Eighty drugs of abuse and metabolites were successfully measured by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) using gold- and silver-doped sol-gels immobilized in glass capillaries. A method was developed that provided consistent detection of 50 ppb cocaine in saliva in a focused study. This general method was successfully applied to the detection of a number of additional drugs in saliva, such as amphetamine, diazepam, and methadone.

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