Abstract

Here, we present an augmented form of two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy, that integrates in a single format data from spectroscopic and multiple non-spectroscopic sources for analysis. The integration is affected by augmenting every spectrum in a hyperspectral data set with relevant non-spectroscopic data to permit two-dimensional correlation analysis(2D-COS) of the ensemble of augmented spectra. A k-means clustering is then applied to the results of the perturbation domain decomposition to determine which Raman peaks cluster with any of the non-spectroscopic data. We introduce and explain the method with the aid of synthetic spectra and synthetic non-spectroscopic data. We then demonstrate this approach with data using Raman spectra from human embryonic stem cell aggregates undergoing directed differentiation toward pancreatic endocrine cells and parallel bioassays of hormone mRNA expression and C-peptide levels in spent medium. These pancreatic endocrine cells generally contain insulin or glucagon. Insulin has disulfide bonds that produce Raman scattering near 513 cm–1, but no tryptophan. For insulin-positive cells, we found that the application of multisource correlation analysis revealed a high correlation between insulin mRNA and Raman scattering in the disulfide region. In contrast, glucagon has no disulfide bonds but does contain tryptophan. For glucagon-positive cells, we also observed a high correlation between glucagon mRNA and tryptophan Raman scattering (∼757 cm–1). We conclude with a discussion of methods to enhance spectral resolution and its effects on the performance of multisource correlation analysis.

© 2021 The Author(s)

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Supplementary Material (2)

NameDescription
» Supplement 1       sj-pdf-1-asp-10.1177_0003702820979331 - Supplemental material for Augmented Two-Dimensional Correlation Spectroscopy for the Joint Analysis of Correlated Changes in Spectroscopic and Disparate Sources
» Supplement 2       sj-pdf-2-asp-10.1177_0003702820979331 - Supplemental material for Augmented Two-Dimensional Correlation Spectroscopy for the Joint Analysis of Correlated Changes in Spectroscopic and Disparate Sources

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