Abstract

The clinical translation of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy in pathology will require bringing this technique as close as possible to standard practice in pathology departments. An important step is sample preparation for both FT-IR microspectroscopy and pathology. This should entail minimal disruption of standard clinical practice while achieving good quality FT-IR spectral data. In fact, the recently described possibility of obtaining FT-IR spectra of cells placed on glass substrates brings FT-IR microspectroscopy closer to a clinical application. We have now furthered this work in order to identify two different types of lung cancer cells placed on glass coverslips. Two types of sample preparation which are widely used in pathology, cytospin and smear, have been used. Samples were fixed with either methanol, used in pathology, or formalin (4% paraformaldehyde) used widely in spectroscopy. Fixation with methanol (alcohol-based fixative) removed lipids from cells causing a decrease in intensity of the peaks at 2850 cm−1 and 2920 cm−1. Nevertheless, we show for the first time that using either type of sample preparation and fixation on thin glass coverslips allowed to differentiate between two different types of lung cancer cells using either the lipid region or the fingerprint region ranging from 1800 cm−1 to 1350 cm−1. We believe that formalin-fixed cytospin samples would be preferred to study cells on thin coverslips using FT-IR microspectroscopy. This work presents a clear indication for future advances in clinical assessment of samples within pathology units to gain a deeper understanding of cells/tissues under investigation.

© 2020 The Author(s)

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M.J. Baker, H.J. Byrne, J. Chalmers, P. Gardner, et al.“Clinical Applications of Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy: State of Play and Future Challenges”. Analyst . 2018, 143(8): 1735–1757.
  2. P. Bassan, J. Mellor, J. Shapiro, K.J. Williams, et al.“Transmission FT-IR Chemical Imaging on Glass Substrates: Applications in Infrared Spectral Histopathology”. Anal. Chem . 2014, 86(3): 1648–1653.
  3. M.J. Pilling, A. Henderson, J.H. Shanks, M.D. Brown, et al.“Infrared Spectral Histopathology Using Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) Stained Glass Slides: A Major Step Forward Towards Clinical Translation”. Analyst . 2017, 142(8): 1258–1268.
  4. A.V. Rutter, J. Crees, H. Wright, D.G. van Pittius, et al.“Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra of Cells on Glass Coverslips. A Further Step in Spectral Pathology”. Analyst . 2018, 143(23): 5711–5717.
  5. A.V. Rutter, J. Crees, H. Wright, M. Raseta, et al.“Identification of a Glass Substrate to Study Cells Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: Are We Closer to Spectral Pathology?”. Appl. Spectrosc . 2019, 74(2): 178–186.
  6. F. Schmitt, B. Cochand-Priollet, M. Toetsch, B. Davidson, et al.“Immunocytochemistry in Europe: Results of the European Federation of Cytology Societies (EFCS) Inquiry”. Cytopathology . 2011, 22(4): 238–242.
  7. A. Nalwa, R. Walia, V. Singh, K. Madan, et al.“Comparison of Conventional Smear and Liquid-Based Cytology Preparation in Diagnosis of Lung Cancer by Bronchial Wash and Transbronchial Needle Aspiration”. J. Cytol . 2018, 35(2): 94–98.
  8. A.S. Kshatriya and P.M. Santwani“Comparison of FNAC Smears, Cytospin Smears, and Cell Blocks of Transthoracic Guided FNAC of Suspected Lung Tumor: A Study of 100 Cases”. J. Cytol . 2016, 33(3): 141–144.
  9. M.V. Brown, J.E. McDunn, P.R. Gunst, E.M. Smith, et al.“Cancer Detection and Biopsy Classification Using Concurrent Histopathological and Metabolomic Analysis of Core Biopsies”. Genome Med . 2012, 4(4): 33.
  10. J. Pijanka, A. Kohler, Y. Yang, P. Dumas, et al.“Spectroscopic Signatures of Single, Isolated Cancer Cell Nuclei Using Synchrotron Infrared Microscopy”. Analyst . 2009, 134(6): 1176–1181.
  11. J.T. Mason and T.J. O‘Leary“Effects of Formaldehyde Fixation on Protein Secondary Structure: A Calorimetric and Infrared Spectroscopic Investigation”. J. Histochem. Cytochem . 1991, 39(2): 225–229.
  12. E.Ó. Faoláin, M.B. Hunter, J. Byrne, P. Kellehan, et al.“A Study Examining the Effects of tissue Processing on Human Tissue Sections Using Vibrational Spectroscopy”. Vib. Spectrosc . 2005, 38(1–2): 121–127.
  13. E. Gazi, J. Dwyer, N.P. Lockyer, J. Miyan, et al.“Fixation Protocols for Subcellular Imaging by Synchrotron-Based Fourier Transform Infrared Microspectroscopy”. Biopolymers . 2005, 77(1): 18–30.
  14. A.I. Mazur E.J. (Swain) Marcsisin B. Bird M. Miljkoviš M. Diem“Evaluating Different Fixation Protocols for Spectral Cytopathology, Part I”. Anal Chem . 2012, 84(3): 1259–1266.
  15. V. Zohdi, D.R. Whelan, B.R. Wood, J.T. Pearson, et al.“Importance of Tissue Preparation Methods in FT-IR Micro-Spectroscopical Analysis of Biological Tissues: ‘Traps for New Users’”. PLoS One . 2015, 10(2): e0116491.
  16. J. Bobrowska, J. Pabijan, J. Wiltowska-Zuber, B.R. Jany, et al.“Data on Step-by-Step Atomic Force Microscopy Monitoring of Changes Occurring in Single Melanoma Cells Undergoing ToF SIMS Specialized Sample Preparation Protocol”. Data Brief . 2016, 8: 1322–1332.
  17. T. Theophanides“Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra of Calf Thymus DNA and its Reactions with the Anitcancer Drug Cisplatin”. Appl. Spectrosc . 1981, 35(5): 461–465.
  18. R. Manoharan, J.J. Barag, R.P. Rava, R.R. Dasari, et al.“Biochemical Analysis and Mapping Off Atherosclerotic Human Artery Using FT-IR Microspectroscopy”. Atherosclerosis . 1993, 103(2): 181–193.
  19. M.J. Baker, J. Trevisan, P. Bassan, R. Bhargava, et al.“Using Fourier Transform IR Spectroscopy to Analyze Biological Materials”. Nat. Protoc . 2014, 9(8): 1771–1791.
  20. T. Gao, J. Feng, and Y. Ci“Human Breast Carcinomal Tissues Display Distinctive FT-IR Spectra: Implication for the Histological Characterization of Carcinomas”. Anal. Cell Pathol . 1999, 18(2): 87–93.
  21. P. Lasch, M. Boese, A. Pacifico, M. Diem“FT-IR Spectroscopic Investigations of Single Cells on the Subcellular Level”. Vib. Spectrosc . 2002, 28(1): 147–157.
  22. J. Zhou Z. Wang S. Sun M. Liu H. Zhang“A Rapid Method for Detecting Conformational Changes During Differentiation and Apoptosis of HL60 Cells by Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy”. Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem . 2001, 33(2): 127–132.
  23. A. Tfayli O. Piot A. Durlach P. Bernard M. Manfait“Discriminating Nevus and Melanoma on Paraffin-Embedded Skin Biopsies Using FT-IR Microspectroscopy”. Biochim. Biophys. Acta . 2005, 1724(3): 262–269.
  24. M. Werner, A. Chott, A. Fabiano, H. Battifora“Effect of Formalin Tissue Fixation and Processing on Immunohistochemistry”. Am. J. Surg. Pathol . 2000, 24(7): 1016–1019.

2019 (1)

A.V. Rutter, J. Crees, H. Wright, M. Raseta, et al.“Identification of a Glass Substrate to Study Cells Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: Are We Closer to Spectral Pathology?”. Appl. Spectrosc . 2019, 74(2): 178–186.

2018 (3)

M.J. Baker, H.J. Byrne, J. Chalmers, P. Gardner, et al.“Clinical Applications of Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy: State of Play and Future Challenges”. Analyst . 2018, 143(8): 1735–1757.

A.V. Rutter, J. Crees, H. Wright, D.G. van Pittius, et al.“Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra of Cells on Glass Coverslips. A Further Step in Spectral Pathology”. Analyst . 2018, 143(23): 5711–5717.

A. Nalwa, R. Walia, V. Singh, K. Madan, et al.“Comparison of Conventional Smear and Liquid-Based Cytology Preparation in Diagnosis of Lung Cancer by Bronchial Wash and Transbronchial Needle Aspiration”. J. Cytol . 2018, 35(2): 94–98.

2017 (1)

M.J. Pilling, A. Henderson, J.H. Shanks, M.D. Brown, et al.“Infrared Spectral Histopathology Using Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) Stained Glass Slides: A Major Step Forward Towards Clinical Translation”. Analyst . 2017, 142(8): 1258–1268.

2016 (2)

A.S. Kshatriya and P.M. Santwani“Comparison of FNAC Smears, Cytospin Smears, and Cell Blocks of Transthoracic Guided FNAC of Suspected Lung Tumor: A Study of 100 Cases”. J. Cytol . 2016, 33(3): 141–144.

J. Bobrowska, J. Pabijan, J. Wiltowska-Zuber, B.R. Jany, et al.“Data on Step-by-Step Atomic Force Microscopy Monitoring of Changes Occurring in Single Melanoma Cells Undergoing ToF SIMS Specialized Sample Preparation Protocol”. Data Brief . 2016, 8: 1322–1332.

2015 (1)

V. Zohdi, D.R. Whelan, B.R. Wood, J.T. Pearson, et al.“Importance of Tissue Preparation Methods in FT-IR Micro-Spectroscopical Analysis of Biological Tissues: ‘Traps for New Users’”. PLoS One . 2015, 10(2): e0116491.

2014 (2)

P. Bassan, J. Mellor, J. Shapiro, K.J. Williams, et al.“Transmission FT-IR Chemical Imaging on Glass Substrates: Applications in Infrared Spectral Histopathology”. Anal. Chem . 2014, 86(3): 1648–1653.

M.J. Baker, J. Trevisan, P. Bassan, R. Bhargava, et al.“Using Fourier Transform IR Spectroscopy to Analyze Biological Materials”. Nat. Protoc . 2014, 9(8): 1771–1791.

2012 (2)

M.V. Brown, J.E. McDunn, P.R. Gunst, E.M. Smith, et al.“Cancer Detection and Biopsy Classification Using Concurrent Histopathological and Metabolomic Analysis of Core Biopsies”. Genome Med . 2012, 4(4): 33.

A.I. Mazur E.J. (Swain) Marcsisin B. Bird M. Miljkoviš M. Diem“Evaluating Different Fixation Protocols for Spectral Cytopathology, Part I”. Anal Chem . 2012, 84(3): 1259–1266.

2011 (1)

F. Schmitt, B. Cochand-Priollet, M. Toetsch, B. Davidson, et al.“Immunocytochemistry in Europe: Results of the European Federation of Cytology Societies (EFCS) Inquiry”. Cytopathology . 2011, 22(4): 238–242.

2009 (1)

J. Pijanka, A. Kohler, Y. Yang, P. Dumas, et al.“Spectroscopic Signatures of Single, Isolated Cancer Cell Nuclei Using Synchrotron Infrared Microscopy”. Analyst . 2009, 134(6): 1176–1181.

2005 (3)

E.Ó. Faoláin, M.B. Hunter, J. Byrne, P. Kellehan, et al.“A Study Examining the Effects of tissue Processing on Human Tissue Sections Using Vibrational Spectroscopy”. Vib. Spectrosc . 2005, 38(1–2): 121–127.

E. Gazi, J. Dwyer, N.P. Lockyer, J. Miyan, et al.“Fixation Protocols for Subcellular Imaging by Synchrotron-Based Fourier Transform Infrared Microspectroscopy”. Biopolymers . 2005, 77(1): 18–30.

A. Tfayli O. Piot A. Durlach P. Bernard M. Manfait“Discriminating Nevus and Melanoma on Paraffin-Embedded Skin Biopsies Using FT-IR Microspectroscopy”. Biochim. Biophys. Acta . 2005, 1724(3): 262–269.

2002 (1)

P. Lasch, M. Boese, A. Pacifico, M. Diem“FT-IR Spectroscopic Investigations of Single Cells on the Subcellular Level”. Vib. Spectrosc . 2002, 28(1): 147–157.

2001 (1)

J. Zhou Z. Wang S. Sun M. Liu H. Zhang“A Rapid Method for Detecting Conformational Changes During Differentiation and Apoptosis of HL60 Cells by Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy”. Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem . 2001, 33(2): 127–132.

2000 (1)

M. Werner, A. Chott, A. Fabiano, H. Battifora“Effect of Formalin Tissue Fixation and Processing on Immunohistochemistry”. Am. J. Surg. Pathol . 2000, 24(7): 1016–1019.

1999 (1)

T. Gao, J. Feng, and Y. Ci“Human Breast Carcinomal Tissues Display Distinctive FT-IR Spectra: Implication for the Histological Characterization of Carcinomas”. Anal. Cell Pathol . 1999, 18(2): 87–93.

1993 (1)

R. Manoharan, J.J. Barag, R.P. Rava, R.R. Dasari, et al.“Biochemical Analysis and Mapping Off Atherosclerotic Human Artery Using FT-IR Microspectroscopy”. Atherosclerosis . 1993, 103(2): 181–193.

1991 (1)

J.T. Mason and T.J. O‘Leary“Effects of Formaldehyde Fixation on Protein Secondary Structure: A Calorimetric and Infrared Spectroscopic Investigation”. J. Histochem. Cytochem . 1991, 39(2): 225–229.

1981 (1)

T. Theophanides“Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra of Calf Thymus DNA and its Reactions with the Anitcancer Drug Cisplatin”. Appl. Spectrosc . 1981, 35(5): 461–465.

(Swain) Marcsisin, E.J.

A.I. Mazur E.J. (Swain) Marcsisin B. Bird M. Miljkoviš M. Diem“Evaluating Different Fixation Protocols for Spectral Cytopathology, Part I”. Anal Chem . 2012, 84(3): 1259–1266.

Baker, M.J.

M.J. Baker, H.J. Byrne, J. Chalmers, P. Gardner, et al.“Clinical Applications of Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy: State of Play and Future Challenges”. Analyst . 2018, 143(8): 1735–1757.

M.J. Baker, J. Trevisan, P. Bassan, R. Bhargava, et al.“Using Fourier Transform IR Spectroscopy to Analyze Biological Materials”. Nat. Protoc . 2014, 9(8): 1771–1791.

Barag, J.J.

R. Manoharan, J.J. Barag, R.P. Rava, R.R. Dasari, et al.“Biochemical Analysis and Mapping Off Atherosclerotic Human Artery Using FT-IR Microspectroscopy”. Atherosclerosis . 1993, 103(2): 181–193.

Bassan, P.

M.J. Baker, J. Trevisan, P. Bassan, R. Bhargava, et al.“Using Fourier Transform IR Spectroscopy to Analyze Biological Materials”. Nat. Protoc . 2014, 9(8): 1771–1791.

P. Bassan, J. Mellor, J. Shapiro, K.J. Williams, et al.“Transmission FT-IR Chemical Imaging on Glass Substrates: Applications in Infrared Spectral Histopathology”. Anal. Chem . 2014, 86(3): 1648–1653.

Battifora, H.

M. Werner, A. Chott, A. Fabiano, H. Battifora“Effect of Formalin Tissue Fixation and Processing on Immunohistochemistry”. Am. J. Surg. Pathol . 2000, 24(7): 1016–1019.

Bernard, P.

A. Tfayli O. Piot A. Durlach P. Bernard M. Manfait“Discriminating Nevus and Melanoma on Paraffin-Embedded Skin Biopsies Using FT-IR Microspectroscopy”. Biochim. Biophys. Acta . 2005, 1724(3): 262–269.

Bhargava, R.

M.J. Baker, J. Trevisan, P. Bassan, R. Bhargava, et al.“Using Fourier Transform IR Spectroscopy to Analyze Biological Materials”. Nat. Protoc . 2014, 9(8): 1771–1791.

Bird, B.

A.I. Mazur E.J. (Swain) Marcsisin B. Bird M. Miljkoviš M. Diem“Evaluating Different Fixation Protocols for Spectral Cytopathology, Part I”. Anal Chem . 2012, 84(3): 1259–1266.

Bobrowska, J.

J. Bobrowska, J. Pabijan, J. Wiltowska-Zuber, B.R. Jany, et al.“Data on Step-by-Step Atomic Force Microscopy Monitoring of Changes Occurring in Single Melanoma Cells Undergoing ToF SIMS Specialized Sample Preparation Protocol”. Data Brief . 2016, 8: 1322–1332.

Boese, M.

P. Lasch, M. Boese, A. Pacifico, M. Diem“FT-IR Spectroscopic Investigations of Single Cells on the Subcellular Level”. Vib. Spectrosc . 2002, 28(1): 147–157.

Brown, M.D.

M.J. Pilling, A. Henderson, J.H. Shanks, M.D. Brown, et al.“Infrared Spectral Histopathology Using Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) Stained Glass Slides: A Major Step Forward Towards Clinical Translation”. Analyst . 2017, 142(8): 1258–1268.

Brown, M.V.

M.V. Brown, J.E. McDunn, P.R. Gunst, E.M. Smith, et al.“Cancer Detection and Biopsy Classification Using Concurrent Histopathological and Metabolomic Analysis of Core Biopsies”. Genome Med . 2012, 4(4): 33.

Byrne, H.J.

M.J. Baker, H.J. Byrne, J. Chalmers, P. Gardner, et al.“Clinical Applications of Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy: State of Play and Future Challenges”. Analyst . 2018, 143(8): 1735–1757.

Byrne, J.

E.Ó. Faoláin, M.B. Hunter, J. Byrne, P. Kellehan, et al.“A Study Examining the Effects of tissue Processing on Human Tissue Sections Using Vibrational Spectroscopy”. Vib. Spectrosc . 2005, 38(1–2): 121–127.

Chalmers, J.

M.J. Baker, H.J. Byrne, J. Chalmers, P. Gardner, et al.“Clinical Applications of Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy: State of Play and Future Challenges”. Analyst . 2018, 143(8): 1735–1757.

Chott, A.

M. Werner, A. Chott, A. Fabiano, H. Battifora“Effect of Formalin Tissue Fixation and Processing on Immunohistochemistry”. Am. J. Surg. Pathol . 2000, 24(7): 1016–1019.

Ci, Y.

T. Gao, J. Feng, and Y. Ci“Human Breast Carcinomal Tissues Display Distinctive FT-IR Spectra: Implication for the Histological Characterization of Carcinomas”. Anal. Cell Pathol . 1999, 18(2): 87–93.

Cochand-Priollet, B.

F. Schmitt, B. Cochand-Priollet, M. Toetsch, B. Davidson, et al.“Immunocytochemistry in Europe: Results of the European Federation of Cytology Societies (EFCS) Inquiry”. Cytopathology . 2011, 22(4): 238–242.

Crees, J.

A.V. Rutter, J. Crees, H. Wright, M. Raseta, et al.“Identification of a Glass Substrate to Study Cells Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: Are We Closer to Spectral Pathology?”. Appl. Spectrosc . 2019, 74(2): 178–186.

A.V. Rutter, J. Crees, H. Wright, D.G. van Pittius, et al.“Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra of Cells on Glass Coverslips. A Further Step in Spectral Pathology”. Analyst . 2018, 143(23): 5711–5717.

Dasari, R.R.

R. Manoharan, J.J. Barag, R.P. Rava, R.R. Dasari, et al.“Biochemical Analysis and Mapping Off Atherosclerotic Human Artery Using FT-IR Microspectroscopy”. Atherosclerosis . 1993, 103(2): 181–193.

Davidson, B.

F. Schmitt, B. Cochand-Priollet, M. Toetsch, B. Davidson, et al.“Immunocytochemistry in Europe: Results of the European Federation of Cytology Societies (EFCS) Inquiry”. Cytopathology . 2011, 22(4): 238–242.

Diem, M.

A.I. Mazur E.J. (Swain) Marcsisin B. Bird M. Miljkoviš M. Diem“Evaluating Different Fixation Protocols for Spectral Cytopathology, Part I”. Anal Chem . 2012, 84(3): 1259–1266.

P. Lasch, M. Boese, A. Pacifico, M. Diem“FT-IR Spectroscopic Investigations of Single Cells on the Subcellular Level”. Vib. Spectrosc . 2002, 28(1): 147–157.

Dumas, P.

J. Pijanka, A. Kohler, Y. Yang, P. Dumas, et al.“Spectroscopic Signatures of Single, Isolated Cancer Cell Nuclei Using Synchrotron Infrared Microscopy”. Analyst . 2009, 134(6): 1176–1181.

Durlach, A.

A. Tfayli O. Piot A. Durlach P. Bernard M. Manfait“Discriminating Nevus and Melanoma on Paraffin-Embedded Skin Biopsies Using FT-IR Microspectroscopy”. Biochim. Biophys. Acta . 2005, 1724(3): 262–269.

Dwyer, J.

E. Gazi, J. Dwyer, N.P. Lockyer, J. Miyan, et al.“Fixation Protocols for Subcellular Imaging by Synchrotron-Based Fourier Transform Infrared Microspectroscopy”. Biopolymers . 2005, 77(1): 18–30.

Fabiano, A.

M. Werner, A. Chott, A. Fabiano, H. Battifora“Effect of Formalin Tissue Fixation and Processing on Immunohistochemistry”. Am. J. Surg. Pathol . 2000, 24(7): 1016–1019.

Faoláin, E.Ó.

E.Ó. Faoláin, M.B. Hunter, J. Byrne, P. Kellehan, et al.“A Study Examining the Effects of tissue Processing on Human Tissue Sections Using Vibrational Spectroscopy”. Vib. Spectrosc . 2005, 38(1–2): 121–127.

Feng, J.

T. Gao, J. Feng, and Y. Ci“Human Breast Carcinomal Tissues Display Distinctive FT-IR Spectra: Implication for the Histological Characterization of Carcinomas”. Anal. Cell Pathol . 1999, 18(2): 87–93.

Gao, T.

T. Gao, J. Feng, and Y. Ci“Human Breast Carcinomal Tissues Display Distinctive FT-IR Spectra: Implication for the Histological Characterization of Carcinomas”. Anal. Cell Pathol . 1999, 18(2): 87–93.

Gardner, P.

M.J. Baker, H.J. Byrne, J. Chalmers, P. Gardner, et al.“Clinical Applications of Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy: State of Play and Future Challenges”. Analyst . 2018, 143(8): 1735–1757.

Gazi, E.

E. Gazi, J. Dwyer, N.P. Lockyer, J. Miyan, et al.“Fixation Protocols for Subcellular Imaging by Synchrotron-Based Fourier Transform Infrared Microspectroscopy”. Biopolymers . 2005, 77(1): 18–30.

Gunst, P.R.

M.V. Brown, J.E. McDunn, P.R. Gunst, E.M. Smith, et al.“Cancer Detection and Biopsy Classification Using Concurrent Histopathological and Metabolomic Analysis of Core Biopsies”. Genome Med . 2012, 4(4): 33.

Henderson, A.

M.J. Pilling, A. Henderson, J.H. Shanks, M.D. Brown, et al.“Infrared Spectral Histopathology Using Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) Stained Glass Slides: A Major Step Forward Towards Clinical Translation”. Analyst . 2017, 142(8): 1258–1268.

Hunter, M.B.

E.Ó. Faoláin, M.B. Hunter, J. Byrne, P. Kellehan, et al.“A Study Examining the Effects of tissue Processing on Human Tissue Sections Using Vibrational Spectroscopy”. Vib. Spectrosc . 2005, 38(1–2): 121–127.

Jany, B.R.

J. Bobrowska, J. Pabijan, J. Wiltowska-Zuber, B.R. Jany, et al.“Data on Step-by-Step Atomic Force Microscopy Monitoring of Changes Occurring in Single Melanoma Cells Undergoing ToF SIMS Specialized Sample Preparation Protocol”. Data Brief . 2016, 8: 1322–1332.

Kellehan, P.

E.Ó. Faoláin, M.B. Hunter, J. Byrne, P. Kellehan, et al.“A Study Examining the Effects of tissue Processing on Human Tissue Sections Using Vibrational Spectroscopy”. Vib. Spectrosc . 2005, 38(1–2): 121–127.

Kohler, A.

J. Pijanka, A. Kohler, Y. Yang, P. Dumas, et al.“Spectroscopic Signatures of Single, Isolated Cancer Cell Nuclei Using Synchrotron Infrared Microscopy”. Analyst . 2009, 134(6): 1176–1181.

Kshatriya, A.S.

A.S. Kshatriya and P.M. Santwani“Comparison of FNAC Smears, Cytospin Smears, and Cell Blocks of Transthoracic Guided FNAC of Suspected Lung Tumor: A Study of 100 Cases”. J. Cytol . 2016, 33(3): 141–144.

Lasch, P.

P. Lasch, M. Boese, A. Pacifico, M. Diem“FT-IR Spectroscopic Investigations of Single Cells on the Subcellular Level”. Vib. Spectrosc . 2002, 28(1): 147–157.

Liu, M.

J. Zhou Z. Wang S. Sun M. Liu H. Zhang“A Rapid Method for Detecting Conformational Changes During Differentiation and Apoptosis of HL60 Cells by Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy”. Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem . 2001, 33(2): 127–132.

Lockyer, N.P.

E. Gazi, J. Dwyer, N.P. Lockyer, J. Miyan, et al.“Fixation Protocols for Subcellular Imaging by Synchrotron-Based Fourier Transform Infrared Microspectroscopy”. Biopolymers . 2005, 77(1): 18–30.

Madan, K.

A. Nalwa, R. Walia, V. Singh, K. Madan, et al.“Comparison of Conventional Smear and Liquid-Based Cytology Preparation in Diagnosis of Lung Cancer by Bronchial Wash and Transbronchial Needle Aspiration”. J. Cytol . 2018, 35(2): 94–98.

Manfait, M.

A. Tfayli O. Piot A. Durlach P. Bernard M. Manfait“Discriminating Nevus and Melanoma on Paraffin-Embedded Skin Biopsies Using FT-IR Microspectroscopy”. Biochim. Biophys. Acta . 2005, 1724(3): 262–269.

Manoharan, R.

R. Manoharan, J.J. Barag, R.P. Rava, R.R. Dasari, et al.“Biochemical Analysis and Mapping Off Atherosclerotic Human Artery Using FT-IR Microspectroscopy”. Atherosclerosis . 1993, 103(2): 181–193.

Mason, J.T.

J.T. Mason and T.J. O‘Leary“Effects of Formaldehyde Fixation on Protein Secondary Structure: A Calorimetric and Infrared Spectroscopic Investigation”. J. Histochem. Cytochem . 1991, 39(2): 225–229.

Mazur, A.I.

A.I. Mazur E.J. (Swain) Marcsisin B. Bird M. Miljkoviš M. Diem“Evaluating Different Fixation Protocols for Spectral Cytopathology, Part I”. Anal Chem . 2012, 84(3): 1259–1266.

McDunn, J.E.

M.V. Brown, J.E. McDunn, P.R. Gunst, E.M. Smith, et al.“Cancer Detection and Biopsy Classification Using Concurrent Histopathological and Metabolomic Analysis of Core Biopsies”. Genome Med . 2012, 4(4): 33.

Mellor, J.

P. Bassan, J. Mellor, J. Shapiro, K.J. Williams, et al.“Transmission FT-IR Chemical Imaging on Glass Substrates: Applications in Infrared Spectral Histopathology”. Anal. Chem . 2014, 86(3): 1648–1653.

Miljkoviš, M.

A.I. Mazur E.J. (Swain) Marcsisin B. Bird M. Miljkoviš M. Diem“Evaluating Different Fixation Protocols for Spectral Cytopathology, Part I”. Anal Chem . 2012, 84(3): 1259–1266.

Miyan, J.

E. Gazi, J. Dwyer, N.P. Lockyer, J. Miyan, et al.“Fixation Protocols for Subcellular Imaging by Synchrotron-Based Fourier Transform Infrared Microspectroscopy”. Biopolymers . 2005, 77(1): 18–30.

Nalwa, A.

A. Nalwa, R. Walia, V. Singh, K. Madan, et al.“Comparison of Conventional Smear and Liquid-Based Cytology Preparation in Diagnosis of Lung Cancer by Bronchial Wash and Transbronchial Needle Aspiration”. J. Cytol . 2018, 35(2): 94–98.

O‘Leary, T.J.

J.T. Mason and T.J. O‘Leary“Effects of Formaldehyde Fixation on Protein Secondary Structure: A Calorimetric and Infrared Spectroscopic Investigation”. J. Histochem. Cytochem . 1991, 39(2): 225–229.

Pabijan, J.

J. Bobrowska, J. Pabijan, J. Wiltowska-Zuber, B.R. Jany, et al.“Data on Step-by-Step Atomic Force Microscopy Monitoring of Changes Occurring in Single Melanoma Cells Undergoing ToF SIMS Specialized Sample Preparation Protocol”. Data Brief . 2016, 8: 1322–1332.

Pacifico, A.

P. Lasch, M. Boese, A. Pacifico, M. Diem“FT-IR Spectroscopic Investigations of Single Cells on the Subcellular Level”. Vib. Spectrosc . 2002, 28(1): 147–157.

Pearson, J.T.

V. Zohdi, D.R. Whelan, B.R. Wood, J.T. Pearson, et al.“Importance of Tissue Preparation Methods in FT-IR Micro-Spectroscopical Analysis of Biological Tissues: ‘Traps for New Users’”. PLoS One . 2015, 10(2): e0116491.

Pijanka, J.

J. Pijanka, A. Kohler, Y. Yang, P. Dumas, et al.“Spectroscopic Signatures of Single, Isolated Cancer Cell Nuclei Using Synchrotron Infrared Microscopy”. Analyst . 2009, 134(6): 1176–1181.

Pilling, M.J.

M.J. Pilling, A. Henderson, J.H. Shanks, M.D. Brown, et al.“Infrared Spectral Histopathology Using Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) Stained Glass Slides: A Major Step Forward Towards Clinical Translation”. Analyst . 2017, 142(8): 1258–1268.

Piot, O.

A. Tfayli O. Piot A. Durlach P. Bernard M. Manfait“Discriminating Nevus and Melanoma on Paraffin-Embedded Skin Biopsies Using FT-IR Microspectroscopy”. Biochim. Biophys. Acta . 2005, 1724(3): 262–269.

Raseta, M.

A.V. Rutter, J. Crees, H. Wright, M. Raseta, et al.“Identification of a Glass Substrate to Study Cells Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: Are We Closer to Spectral Pathology?”. Appl. Spectrosc . 2019, 74(2): 178–186.

Rava, R.P.

R. Manoharan, J.J. Barag, R.P. Rava, R.R. Dasari, et al.“Biochemical Analysis and Mapping Off Atherosclerotic Human Artery Using FT-IR Microspectroscopy”. Atherosclerosis . 1993, 103(2): 181–193.

Rutter, A.V.

A.V. Rutter, J. Crees, H. Wright, M. Raseta, et al.“Identification of a Glass Substrate to Study Cells Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: Are We Closer to Spectral Pathology?”. Appl. Spectrosc . 2019, 74(2): 178–186.

A.V. Rutter, J. Crees, H. Wright, D.G. van Pittius, et al.“Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra of Cells on Glass Coverslips. A Further Step in Spectral Pathology”. Analyst . 2018, 143(23): 5711–5717.

Santwani, P.M.

A.S. Kshatriya and P.M. Santwani“Comparison of FNAC Smears, Cytospin Smears, and Cell Blocks of Transthoracic Guided FNAC of Suspected Lung Tumor: A Study of 100 Cases”. J. Cytol . 2016, 33(3): 141–144.

Schmitt, F.

F. Schmitt, B. Cochand-Priollet, M. Toetsch, B. Davidson, et al.“Immunocytochemistry in Europe: Results of the European Federation of Cytology Societies (EFCS) Inquiry”. Cytopathology . 2011, 22(4): 238–242.

Shanks, J.H.

M.J. Pilling, A. Henderson, J.H. Shanks, M.D. Brown, et al.“Infrared Spectral Histopathology Using Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) Stained Glass Slides: A Major Step Forward Towards Clinical Translation”. Analyst . 2017, 142(8): 1258–1268.

Shapiro, J.

P. Bassan, J. Mellor, J. Shapiro, K.J. Williams, et al.“Transmission FT-IR Chemical Imaging on Glass Substrates: Applications in Infrared Spectral Histopathology”. Anal. Chem . 2014, 86(3): 1648–1653.

Singh, V.

A. Nalwa, R. Walia, V. Singh, K. Madan, et al.“Comparison of Conventional Smear and Liquid-Based Cytology Preparation in Diagnosis of Lung Cancer by Bronchial Wash and Transbronchial Needle Aspiration”. J. Cytol . 2018, 35(2): 94–98.

Smith, E.M.

M.V. Brown, J.E. McDunn, P.R. Gunst, E.M. Smith, et al.“Cancer Detection and Biopsy Classification Using Concurrent Histopathological and Metabolomic Analysis of Core Biopsies”. Genome Med . 2012, 4(4): 33.

Sun, S.

J. Zhou Z. Wang S. Sun M. Liu H. Zhang“A Rapid Method for Detecting Conformational Changes During Differentiation and Apoptosis of HL60 Cells by Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy”. Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem . 2001, 33(2): 127–132.

Tfayli, A.

A. Tfayli O. Piot A. Durlach P. Bernard M. Manfait“Discriminating Nevus and Melanoma on Paraffin-Embedded Skin Biopsies Using FT-IR Microspectroscopy”. Biochim. Biophys. Acta . 2005, 1724(3): 262–269.

Theophanides, T.

T. Theophanides“Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra of Calf Thymus DNA and its Reactions with the Anitcancer Drug Cisplatin”. Appl. Spectrosc . 1981, 35(5): 461–465.

Toetsch, M.

F. Schmitt, B. Cochand-Priollet, M. Toetsch, B. Davidson, et al.“Immunocytochemistry in Europe: Results of the European Federation of Cytology Societies (EFCS) Inquiry”. Cytopathology . 2011, 22(4): 238–242.

Trevisan, J.

M.J. Baker, J. Trevisan, P. Bassan, R. Bhargava, et al.“Using Fourier Transform IR Spectroscopy to Analyze Biological Materials”. Nat. Protoc . 2014, 9(8): 1771–1791.

van Pittius, D.G.

A.V. Rutter, J. Crees, H. Wright, D.G. van Pittius, et al.“Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra of Cells on Glass Coverslips. A Further Step in Spectral Pathology”. Analyst . 2018, 143(23): 5711–5717.

Walia, R.

A. Nalwa, R. Walia, V. Singh, K. Madan, et al.“Comparison of Conventional Smear and Liquid-Based Cytology Preparation in Diagnosis of Lung Cancer by Bronchial Wash and Transbronchial Needle Aspiration”. J. Cytol . 2018, 35(2): 94–98.

Wang, Z.

J. Zhou Z. Wang S. Sun M. Liu H. Zhang“A Rapid Method for Detecting Conformational Changes During Differentiation and Apoptosis of HL60 Cells by Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy”. Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem . 2001, 33(2): 127–132.

Werner, M.

M. Werner, A. Chott, A. Fabiano, H. Battifora“Effect of Formalin Tissue Fixation and Processing on Immunohistochemistry”. Am. J. Surg. Pathol . 2000, 24(7): 1016–1019.

Whelan, D.R.

V. Zohdi, D.R. Whelan, B.R. Wood, J.T. Pearson, et al.“Importance of Tissue Preparation Methods in FT-IR Micro-Spectroscopical Analysis of Biological Tissues: ‘Traps for New Users’”. PLoS One . 2015, 10(2): e0116491.

Williams, K.J.

P. Bassan, J. Mellor, J. Shapiro, K.J. Williams, et al.“Transmission FT-IR Chemical Imaging on Glass Substrates: Applications in Infrared Spectral Histopathology”. Anal. Chem . 2014, 86(3): 1648–1653.

Wiltowska-Zuber, J.

J. Bobrowska, J. Pabijan, J. Wiltowska-Zuber, B.R. Jany, et al.“Data on Step-by-Step Atomic Force Microscopy Monitoring of Changes Occurring in Single Melanoma Cells Undergoing ToF SIMS Specialized Sample Preparation Protocol”. Data Brief . 2016, 8: 1322–1332.

Wood, B.R.

V. Zohdi, D.R. Whelan, B.R. Wood, J.T. Pearson, et al.“Importance of Tissue Preparation Methods in FT-IR Micro-Spectroscopical Analysis of Biological Tissues: ‘Traps for New Users’”. PLoS One . 2015, 10(2): e0116491.

Wright, H.

A.V. Rutter, J. Crees, H. Wright, M. Raseta, et al.“Identification of a Glass Substrate to Study Cells Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: Are We Closer to Spectral Pathology?”. Appl. Spectrosc . 2019, 74(2): 178–186.

A.V. Rutter, J. Crees, H. Wright, D.G. van Pittius, et al.“Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra of Cells on Glass Coverslips. A Further Step in Spectral Pathology”. Analyst . 2018, 143(23): 5711–5717.

Yang, Y.

J. Pijanka, A. Kohler, Y. Yang, P. Dumas, et al.“Spectroscopic Signatures of Single, Isolated Cancer Cell Nuclei Using Synchrotron Infrared Microscopy”. Analyst . 2009, 134(6): 1176–1181.

Zhang, H.

J. Zhou Z. Wang S. Sun M. Liu H. Zhang“A Rapid Method for Detecting Conformational Changes During Differentiation and Apoptosis of HL60 Cells by Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy”. Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem . 2001, 33(2): 127–132.

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou Z. Wang S. Sun M. Liu H. Zhang“A Rapid Method for Detecting Conformational Changes During Differentiation and Apoptosis of HL60 Cells by Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy”. Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem . 2001, 33(2): 127–132.

Zohdi, V.

V. Zohdi, D.R. Whelan, B.R. Wood, J.T. Pearson, et al.“Importance of Tissue Preparation Methods in FT-IR Micro-Spectroscopical Analysis of Biological Tissues: ‘Traps for New Users’”. PLoS One . 2015, 10(2): e0116491.

Am. J. Surg. Pathol (1)

M. Werner, A. Chott, A. Fabiano, H. Battifora“Effect of Formalin Tissue Fixation and Processing on Immunohistochemistry”. Am. J. Surg. Pathol . 2000, 24(7): 1016–1019.

Anal Chem (1)

A.I. Mazur E.J. (Swain) Marcsisin B. Bird M. Miljkoviš M. Diem“Evaluating Different Fixation Protocols for Spectral Cytopathology, Part I”. Anal Chem . 2012, 84(3): 1259–1266.

Anal. Cell Pathol (1)

T. Gao, J. Feng, and Y. Ci“Human Breast Carcinomal Tissues Display Distinctive FT-IR Spectra: Implication for the Histological Characterization of Carcinomas”. Anal. Cell Pathol . 1999, 18(2): 87–93.

Anal. Chem (1)

P. Bassan, J. Mellor, J. Shapiro, K.J. Williams, et al.“Transmission FT-IR Chemical Imaging on Glass Substrates: Applications in Infrared Spectral Histopathology”. Anal. Chem . 2014, 86(3): 1648–1653.

Analyst (4)

M.J. Pilling, A. Henderson, J.H. Shanks, M.D. Brown, et al.“Infrared Spectral Histopathology Using Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) Stained Glass Slides: A Major Step Forward Towards Clinical Translation”. Analyst . 2017, 142(8): 1258–1268.

A.V. Rutter, J. Crees, H. Wright, D.G. van Pittius, et al.“Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra of Cells on Glass Coverslips. A Further Step in Spectral Pathology”. Analyst . 2018, 143(23): 5711–5717.

M.J. Baker, H.J. Byrne, J. Chalmers, P. Gardner, et al.“Clinical Applications of Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy: State of Play and Future Challenges”. Analyst . 2018, 143(8): 1735–1757.

J. Pijanka, A. Kohler, Y. Yang, P. Dumas, et al.“Spectroscopic Signatures of Single, Isolated Cancer Cell Nuclei Using Synchrotron Infrared Microscopy”. Analyst . 2009, 134(6): 1176–1181.

Appl. Spectrosc (2)

A.V. Rutter, J. Crees, H. Wright, M. Raseta, et al.“Identification of a Glass Substrate to Study Cells Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: Are We Closer to Spectral Pathology?”. Appl. Spectrosc . 2019, 74(2): 178–186.

T. Theophanides“Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra of Calf Thymus DNA and its Reactions with the Anitcancer Drug Cisplatin”. Appl. Spectrosc . 1981, 35(5): 461–465.

Atherosclerosis (1)

R. Manoharan, J.J. Barag, R.P. Rava, R.R. Dasari, et al.“Biochemical Analysis and Mapping Off Atherosclerotic Human Artery Using FT-IR Microspectroscopy”. Atherosclerosis . 1993, 103(2): 181–193.

Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1)

A. Tfayli O. Piot A. Durlach P. Bernard M. Manfait“Discriminating Nevus and Melanoma on Paraffin-Embedded Skin Biopsies Using FT-IR Microspectroscopy”. Biochim. Biophys. Acta . 2005, 1724(3): 262–269.

Biopolymers (1)

E. Gazi, J. Dwyer, N.P. Lockyer, J. Miyan, et al.“Fixation Protocols for Subcellular Imaging by Synchrotron-Based Fourier Transform Infrared Microspectroscopy”. Biopolymers . 2005, 77(1): 18–30.

Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem (1)

J. Zhou Z. Wang S. Sun M. Liu H. Zhang“A Rapid Method for Detecting Conformational Changes During Differentiation and Apoptosis of HL60 Cells by Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy”. Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem . 2001, 33(2): 127–132.

Cytopathology (1)

F. Schmitt, B. Cochand-Priollet, M. Toetsch, B. Davidson, et al.“Immunocytochemistry in Europe: Results of the European Federation of Cytology Societies (EFCS) Inquiry”. Cytopathology . 2011, 22(4): 238–242.

Data Brief (1)

J. Bobrowska, J. Pabijan, J. Wiltowska-Zuber, B.R. Jany, et al.“Data on Step-by-Step Atomic Force Microscopy Monitoring of Changes Occurring in Single Melanoma Cells Undergoing ToF SIMS Specialized Sample Preparation Protocol”. Data Brief . 2016, 8: 1322–1332.

Genome Med (1)

M.V. Brown, J.E. McDunn, P.R. Gunst, E.M. Smith, et al.“Cancer Detection and Biopsy Classification Using Concurrent Histopathological and Metabolomic Analysis of Core Biopsies”. Genome Med . 2012, 4(4): 33.

J. Cytol (2)

A. Nalwa, R. Walia, V. Singh, K. Madan, et al.“Comparison of Conventional Smear and Liquid-Based Cytology Preparation in Diagnosis of Lung Cancer by Bronchial Wash and Transbronchial Needle Aspiration”. J. Cytol . 2018, 35(2): 94–98.

A.S. Kshatriya and P.M. Santwani“Comparison of FNAC Smears, Cytospin Smears, and Cell Blocks of Transthoracic Guided FNAC of Suspected Lung Tumor: A Study of 100 Cases”. J. Cytol . 2016, 33(3): 141–144.

J. Histochem. Cytochem (1)

J.T. Mason and T.J. O‘Leary“Effects of Formaldehyde Fixation on Protein Secondary Structure: A Calorimetric and Infrared Spectroscopic Investigation”. J. Histochem. Cytochem . 1991, 39(2): 225–229.

Nat. Protoc (1)

M.J. Baker, J. Trevisan, P. Bassan, R. Bhargava, et al.“Using Fourier Transform IR Spectroscopy to Analyze Biological Materials”. Nat. Protoc . 2014, 9(8): 1771–1791.

PLoS One (1)

V. Zohdi, D.R. Whelan, B.R. Wood, J.T. Pearson, et al.“Importance of Tissue Preparation Methods in FT-IR Micro-Spectroscopical Analysis of Biological Tissues: ‘Traps for New Users’”. PLoS One . 2015, 10(2): e0116491.

Vib. Spectrosc (2)

P. Lasch, M. Boese, A. Pacifico, M. Diem“FT-IR Spectroscopic Investigations of Single Cells on the Subcellular Level”. Vib. Spectrosc . 2002, 28(1): 147–157.

E.Ó. Faoláin, M.B. Hunter, J. Byrne, P. Kellehan, et al.“A Study Examining the Effects of tissue Processing on Human Tissue Sections Using Vibrational Spectroscopy”. Vib. Spectrosc . 2005, 38(1–2): 121–127.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.