Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been a powerful technique for water content determination and water structure analysis for various kinds of materials for a number of reasons. One is that <i>in situ</i> and nondestructive analysis is possible. The other is that the NIR spectrum is very sensitive to the environment of water molecules. Yet another is that NIR analysis is applicable both to samples containing a large amount of water and to those having a small amount of water. To date, various kinds of agricultural products, foods, fibers, and industrial products have been subjected to NIR analysis of water. However, application of NIR water analysis to animal tissues or medical samples is still very rare.
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