Abstract

A new sensor based on the use of 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde benzoylhydrazone as a colorimetric reagent immobilized onto styrenedivinylbenzene disks has been carried out for the determination of Cu(II) ions within several minutes. The sensor is designed on a rapid and easy two-step procedure: (1) the extraction of Cu(II) ions onto a disk loaded with the copper-selective colorimetric reagent and (2) the determination of the complexed analyte directly on the surface of the disk using diffuse reflectance measurements at 400 nm. The color of the disk changed from white to green in the presence of Cu(II) ions. The work herein details the optimization of the sensing system employing a fractional factorial design 3<sup>3-1</sup> considering three variables (pH, immobilization time, and amount of ligand immobilized onto the disk). The Pareto chart and response surfaces in a spherical domain indicated that the optimum conditions for the sensing of copper ions were pH = 7, with a ligand immobilization time of 10 min and 6.25 mg of reagent loaded onto the disk. Under the optimum conditions, the analytical parameters of the proposed method were determined. The calibration graph was linear over the range of 0 to 2.5 mg L<sup>−1</sup> of Cu(II) with a detection limit of 0.21 mg L<sup>−1</sup>. The relative standard deviation for six measurements of 1 mg L<sup>−1</sup> of Cu(II) was found to be 4.87%. The interference from inorganic salts and other metals was found not to be of major concern when monitoring copper ions in water samples. The simplicity and rapidity of this technique make it convenient and amenable for on-site and routine analysis.

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