A multilayered biosensor was constructed and found to detect trinitrotoluene (TNT) in ppb concentrations in air both prior to and after detonation of TNT without use of a liquid phosphate buffered saline (PBS) superstrate. The biosensor surface was fabricated from a monoclonal antibody for TNT covalently bound to an 11,11′-dithio-bis(succinimidoylundecanoate) (DSU) self-assembled monolayer immobilized on a thin gold film bonded to a BK7 glass slide. The binding between the immobilized antibody and TNT antigen was detected using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPRS). Biosensor specificity for TNT was demonstrated with chemical homologues as well as against an unrelated explosive, RDX.

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