. L. Price, D. M. Serachitopol, M. Follen, N. McKinnon, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, J. S. Lee, E. N. Atkinson, and D. D. Cox, “Instrumentation as a source of variability in the application of fluorescence spectroscopic devices for detecting cervical neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034014 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Lee, O. Shuhatovich, R. Price, B. Pikkula, M. Follen, N. McKinnon, C. Macaulay, B. Knight, R. Richards-Kortum, and D. D. Cox, “Design and preliminary analysis of a study to assess intra-device and inter-device variability of fluorescence spectroscopy instruments for detecting cervical neoplasia,” Gynecol. Oncol. 99(3), S98–S111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sokolov, K.

I. Pavlova, K. Sokolov, R. Drezek, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Microanatomical and biochemical origins of normal and precancerous cervical autofluorescence using laser-scanning fluorescence confocal microscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 77(5), 550–555 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and implication,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(4), 385–396 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Staerkel, G.

D. D. Cox, S. K. Chang, M. Dawood, G. Staerkel, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Detecting the signal of the menstrual cycle in fluorescence spectroscopy of the cervix,” Appl. Spectrosc. 57(1), 67–72 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Chang, M. Dawood, G. Staerkel, U. Utzinger, E. N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Fluorescence spectroscopy for cervical precancer detection: Is there variance across the menstrual cycle?” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(4), 595–602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S.B. Cantor, J.M. Yamal, M. Guillaud, D.D. Cox, E.N. Atkinson, J.L. Benedet, D. Miller, T. Ehlen, J. Matisic, D. van Niekerk, M. Bertrand, A. Milbourne, H. Rhodes, A. Malpica, G. Staerkel, S. Nader-Eftekhari, K. Adler-Storthz, M.E. Scheurer, K. Basen-Engquist, E. Shinn, L.A. West, A.T. Vlastos, X. Tao, J.R. Beck, C. MacAulay, and M. Follen, “Accuracy of optical spectroscopy for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: testing a device as an adjunct to colposcopy,” Int. J. Cancer (accepted for resubmission).

Suzuki, S.

C. Brookner, M. Follen, I. Boiko, J. Galvan, S. Thomsen, A. Malpica, S. Suzuki, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Autofluorescence patterns in short-term cultures of normal cervical tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. 71(6), 730–736 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tao, X.

S.B. Cantor, J.M. Yamal, M. Guillaud, D.D. Cox, E.N. Atkinson, J.L. Benedet, D. Miller, T. Ehlen, J. Matisic, D. van Niekerk, M. Bertrand, A. Milbourne, H. Rhodes, A. Malpica, G. Staerkel, S. Nader-Eftekhari, K. Adler-Storthz, M.E. Scheurer, K. Basen-Engquist, E. Shinn, L.A. West, A.T. Vlastos, X. Tao, J.R. Beck, C. MacAulay, and M. Follen, “Accuracy of optical spectroscopy for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: testing a device as an adjunct to colposcopy,” Int. J. Cancer (accepted for resubmission).

Thomsen, S.

N. Ramanujam, R. Richards-Kortum, S. Thomsen, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, M. Follen, and B. Chance, “Low Temperature Fluorescence Imaging of Freeze-trapped Human Cervical Tissues,” Opt. Express 8(6), 335–343 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Brookner, M. Follen, I. Boiko, J. Galvan, S. Thomsen, A. Malpica, S. Suzuki, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Autofluorescence patterns in short-term cultures of normal cervical tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. 71(6), 730–736 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Utzinger, U.

D. D. Cox, S. K. Chang, M. Dawood, G. Staerkel, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Detecting the signal of the menstrual cycle in fluorescence spectroscopy of the cervix,” Appl. Spectrosc. 57(1), 67–72 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Brookner, U. Utzinger, M. Follen, R. Richards-Kortum, D. D. Cox, and E. N. Atkinson, “Effects of biographical variables on cervical fluorescence emission spectra,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 479–483 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Chang, M. Dawood, G. Staerkel, U. Utzinger, E. N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Fluorescence spectroscopy for cervical precancer detection: Is there variance across the menstrual cycle?” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(4), 595–602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and implication,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(4), 385–396 (2001).
[CrossRef]

van Niekerk, D.

S.B. Cantor, J.M. Yamal, M. Guillaud, D.D. Cox, E.N. Atkinson, J.L. Benedet, D. Miller, T. Ehlen, J. Matisic, D. van Niekerk, M. Bertrand, A. Milbourne, H. Rhodes, A. Malpica, G. Staerkel, S. Nader-Eftekhari, K. Adler-Storthz, M.E. Scheurer, K. Basen-Engquist, E. Shinn, L.A. West, A.T. Vlastos, X. Tao, J.R. Beck, C. MacAulay, and M. Follen, “Accuracy of optical spectroscopy for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: testing a device as an adjunct to colposcopy,” Int. J. Cancer (accepted for resubmission).

Vannucci, M.

H. Zhu, M. Vannucci, and D. D. Cox, “A Bayesian Hierarchical Model for Classification with Selection of Functional Predictors,” Biometrics 66(2), 463–473 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vlastos, A.T.

S.B. Cantor, J.M. Yamal, M. Guillaud, D.D. Cox, E.N. Atkinson, J.L. Benedet, D. Miller, T. Ehlen, J. Matisic, D. van Niekerk, M. Bertrand, A. Milbourne, H. Rhodes, A. Malpica, G. Staerkel, S. Nader-Eftekhari, K. Adler-Storthz, M.E. Scheurer, K. Basen-Engquist, E. Shinn, L.A. West, A.T. Vlastos, X. Tao, J.R. Beck, C. MacAulay, and M. Follen, “Accuracy of optical spectroscopy for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: testing a device as an adjunct to colposcopy,” Int. J. Cancer (accepted for resubmission).

West, L.A.

S.B. Cantor, J.M. Yamal, M. Guillaud, D.D. Cox, E.N. Atkinson, J.L. Benedet, D. Miller, T. Ehlen, J. Matisic, D. van Niekerk, M. Bertrand, A. Milbourne, H. Rhodes, A. Malpica, G. Staerkel, S. Nader-Eftekhari, K. Adler-Storthz, M.E. Scheurer, K. Basen-Engquist, E. Shinn, L.A. West, A.T. Vlastos, X. Tao, J.R. Beck, C. MacAulay, and M. Follen, “Accuracy of optical spectroscopy for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: testing a device as an adjunct to colposcopy,” Int. J. Cancer (accepted for resubmission).

Yamal, J.M.

S.B. Cantor, J.M. Yamal, M. Guillaud, D.D. Cox, E.N. Atkinson, J.L. Benedet, D. Miller, T. Ehlen, J. Matisic, D. van Niekerk, M. Bertrand, A. Milbourne, H. Rhodes, A. Malpica, G. Staerkel, S. Nader-Eftekhari, K. Adler-Storthz, M.E. Scheurer, K. Basen-Engquist, E. Shinn, L.A. West, A.T. Vlastos, X. Tao, J.R. Beck, C. MacAulay, and M. Follen, “Accuracy of optical spectroscopy for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: testing a device as an adjunct to colposcopy,” Int. J. Cancer (accepted for resubmission).

Zhu, H.

H. Zhu, M. Vannucci, and D. D. Cox, “A Bayesian Hierarchical Model for Classification with Selection of Functional Predictors,” Biometrics 66(2), 463–473 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1)

K. Rivoire, A. Nath, D. D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “The effects of repeated spectroscopic pressure measurements on fluorescence intensity in the cervix,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 191(5), 1606–1617 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Biometrics (1)

H. Zhu, M. Vannucci, and D. D. Cox, “A Bayesian Hierarchical Model for Classification with Selection of Functional Predictors,” Biometrics 66(2), 463–473 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (1)

D. Arifler, I. Pavlova, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from collagen fiber networks: micro-optical properties of normal and neoplastic stroma,” Biophys. J. 92(9), 3260–3274 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gynecol. Oncol. (1)

J. S. Lee, O. Shuhatovich, R. Price, B. Pikkula, M. Follen, N. McKinnon, C. Macaulay, B. Knight, R. Richards-Kortum, and D. D. Cox, “Design and preliminary analysis of a study to assess intra-device and inter-device variability of fluorescence spectroscopy instruments for detecting cervical neoplasia,” Gynecol. Oncol. 99(3), S98–S111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Cancer (1)

S.B. Cantor, J.M. Yamal, M. Guillaud, D.D. Cox, E.N. Atkinson, J.L. Benedet, D. Miller, T. Ehlen, J. Matisic, D. van Niekerk, M. Bertrand, A. Milbourne, H. Rhodes, A. Malpica, G. Staerkel, S. Nader-Eftekhari, K. Adler-Storthz, M.E. Scheurer, K. Basen-Engquist, E. Shinn, L.A. West, A.T. Vlastos, X. Tao, J.R. Beck, C. MacAulay, and M. Follen, “Accuracy of optical spectroscopy for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: testing a device as an adjunct to colposcopy,” Int. J. Cancer (accepted for resubmission).

J. Biomed. Opt. (8)

S. K. Chang, M. Dawood, G. Staerkel, U. Utzinger, E. N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Fluorescence spectroscopy for cervical precancer detection: Is there variance across the menstrual cycle?” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(4), 595–602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Nath, K. Rivoire, S. Chang, D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Effect of probe pressure on cervical fluorescence spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 523–533 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Freeberg, D. Serachitopol, N. McKinnon, R. Price, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, and B. Pikkula, “Fluorescence and reflectance device variability throughout the progression of a phase II clinical trial to detect and screen for cervical neoplasia using a fiber optic probe,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034015 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Marín, N. MacKinnon, C. MacAulay, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, D. Serachitopol, B. Pikkula, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Calibration standards for multicenter clinical trials of fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(1), 014010 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Brookner, U. Utzinger, M. Follen, R. Richards-Kortum, D. D. Cox, and E. N. Atkinson, “Effects of biographical variables on cervical fluorescence emission spectra,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 479–483 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Pikkula, O. Shuhatovich, R. L. Price, D. M. Serachitopol, M. Follen, N. McKinnon, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, J. S. Lee, E. N. Atkinson, and D. D. Cox, “Instrumentation as a source of variability in the application of fluorescence spectroscopic devices for detecting cervical neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034014 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and implication,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(4), 385–396 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 7–16 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Photochem. Photobiol. (3)

I. Pavlova, K. Sokolov, R. Drezek, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Microanatomical and biochemical origins of normal and precancerous cervical autofluorescence using laser-scanning fluorescence confocal microscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 77(5), 550–555 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Brookner, M. Follen, I. Boiko, J. Galvan, S. Thomsen, A. Malpica, S. Suzuki, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Autofluorescence patterns in short-term cultures of normal cervical tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. 71(6), 730–736 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Drezek, C. Brookner, I. Pavlova, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Autofluorescence microscopy of fresh cervical-tissue sections reveals alterations in tissue biochmistry with dysplasia,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73(6), 636–641 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

B. Pikkula, D. Serachitopol, C. MacAulay, N. Mackinnon, J. S. Lee, D. D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Multicenter clinical trials of in vivo fluorescence: are the measurements equivalent?” Proc SPIE 6430–64301Q (2007).

D. M. Gershensen, A. H. DeCherney, S. L. Curry, and L. Brubaker, Operative Gynecology, 2nd edition, (Saunders, 2001).

H. Zhu, and D. D. Cox, “A Functional Generalized Linear Model with Curve Selection in Cervical Pre-cancer Diagnosis Using Fluorescence Spectroscopy,” Optimality: The Third Erich L. Lehmann Symposium 57, 173–189 (2009).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Histogram of the overall log 10 difference between repeat EEMs showing a median of 35% difference.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Examples of repeat EEMs that have the lowest intensity difference (first row), median intensity differences (second row), and highest intensity difference between them (third row). The black (solid) and red (dotted) lines denote the first and second EEMs at the same barcode and clock position, respectively. Each EEM matrix was concatenated (by the 16 excitation wavelengths) to form a vector of excitation-emission pairs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scatter plot of log 10 of intensity difference between repeats of EEMs versus age. This shows an increase in the intensity difference for older women.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Boxplots of log 10 (intensity difference) by provider.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Device generation versus log 10 intensity difference between repeats of EEMs.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Examples of repeat EEMs which have the lowest (top row), median (middle row), and highest (bottom row) shape difference between them. The black (solid) and red (dotted) lines denote the first and second EEMs at the same barcode and clock position, respectively. Each EEM matrix was concatenated (by the 16 excitation wavelengths) to form a vector of excitation-emission pairs. A low shape difference value denotes two EEMs that have similar shape.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Boxplots of log 10 shape difference by device generation. There is more of a shape difference for pairs of EEMs in the 2nd generation device.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Boxplots of log 10 (shape difference) by provider.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Plot of z values for 2nd measurement - 1st measurement.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Barplot of percentage of repeat measurements whose classification class was not concordant by intensity difference. The error bar gives the 95% confidence interval.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

EEM plot of the normalized standard deviation between the 1st and 2nd measurements.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Barplot of percentage of repeat measurements whose classification class was not concordant by shape difference. The error bar gives the 95% confidence interval.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Plot of z values for (2nd measurement - 1st measurement) by device generation.

Tables (7)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Distribution of the histologic grade of the biopsies

Tables Icon

Table 7 Distribution of the oral contraceptive use

Tables Icon

Table 2 Age distribution

Tables Icon

Table 3 Distribution of the pathology tissue type. The pathology tissue types range from ecto-cervical to endo-cervical, coded numerically as one to five

Tables Icon

Table 4 Distribution of the menopausal status

Tables Icon

Table 5 Distribution of the generation of the device used to obtain the spectroscopic measurements

Tables Icon

Table 6 Distribution of the provider obtaining the measurements

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d i 2 = y i 1 y i 2 2 y i 1 y i 2 .
d i 2 = y i 1 2 2 y T i 1 y i 2 + y i 2 2 y i 1 y i 2 = y i 1 2 + y i 2 2 y i 1 y i 2 2 r i = ( y i 1 2 + y i 2 2 y i 1 y i 2 2 ) + 2 ( 1 r i ) .
log 10 I p i = β 0 + m = 1 7 β m x m p i + b z p + ε p i ,
z k = ( y ¯ 2 k y ¯ 1 k ) 1 N [ 1 N 1 i = 1 N ( δ i k δ ¯ k ) 2 ] 1 / 2 ,

Metrics