Abstract

Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a well-established technique for the chemical analysis of organic and inorganic matter. Accordingly, spectroscopic instrumentation of different complexity has been developed and is currently commercially available. However, there are an increasing number of new mobile applications that have come into focus and that cannot be addressed by the existing technology due to size and cost. Therefore, a new miniaturized scanning grating spectrometer for NIR spectroscopy has been developed at Fraunhofer IPMS. It is based on micro–electro–mechanical systems (MEMS) technology, and has been designed to meet the requirements for mobile application, regarding spectral range, resolution, overall size, robustness, and cost. The MEMS spectrometer covers a spectral range from 950 nm to 1900 nm at a resolution of 10 nm. The instrument is extremely small and has a volume of only 2.1 cm3. Therefore, it is well suited for integration, even into a mobile phone. A first sample of the new spectrometer has been manufactured and put into operation. The results of a series of test measurements are in good agreement with the requirements and specifications.

© 2016 The Author(s)

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2013 (1)

R.A. Crocombe, . “Handheld Spectrometers: The State of the Art”. Proc. SPIE2013;  8726: 87260R–1. doi: 10.1117/12.2017892.

2011 (1)

T. Puegner, J. Knobbe, and H. Lakner, . “Basic Angles in Microelectromechanical System Scanning Grating Spectrometers”. Appl. Opt2011;  50: 4894–4902. doi: 10.1364/AO.50.004894.

2009 (1)

K. Shibayama, T. Yokino, K. Hikita, N. Iwasaki, H. Teichmann, U. Staerker, F. DiPrima, and K. Yamamoto, . “Miniaturized UV/VIS Spectrometer Made by MOEMS Technology”. Proc. SPIE2009;  7208: 22–31. doi: 10.1117/12.808898.

2007 (1)

F. Zimmer, A. Heberer, T. Sandner, H. Grüger, H. Schenk, H. Lakner, A. Kenda, and W. Scherf, . “Investigation and Characterization of High-Efficient NIR-Scanning Gratings used in NIR Micro-Spectrometer”. Proc. SPIE2007;  6466: 646605doi: 10.1117/12.701821.

1999 (1)

L.O.S. Ferreira and S. Moehlecke, . “A Silicon Micromechanical Galvanometric Scanner”. Sens. Actuators, A1999;  73: 252–260. doi 10.1016/S0924-4247(98)00288-X..

Atia, W.

R.A. Crocombe, D.C. Flanders, and W. Atia, . “Micro-Optical Instrumentation for Process Spectroscopy.”. Optics East. International Society for Optics and PhotonicsProc. SPIE 2004;  5991: 11–25. Philadelphia, PA. October 25 2004: 11–25. doi:10.1117/12.578107.

Bousquet, P.

P. Bousquet, . Spectroscopy and Its Instrumentation, London: Hilger, 1971.

Crocombe, R.A.

R.A. Crocombe, D.C. Flanders, and W. Atia, . “Micro-Optical Instrumentation for Process Spectroscopy.”. Optics East. International Society for Optics and PhotonicsProc. SPIE 2004;  5991: 11–25. Philadelphia, PA. October 25 2004: 11–25. doi:10.1117/12.578107.

R.A. Crocombe, . “Handheld Spectrometers: The State of the Art”. Proc. SPIE2013;  8726: 87260R–1. doi: 10.1117/12.2017892.

DiPrima, F.

K. Shibayama, T. Yokino, K. Hikita, N. Iwasaki, H. Teichmann, U. Staerker, F. DiPrima, and K. Yamamoto, . “Miniaturized UV/VIS Spectrometer Made by MOEMS Technology”. Proc. SPIE2009;  7208: 22–31. doi: 10.1117/12.808898.

Ferreira, L.O.S.

L.O.S. Ferreira and S. Moehlecke, . “A Silicon Micromechanical Galvanometric Scanner”. Sens. Actuators, A1999;  73: 252–260. doi 10.1016/S0924-4247(98)00288-X..

Flanders, D.C.

R.A. Crocombe, D.C. Flanders, and W. Atia, . “Micro-Optical Instrumentation for Process Spectroscopy.”. Optics East. International Society for Optics and PhotonicsProc. SPIE 2004;  5991: 11–25. Philadelphia, PA. October 25 2004: 11–25. doi:10.1117/12.578107.

Grüger, H.

T. Pügner, J. Knobbe, H. Grüger, and H. Schenk, . “Realization of a Hybrid-Integrated MEMS Scanning Grating Spectrometer”. Proc. SPIEBaltimore, Maryland. 23–24 April 2012;  8374: 83740W–1. doi: 10.1117/12.919068.

F. Zimmer, A. Heberer, T. Sandner, H. Grüger, H. Schenk, H. Lakner, A. Kenda, and W. Scherf, . “Investigation and Characterization of High-Efficient NIR-Scanning Gratings used in NIR Micro-Spectrometer”. Proc. SPIE2007;  6466: 646605doi: 10.1117/12.701821.

Heberer, A.

F. Zimmer, A. Heberer, T. Sandner, H. Grüger, H. Schenk, H. Lakner, A. Kenda, and W. Scherf, . “Investigation and Characterization of High-Efficient NIR-Scanning Gratings used in NIR Micro-Spectrometer”. Proc. SPIE2007;  6466: 646605doi: 10.1117/12.701821.

Hikita, K.

K. Shibayama, T. Yokino, K. Hikita, N. Iwasaki, H. Teichmann, U. Staerker, F. DiPrima, and K. Yamamoto, . “Miniaturized UV/VIS Spectrometer Made by MOEMS Technology”. Proc. SPIE2009;  7208: 22–31. doi: 10.1117/12.808898.

Iwasaki, N.

K. Shibayama, T. Yokino, K. Hikita, N. Iwasaki, H. Teichmann, U. Staerker, F. DiPrima, and K. Yamamoto, . “Miniaturized UV/VIS Spectrometer Made by MOEMS Technology”. Proc. SPIE2009;  7208: 22–31. doi: 10.1117/12.808898.

Kenda, A.

F. Zimmer, A. Heberer, T. Sandner, H. Grüger, H. Schenk, H. Lakner, A. Kenda, and W. Scherf, . “Investigation and Characterization of High-Efficient NIR-Scanning Gratings used in NIR Micro-Spectrometer”. Proc. SPIE2007;  6466: 646605doi: 10.1117/12.701821.

Knobbe, J.

T. Pügner, J. Knobbe, H. Grüger, and H. Schenk, . “Realization of a Hybrid-Integrated MEMS Scanning Grating Spectrometer”. Proc. SPIEBaltimore, Maryland. 23–24 April 2012;  8374: 83740W–1. doi: 10.1117/12.919068.

T. Puegner, J. Knobbe, and H. Lakner, . “Basic Angles in Microelectromechanical System Scanning Grating Spectrometers”. Appl. Opt2011;  50: 4894–4902. doi: 10.1364/AO.50.004894.

Lakner, H.

T. Puegner, J. Knobbe, and H. Lakner, . “Basic Angles in Microelectromechanical System Scanning Grating Spectrometers”. Appl. Opt2011;  50: 4894–4902. doi: 10.1364/AO.50.004894.

F. Zimmer, A. Heberer, T. Sandner, H. Grüger, H. Schenk, H. Lakner, A. Kenda, and W. Scherf, . “Investigation and Characterization of High-Efficient NIR-Scanning Gratings used in NIR Micro-Spectrometer”. Proc. SPIE2007;  6466: 646605doi: 10.1117/12.701821.

Moehlecke, S.

L.O.S. Ferreira and S. Moehlecke, . “A Silicon Micromechanical Galvanometric Scanner”. Sens. Actuators, A1999;  73: 252–260. doi 10.1016/S0924-4247(98)00288-X..

Palmer, C.

C. Palmer, . Diffraction Grating Handbook, 6th ed. New York: Newport Corporation, 2005.

Puegner, T.

T. Puegner, J. Knobbe, and H. Lakner, . “Basic Angles in Microelectromechanical System Scanning Grating Spectrometers”. Appl. Opt2011;  50: 4894–4902. doi: 10.1364/AO.50.004894.

Pügner, T.

T. Pügner, J. Knobbe, H. Grüger, and H. Schenk, . “Realization of a Hybrid-Integrated MEMS Scanning Grating Spectrometer”. Proc. SPIEBaltimore, Maryland. 23–24 April 2012;  8374: 83740W–1. doi: 10.1117/12.919068.

Sandner, T.

F. Zimmer, A. Heberer, T. Sandner, H. Grüger, H. Schenk, H. Lakner, A. Kenda, and W. Scherf, . “Investigation and Characterization of High-Efficient NIR-Scanning Gratings used in NIR Micro-Spectrometer”. Proc. SPIE2007;  6466: 646605doi: 10.1117/12.701821.

Schenk, H.

T. Pügner, J. Knobbe, H. Grüger, and H. Schenk, . “Realization of a Hybrid-Integrated MEMS Scanning Grating Spectrometer”. Proc. SPIEBaltimore, Maryland. 23–24 April 2012;  8374: 83740W–1. doi: 10.1117/12.919068.

F. Zimmer, A. Heberer, T. Sandner, H. Grüger, H. Schenk, H. Lakner, A. Kenda, and W. Scherf, . “Investigation and Characterization of High-Efficient NIR-Scanning Gratings used in NIR Micro-Spectrometer”. Proc. SPIE2007;  6466: 646605doi: 10.1117/12.701821.

Scherf, W.

F. Zimmer, A. Heberer, T. Sandner, H. Grüger, H. Schenk, H. Lakner, A. Kenda, and W. Scherf, . “Investigation and Characterization of High-Efficient NIR-Scanning Gratings used in NIR Micro-Spectrometer”. Proc. SPIE2007;  6466: 646605doi: 10.1117/12.701821.

Shibayama, K.

K. Shibayama, T. Yokino, K. Hikita, N. Iwasaki, H. Teichmann, U. Staerker, F. DiPrima, and K. Yamamoto, . “Miniaturized UV/VIS Spectrometer Made by MOEMS Technology”. Proc. SPIE2009;  7208: 22–31. doi: 10.1117/12.808898.

Staerker, U.

K. Shibayama, T. Yokino, K. Hikita, N. Iwasaki, H. Teichmann, U. Staerker, F. DiPrima, and K. Yamamoto, . “Miniaturized UV/VIS Spectrometer Made by MOEMS Technology”. Proc. SPIE2009;  7208: 22–31. doi: 10.1117/12.808898.

Teichmann, H.

K. Shibayama, T. Yokino, K. Hikita, N. Iwasaki, H. Teichmann, U. Staerker, F. DiPrima, and K. Yamamoto, . “Miniaturized UV/VIS Spectrometer Made by MOEMS Technology”. Proc. SPIE2009;  7208: 22–31. doi: 10.1117/12.808898.

Welford, W.T.

W.T. Welford, . Aberrations of Optical Systems, London: Hilger, 1986.

Yamamoto, K.

K. Shibayama, T. Yokino, K. Hikita, N. Iwasaki, H. Teichmann, U. Staerker, F. DiPrima, and K. Yamamoto, . “Miniaturized UV/VIS Spectrometer Made by MOEMS Technology”. Proc. SPIE2009;  7208: 22–31. doi: 10.1117/12.808898.

Yokino, T.

K. Shibayama, T. Yokino, K. Hikita, N. Iwasaki, H. Teichmann, U. Staerker, F. DiPrima, and K. Yamamoto, . “Miniaturized UV/VIS Spectrometer Made by MOEMS Technology”. Proc. SPIE2009;  7208: 22–31. doi: 10.1117/12.808898.

Zimmer, F.

F. Zimmer, A. Heberer, T. Sandner, H. Grüger, H. Schenk, H. Lakner, A. Kenda, and W. Scherf, . “Investigation and Characterization of High-Efficient NIR-Scanning Gratings used in NIR Micro-Spectrometer”. Proc. SPIE2007;  6466: 646605doi: 10.1117/12.701821.

Appl. Opt (1)

T. Puegner, J. Knobbe, and H. Lakner, . “Basic Angles in Microelectromechanical System Scanning Grating Spectrometers”. Appl. Opt2011;  50: 4894–4902. doi: 10.1364/AO.50.004894.

Optics East. International Society for Optics and Photonics (1)

R.A. Crocombe, D.C. Flanders, and W. Atia, . “Micro-Optical Instrumentation for Process Spectroscopy.”. Optics East. International Society for Optics and PhotonicsProc. SPIE 2004;  5991: 11–25. Philadelphia, PA. October 25 2004: 11–25. doi:10.1117/12.578107.

Proc. SPIE (3)

R.A. Crocombe, . “Handheld Spectrometers: The State of the Art”. Proc. SPIE2013;  8726: 87260R–1. doi: 10.1117/12.2017892.

F. Zimmer, A. Heberer, T. Sandner, H. Grüger, H. Schenk, H. Lakner, A. Kenda, and W. Scherf, . “Investigation and Characterization of High-Efficient NIR-Scanning Gratings used in NIR Micro-Spectrometer”. Proc. SPIE2007;  6466: 646605doi: 10.1117/12.701821.

T. Pügner, J. Knobbe, H. Grüger, and H. Schenk, . “Realization of a Hybrid-Integrated MEMS Scanning Grating Spectrometer”. Proc. SPIEBaltimore, Maryland. 23–24 April 2012;  8374: 83740W–1. doi: 10.1117/12.919068.

Sens. Actuators, A (1)

L.O.S. Ferreira and S. Moehlecke, . “A Silicon Micromechanical Galvanometric Scanner”. Sens. Actuators, A1999;  73: 252–260. doi 10.1016/S0924-4247(98)00288-X..

SPIE (1)

K. Shibayama, T. Yokino, K. Hikita, N. Iwasaki, H. Teichmann, U. Staerker, F. DiPrima, and K. Yamamoto, . “Miniaturized UV/VIS Spectrometer Made by MOEMS Technology”. Proc. SPIE2009;  7208: 22–31. doi: 10.1117/12.808898.

Other (5)

M. Ebermann, K. Hiller, S. Kurth, N. Neumann. “Design, Operation and Performance of a Fabry–Perot-Based MWIR Microspectrometer”. Proc. IRS2, Sensor+Test Conferences. Nürnberg, Germany, 26–28 May 2009.

C. Palmer, . Diffraction Grating Handbook, 6th ed. New York: Newport Corporation, 2005.

S. Kurth, C. Kaufmann, R. Hahn, J. Mehner, W. Dotzel, T. Gessner. “MEMS Scanner for Laser Projection”. University of Technology, Center for Microtechnologies. 2004.

P. Bousquet, . Spectroscopy and Its Instrumentation, London: Hilger, 1971.

W.T. Welford, . Aberrations of Optical Systems, London: Hilger, 1986.

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