Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is used for the differentiation of human kidney adenocarcinoma, human kidney carcinoma, and non-cancerous human kidney embryonic cells. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are used as substrate in the experiments. A volume of colloidal suspension containing AgNPs is added onto the cultured cells on a CaF<sub>2</sub> slide, and the slide is dried at the overturned position. A number of SERS spectra acquired from the three different cell lines are statistically analyzed to differentiate the cells. Principal component analysis (PCA) combined with linear discriminate analysis (LDA) was performed to differentiate the three kidney cell types. The LDA, based on PCA, provided for classification among the three cell lines with 88% sensitivity and 84% specificity. This study demonstrates that SERS can be used to identify renal cancers by combining this new sampling method and LDA algorithms.

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