The development of confocal Raman microspectroscopy for cereal grain studies has led to breakthroughs in the understanding of the molecular basis of grain texture. The high spatial resolution and the nondestructive nature of the technique are its main assets, enabling more detailed analysis of the microscopic structure of wheat grain and investigation of the role of specific components involved in hardness. Hardness is the most relevant criterion in determining the suitability of wheat grain to be processed into flour. Our findings indicate that the α-helical secondary structure of protein could be associated with hardness.

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