A recirculating nebulizer was constructed with the use of standard spray chambers and nebulizers and can be used in both a recirculating and normal solution nebulization mode. The use of a jacketed cooled spray chamber reduces a concentration effect to less than a 2% increase over a 30-min period. Washout times were improved by eliminating memory sources and also by using a cooled mini spray chamber. This recirculating system is compatible with isotope ratio and isotope dilution analysis of small-volume samples. Good agreement was obtained between certified and experimental values for Pb in two standard reference materials.
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