Quantitative spectroscopy is based upon the Bouguer-Lambert-Beer law, often referred to as Beer's law, which is expressed as: <i>A</i> = log(<i>I</i><sub>0</sub>/<i>I</i>) = <i>abc</i> (1) where <i>A</i> is the absorbance, <i>I</i><sub>0</sub> is the background intensity, <i>I</i> is the intensity measured with the sample present, <i>a</i> is the absorptivity, <i>b</i> is the sample thickness, and <i>c</i> is the sample concentration.

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