Abstract

The ubiquitous pollution of the environment with microplastics, a diverse suite of contaminants, is of growing concern for science and currently receives considerable public, political, and academic attention. The potential impact of microplastics in the environment has prompted a great deal of research in recent years. Many diverse methods have been developed to answer different questions about microplastic pollution, from sources, transport, and fate in the environment, and about effects on humans and wildlife. These methods are often insufficiently described, making studies neither comparable nor reproducible. The proliferation of new microplastic investigations and cross-study syntheses to answer larger scale questions are hampered. This diverse group of 23 researchers think these issues can begin to be overcome through the adoption of a set of reporting guidelines. This collaboration was created using an open science framework that we detail for future use. Here, we suggest harmonized reporting guidelines for microplastic studies in environmental and laboratory settings through all steps of a typical study, including best practices for reporting materials, quality assurance/quality control, data, field sampling, sample preparation, microplastic identification, microplastic categorization, microplastic quantification, and considerations for toxicology studies. We developed three easy to use documents, a detailed document, a checklist, and a mind map, that can be used to reference the reporting guidelines quickly. We intend that these reporting guidelines support the annotation, dissemination, interpretation, reviewing, and synthesis of microplastic research. Through open access licensing (CC BY 4.0), these documents aim to increase the validity, reproducibility, and comparability of studies in this field for the benefit of the global community.

© 2020 The Author(s)

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W. Cowger A. Gray S.H. Christiansen H. De Frond A.D. Deshpande, et al. “Critical Review of Processing and Classification Techniques for Images and Spectra in Microplastic Research”. Appl. Spectrosc 2020; 74(9): 989–1010.

J.M. Andrade, B. Ferreiro, P. López-Mahía, S. Muniategui-Lorenzo. “Standardization of the Minimum Information for Publication of Infrared-Related Data When Microplastics Are Characterized”. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2020. 154. 10.1016/J.Marpolbul.2020.111035.

K. Munno, H. De Frond, B. O'Donnell, C.M. Rochman. “Increasing the Accessibility for Characterizing Microplastics: Introducing New Application-Based and Spectral Libraries of Plastic Particles (SLoPP and SLoPP-E)”. Anal. Chem. 2020. 92(3): 2443–2451.

S.N. Athey, S.D. Albotra, C.A. Gordon, B. Monteleone, et al. “Trophic Transfer of Microplastics in an Estuarine Food Chain and the Effects of a Sorbed Legacy Pollutant”. Limnol. Ocean. 2020. 5(1): 154–162.

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M. Walpitagama, M. Carve, A.M. Douek, C. Trestrail, et al. “Additives Migrating from 3D-Printed Plastic Induce Developmental Toxicity and Neuro-Behavioural Alterations in Early Life Zebrafish (Danio rerio)”. Aquat. Toxicol. 2019. 213: 105227.

F.-F. Liu G.-Z. Liu Z.-L. Zhu S.-C. Wang F.-F. Zhao. “Interactions Between Microplastics and Phthalate Esters as Affected by Microplastics Characteristics and Solution Chemistry”. Chemosphere. 2019. 214: 688–694.

P. Wu, Z. Cai, H. Jin, Y. Tang. “Adsorption Mechanisms of Five Bisphenol Analogues on PVC Microplastics”. Sci. Total Environ. 2019. 650(Pt 1): 671–678.

C.J. Thiele, M.D. Hudson, A.E. Russell. “Evaluation of Existing Methods to Extract Microplastics from Bivalve Tissue: Adapted KOH Digestion Protocol Improves Filtration at Single-Digit Pore Size”. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2019. 142: 384–393.

L.W. Von Friesen M.E. Granberg M. Hassellöv, G.W. Gabrielsen K. Magnusson. “An Efficient and Gentle Enzymatic Digestion Protocol for the Extraction of Microplastics from Bivalve Tissue”. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2019. 142: 129–134.

D.S. Vicentini, D.J. Nogueira, S.P. Melegari, M. Arl, et al. “Toxicological Evaluation and Quantification of Ingested Metal-Core Nanoplastic by Daphnia Magna Through Fluorescence and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometric Methods”. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2019. 38(10): 2101–2110.

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K.J. Wiggin, E.B. Holland. “Validation and Application of Cost and Time Effective Methods for the Detection of 3–500 μm Sized Microplastics in the Urban Marine and Estuarine Environments Surrounding Long Beach, California”. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2019. 143: 152–162.

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M. Haave, C. Lorenz, S. Primpke, G. Gerdts. “Different Stories Told by Small and Large Microplastics in Sediment - First Report of Microplastic Concentrations in an Urban Recipient in Norway”. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2019. 141: 501–513.

S. Primpke, P.A. Dias, G. Gerdts. “Automated Identification and Quantification of Microfibres and Microplastics”. Anal. Methods. 2019. 11(16): 2138–2147.

C. Zarfl. “Promising Techniques and Open Challenges for Microplastic Identification and Quantification in Environmental Matrices”. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 2019. 411(17): 3743–3756.

C.M. Rochman, C. Brookson, J. Bikker, N. Djuric, et al. “Rethinking Microplastics as a Diverse Contaminant Suite”. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2019. 38(4): 703–711.

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H.A. Nel, T. Dalu, R.J. Wasserman, J.W. Hean. “Colour and Size Influences Plastic Microbead Underestimation, Regardless of Sediment Grain Size”. Sci. Total Environ. 2019. 655: 567–570.

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L. Cabernard L. Roscher C. Lorenz G. Gerdts S. Primpke. “Comparison of Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy for the Quantification of Microplastics in the Aquatic Environment”. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2018. 52(22): 13279–13288.

S. Primpke, M. Wirth, C. Lorenz, G. Gerdts. “Reference Database Design for the Automated Analysis of Microplastic Samples Based on Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy”. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 2018. 410: 5131–5141.

L. Hermabessiere, C. Himber, B. Boricaud, M. Kazour, et al. “Optimization, Performance, and Application of a Pyrolysis-GC/MS Method for the Identification of Microplastics”. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 2018. 410(25): 6663–6676.

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R.E. Mcneish, L.H. Kim, H.A. Barrett, S.A. Mason, et al. “Microplastic in Riverine Fish Is Connected to Species Traits”. Sci. Rep. 2018. 8(1): 11639.

E. Hendrickson, E.C. Minor, K. Schreiner. “Microplastic Abundance and Composition in Western Lake Superior As Determined via Microscopy, Pyr-GC/MS, and FT-IR”. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2018. 52(4): 1787–1796.

R. Hurley, J. Woodward, J.J. Rothwell. “Microplastic Contamination of River Beds Significantly Reduced by Catchment-Wide Flooding”. Nat. Geosci. 2018. 11(4): 251–257.

J. Li, H. Liu, J.P. Chen. “Microplastics in Freshwater Systems: A Review on Occurrence, Environmental Effects, and Methods for Microplastics Detection”. Water Res. 2018. 137: 362–374.

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C.J. Foley, Z.S. Feiner, T.D. Malinich, T.O. Höök. “A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Exposure to Microplastics on Fish and Aquatic Invertebrates”. Sci. Total Environ. 2018. 631–632: 550–559.

G. Everaert, L. Van Cauwenberghe, M. De Rijcke, A.A. Koelmans, et al. “Risk Assessment of Microplastics in the Ocean: Modelling Approach and First Conclusions”. Environ. Pollut. 2018. 242: 1930–1938.

E. Hermsen, S.M. Mintenig, E. Besseling, A.A. Koelmans. “Quality Criteria for the Analysis of Microplastic in Biota Samples: A Critical Review”. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2018. 52(18): 10230–10240. 10.1021/Acs.Est.8b01611.

B.E. Ossmann, G. Sarau, H. Holtmannspötter, M. Pischetsrieder, et al. “Small-Sized Microplastics and Pigmented Particles in Bottled Mineral Water”. Water Res. 2018. 141: 307–316.

K. Munno P.A. Helm D.A. Jackson C. Rochman A. Sims. “Impacts of Temperature and Selected Chemical Digestion Methods on Microplastic Particles”. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2018. 37(1): 91–98.

A. Karami, A. Golieskardi, C.K. Choo, V. Larat, et al. “Microplastic and Mesoplastic Contamination in Canned Sardines and Sprats”. Sci. Total Environ. 2018. 612: 1380–1386.

F. Liboiron, J. Ammendolia, J. Saturno, J. Melvin, et al. “A Zero Percent Plastic Ingestion Rate by Silver Hake (Merluccius Bilinearis) from the South Coast of Newfoundland, Canada”. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2018. 131: 267–275.

M. Simon, N. van Alst, J. Vollertsen. “Quantification of Microplastic Mass and Removal Rates at Wastewater Treatment Plants Applying Focal Plane Array (FPA)-Based Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Imaging”. Water Res. 2018. 142: 1–9.

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N.B. Hartmann, S. Rist, J. Bodin, L.H. Jensen, et al. “Microplastics As Vectors for Environmental Contaminants: Exploring Sorption, Desorption, and Transfer to Biota”. Integr. Environ. Assess. Manag. 2017. 13(3): 488–493.

A.D. Gray, J.E. Weinstein. “Size-and Shape-Dependent Effects of Microplastic Particles on Adult Daggerblade Grass Shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio)”. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2017. 36(11): 3074–3080.

L.I. Devriese B. De Witte A.D. Vethaak K. Hostens H.A. Leslie. “Bioaccumulation of Pcbs from Microplastics in Norway Lobster (Nephrops norvegicus): An Experimental Study”. Chemosphere. 2017. 186: 10–16.

S. Ghosal M. Chen J. Wagner Z.-M. Wang S. Wall. “Molecular Identification of Polymers and Anthropogenic Particles Extracted from Oceanic Water and Fish Stomach: A Raman Micro-Spectroscopy Study”. Environ. Pollut. 2017. 33: 1113–1124.

M. Fischer, B.M. Scholz-Böttcher. “Simultaneous Trace Identification and Quantification of Common Types of Microplastics in Environmental Samples by Pyrolysis–Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry”. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2017. 51(9): 5052–5060.

R.L. Coppock M. Cole P.K. Lindeque A.M. Queirós, T.S. Galloway. “A Small-Scale, Portable Method for Extracting Microplastics from Marine Sediments”. Environ. Pollut. 2017. 230: 829–837.

G. Erni-Cassola, M.I. Gibson, R.C. Thompson, J.A. Christie-Oleza. “Lost, but Found with Nile Red: A Novel Method for Detecting and Quantifying Small Microplastics (1 mm to 20 μm) in Environmental Samples”. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2017. 51(23): 13641–13648.

B.E. Ossmann, G. Sarau, S.W. Schmitt, H. Holtmannspötter, et al. “Development of an Optimal Filter Substrate for the Identification of Small Microplastic Particles in Food by Micro-Raman Spectroscopy”. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 2017. 409(16): 4099–4109.

T. Maes R. Jessop N. Wellner K. Haupt A.G. Mayes. “A Rapid-Screening Approach to Detect and Quantify Microplastics Based on Fluorescent Tagging with Nile Red”. Sci. Rep. 2017. 7: 44501.

N.P. Ivleva, A.C. Wiesheu, R. Niessner. “Microplastic in Aquatic Ecosystems”. Angew. Chem. 2017. 56(7): 1720–1739.

L. Wang, J. Zhang, S. Hou, H. Sun. “A Simple Method for Quantifying Polycarbonate and Polyethylene Terephthalate Microplastics in Environmental Samples by Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry”. Environ. Sci. Technol. Lett. 2017. 4(12): 530–534. 10.1021/Acs.Estlett.7b00454.

B.D. Hardesty, J. Harari, A. Isobe, L. Lebreton, et al. “Using Numerical Model Simulations to Improve the Understanding of Micro-Plastic Distribution and Pathways in the Marine Environment”. Front. Mar. Sci. 2017. 4: 3010.3389/fmars.2017.00030.

S. Iwasaki A. Isobe S. Kako K. Uchida T. Tokai. “Fate of Microplastics and Mesoplastics Carried by Surface Currents and Wind Waves: A Numerical Model Approach in the Sea of Japan”. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2017. 121(1–2): 85–96.

L. Frère, I. Paul-Pont, E. Rinnert, S. Petton, et al. “Influence of Environmental and Anthropogenic Factors on the Composition, Concentration and Spatial Distribution of Microplastics: A Case Study of the Bay of Brest (Brittany, France)”. Environ. Pollut. 2017. 225: 211–222.

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W. Courtene-Jones B. Quinn F. Murphy S.F. Gary B.E. Narayanaswamy. “Optimisation of Enzymatic Digestion and Validation of Specimen Preservation Methods for the Analysis of Ingested Microplastics”. Anal. Methods. 2017. 9(9): 1437–1445.

J. Wagner, Z.-M. Wang, S. Ghosal, C. Rochman, et al. “Novel Method for the Extraction and Identification of Microplastics in Ocean Trawl and Fish Gut Matrices”. Anal. Methods. 2017. 9(9): 1479–1490.

S. Primpke, C. Lorenz, R. Rascher-Friesenhausen, G. Gerdts. “An Automated Approach for Microplastics Analysis Using Focal Plane Array (FPA) FT-IR Microscopy and Image Analysis”. Anal. Methods. 2017. 9(9): 1499–1511.

R.N. Cable, D. Beletsky, R. Beletsky, K. Wigginton, et al. “Distribution and Modeled Transport of Plastic Pollution in the Great Lakes, the World's Largest Freshwater Resource”. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng. China. 2017. 5: 45.

A.P.W. Barrows, C.A. Neumann, M.L. Berger, S.D. Shaw. “Grab: vs. Neuston Tow Net: A Microplastic Sampling Performance Comparison and Possible Advances in the Field”. Anal. Methods. 2017. 9(9): 1446–1453. 10.1039/C6ay02387h.

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M. Schulz W. Van Loon D.M. Fleet P. Baggelaar E. Van Der Meulen. “OSPAR Standard Method and Software for Statistical Analysis of Beach Litter Data”. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2017. 122(1–2): 166–175.

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A. Bagaev A. Mizyuk L. Khatmullina I. Isachenko I. Chubarenko. “Anthropogenic Fibres in the Baltic Sea Water Column: Field Data, Laboratory and Numerical Testing of Their Motion”. Sci. Total Environ. 2017. 599–600: 560–571.

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H.A. Leslie, S.H. Brandsma, M.J.M. Van Velzen, A.D. Vethaak. “Microplastics En Route: Field Measurements in the Dutch River Delta and Amsterdam Canals, Wastewater Treatment Plants, North Sea Sediments and Biota”. Environ. Int. 2017. 101: 133–142.

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M. Torre N. Digka A. Anastasopoulou C. Tsangaris Mytilineou. “Anthropogenic Microfibres Pollution in Marine Biota. A New and Simple Methodology to Minimize Airborne Contamination”. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2016. 113(1–2): 55–61.

P.K. Cheung, L.T.O. Cheung, L. Fok. “Seasonal Variation in the Abundance of Marine Plastic Debris in the Estuary of a Subtropical Macro-Scale Drainage Basin in South China”. Sci. Total Environ. 2016. 562: 658–665.

A. Dehaut, A.-L. Cassone, L. Frère, L. Hermabessiere, et al. “Microplastics in Seafood: Benchmark Protocol for Their Extraction and Characterization”. Environ. Pollut. 2016. 215: 223–233.

K. Tanaka, H. Takada. “Microplastic Fragments and Microbeads in Digestive Tracts of Planktivorous Fish from Urban Coastal Waters”. Sci. Rep. 2016. 6: 34351.

M. Liboiron, F. Liboiron, E. Wells, N. Richárd, et al. “Low Plastic Ingestion Rate in Atlantic Cod (Gadus Morhua) from Newfoundland Destined for Human Consumption Collected Through Citizen Science Methods”. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2016. 113(1–2): 428–437.

M. Baker. “Is There a Reproducibility Crisis? A Nature Survey Lifts the Lid on How Researchers View the Crisis Rocking Science and What They Think Will Help”. Nature. 2016. 533(7604): 452–455.

C.M. Rochman, M.A. Browne, A.J. Underwood, J.A. Van Franeker, et al. “The Ecological Impacts of Marine Debris: Unraveling the Demonstrated Evidence from What Is Perceived”. Ecology. 2016. 97(2): 302–312.

S. Avery-Gomm, M. Valliant, C.R. Schacter, K.F. Robbins, et al. “A Study of Wrecked Dovekies (Alle Alle) in the Western North Atlantic Highlights the Importance of Using Standardized Methods to Quantify Plastic Ingestion”. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2016. 113(1–2): 75–80.

T. Kukulka, K.L. Law, G. Proskurowski. “Evidence for the Influence of Surface Heat Fluxes on Turbulent Mixing of Microplastic Marine Debris”. J. Phys. Ocean. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 2016. 46(3): 809–815.

C.C. Wessel, G.R. Lockridge, D. Battiste, J. Cebrian. “Abundance and Characteristics of Microplastics in Beach Sediments: Insights into Microplastic Accumulation in Northern Gulf of Mexico Estuaries”. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2016. 109(1): 178–183.

A. Karami, N. Romano, T. Galloway, H. Hamzah. “Virgin Microplastics Cause Toxicity and Modulate the Impacts of Phenanthrene on Biomarker Responses in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)”. Environ. Res. 2016. 151: 58–70.

A. Käppler, D. Fischer, S. Oberbeckmann, G. Schernewski, et al. “Analysis of Environmental Microplastics by Vibrational Microspectroscopy: FT-IR, Raman or Both?”. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 2016. 408(29): 8377–8391.

C. Wu, K. Zhang, X. Huang, J. Liu. “Sorption of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products to Polyethylene Debris”. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int. 2016. 23(9): 8819–8826.

C.-B. Jeong, E.-J. Won, H.-M. Kang, M.-C. Lee, et al. “Microplastic Size-Dependent Toxicity, Oxidative Stress Induction, and P-JNK and P-P38 Activation in the Monogonont Rotifer (Brachionus koreanus)”. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2016. 50(16): 8849–8857.

T. Hüffer and T. Hofmann. “Sorption of Non-Polar Organic Compounds by Micro-Sized Plastic Particles in Aqueous Solution”. Environ. Pollut. 2016. 214: 194–201.

2015 (9)

A.J.R. Watts M.A. Urbina S. Corr C. Lewis T.S. Galloway. “Ingestion of Plastic Microfibers by the Crab Carcinus Maenas and its Effect on Food Consumption and Energy Balance”. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2015. 49(24): 14597–14604.

F. Collard B. Gilbert G. Eppe E. Parmentier K. Das. “Detection of Anthropogenic Particles in Fish Stomachs: An Isolation Method Adapted to Identification by Raman Spectroscopy”. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 2015. 69(3): 331–339.

R. Lenz K. Enders D.M.A. Stedmon C.A. Mackenzie T.G. Nielsen. “A Critical Assessment of Visual Identification of Marine Microplastic Using Raman Spectroscopy for Analysis Improvement”. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2015. 100(1): 82–91.

R. Peng. “The Reproducibility Crisis in Science: A Statistical Counterattack”. Significance. 2015. 12(3): 30–32.

Y.K. Song, S.H. Hong, M. Jang, G.M. Han, et al. “A Comparison of Microscopic and Spectroscopic Identification Methods for Analysis of Microplastics in Environmental Samples”. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2015. 93(1–2): 202–209.

L.I. Devriese, M.D. Van Der Meulen, T. Maes, K. Bekaert, et al. “Microplastic Contamination in Brown Shrimp (Crangon crangon, Linnaeus 1758) from Coastal Waters of the Southern North Sea and Channel Area”. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2015. 98(1–2): 179–187.

G. Vandermeersch, L. Van Cauwenberghe, C.R. Janssen, A. Marques, et al. “A Critical View on Microplastic Quantification in Aquatic Organisms”. Environ. Res. 2015. 143(Pt. B): 46–55.

J. Reisser, B. Slat, K. Noble, K. Du Plessis, et al. “The Vertical Distribution of Buoyant Plastics at Sea: An Observational Study in the North Atlantic Gyre”. Biogeosci. 2015. 12(4): 1249.

K. Enders, R. Lenz, C.A. Stedmon, T.G. Nielsen. “Abundance, Size, and Polymer Composition of Marine Microplastics ≥10 μm in the Atlantic Ocean and Their Modelled Vertical Distribution”. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2015. 100(1): 70–81. 10.1016/J.Marpolbul.2015.09.027.

2014 (9)

A.L. Lusher, A. Burke, I. O'Connor, R. Officer. “Microplastic Pollution in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean: Validated and Opportunistic Sampling”. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2014. 88(1–2): 325–333. 10.1016/J.Marpolbul.2014.08.023.

L. Van Cauwenberghe, C.R. Janssen. “Microplastics in Bivalves Cultured for Human Consumption”. Environ. Pollut. 2014. 193: 65–70.

B. De Witte, L. Devriese, K. Bekaert, S. Hoffman, et al. “Quality Assessment of the Blue Mussel (Mytilus edulis): Comparison Between Commercial and Wild Types”. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2014. 85(1): 146–155.

M. Zbyszewski, P.L. Corcoran, A. Hockin. “Comparison of the Distribution and Degradation of Plastic Debris along Shorelines of the Great Lakes, North America”. J. Gt. Lakes Res. 2014. 40(2): 288–299.

J.H. Dekiff, D. Remy, J. Klasmeier, E. Fries. “Occurrence and Spatial Distribution of Microplastics in Sediments from Norderney”. Environ. Pollut. 2014. 186: 248–256.

Q.A. Schuyler C. Wilcox K. Townsend B.D. Hardesty N.J. Marshall. “Mistaken Identity? Visual Similarities of Marine Debris to Natural Prey Items of Sea Turtles”. BMC Ecol. 2014. 14. (14). 10.1186/1472-6785-14-14.

A. Rowshyra Castañeda Suncica Avlijas M. Anouk Simard Anthony Ricciardia. “Microplastic Pollution Discovered in St. Lawrence River Sediments”. NRC Press. 2014. 88(1–2): 5–6.

I. Velzeboer, C.J.A.F. Kwadijk, A.A. Koelmans. “Strong Sorption of PCBs to Nanoplastics, Microplastics, Carbon Nanotubes, and Fullerenes”. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2014. 48(9): 4869–4876.

C.M. Rochman, T. Kurobe, I. Flores, S.J. Teh. “Early Warning Signs of Endocrine Disruption in Adult Fish from the Ingestion of Polyethylene with and without Sorbed Chemical Pollutants from the Marine Environment”. Sci. Total Environ. 2014. 493: 656–661.

2013 (5)

C.M. Rochman, E. Hoh, B.T. Hentschel, S. Kaye. “Long-Term Field Measurement of Sorption of Organic Contaminants to Five Types of Plastic Pellets: Implications for Plastic Marine Debris”. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2013. 47(3): 1646–1654.

S.L. Wright, D. Rowe, R.C. Thompson, T.S. Galloway. “Microplastic Ingestion Decreases Energy Reserves in Marine Worms”. Curr. Biol. 2013. 23(23): R1031–R1033.

S.D.A. Smith, A. Markic. “Estimates of Marine Debris Accumulation on Beaches Are Strongly Affected by the Temporal Scale of Sampling”. PLoS One. 2013. 8(12): E83694.

E. Fries, J.H. Dekiff, J. Willmeyer, M.-T. Nuelle, et al. “Identification of Polymer Types and Additives in Marine Microplastic Particles Using Pyrolysis-GC/MS and Scanning Electron Microscopy”. Environ. Sci. Process. Impacts. 2013. 15(10): 1949–1956.

M. Claessens, L. Van Cauwenberghe, M.B. Vandegehuchte, C.R. Janssen. “New Techniques for the Detection of Microplastics in Sediments and Field Collected Organisms”. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2013. 70(1–2): 227–233.

2012 (2)

V. Hidalgo-Ruz, L. Gutow, R.C. Thompson, M. Thiel. “Microplastics in the Marine Environment: A Review of the Methods Used for Identification and Quantification”. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2012. 46(6): 3060–3075.

H.K. Imhof J. Schmid R. Niessner N.P. Ivleva C. Laforsch. “A Novel, Highly Efficient Method for the Separation and Quantification of Plastic Particles in Sediments of Aquatic Environments: Novel Plastic Particle Separation Method”. Limnol. Ocean. Methods. 2012. 10(7): 524–537.

2011 (1)

F. Murray, P.R. Cowie. “Plastic Contamination in the Decapod Crustacean Nephrops norvegicus (Linnaeus, 1758)”. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2011. 62(6): 1207–1217.

2010 (2)

J.P.G.L. Frias, P. Sobral, A.M. Ferreira. “Organic Pollutants in Microplastics from Two Beaches of the Portuguese Coast”. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2010. 60(11): 1988–1992.

M.A. Browne, T.S. Galloway, R.C. Thompson. “Spatial Patterns of Plastic Debris along Estuarine Shorelines”. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2010. 44(9): 3404–3409.

2009 (3)

S.A. Bustin, V. Benes, J.A. Garson, J. Hellemans, et al. “The MIQE Guidelines: Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments”. Clin. Chem. 2009. 55(4): 611–622. 10.1373/Clinchem.2008.112797.

P.L. Corcoran, M.C. Biesinger, M. Grifi. “Plastics and Beaches: A Degrading Relationship”. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2009. 58(1): 80–84.

S. Lu, R. Qu, J. Forcada. “Preparation of Magnetic Polymeric Composite Nanoparticles by Seeded Emulsion Polymerization”. Mater. Lett. 2009. 63(9–10): 770–772. 10.1016/J.Matlet.2008.12.045.

2007 (1)

C.F. Taylor, N.W. Paton, K.S. Lilley, P.-A. Binz, et al. “The Minimum Information About a Proteomics Experiment (MIAPE)”. Nat. Biotechnol. 2007. 25(8): 887–893. 10.1038/Nbt1329.

2006 (1)

D.R. Helsel. “Fabricating Data: How Substituting Values for Nondetects Can Ruin Results, and What Can Be Done About It”. Chemosphere. 2006. 65(11): 2434–2439.

2005 (1)

M.A. Pascall, M.E. Zabik, M.J. Zabik, R.J. Hernandez. “Uptake of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (Pcbs) from an Aqueous Medium by Polyethylene, Polyvinyl Chloride, and Polystyrene Films”. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2005. 53(1): 164–169.

2004 (2)

R.C. Thompson, Y. Olsen, R.P. Mitchell, A. Davis, et al. “Lost at Sea: Where is All the Plastic?”. Science. 2004. 304(5672): 838.

G.L. Lattin C.J. Moore A.F. Zellers S.L. Moore S.B. Weisberg. “A Comparison of Neustonic Plastic and Zooplankton at Different Depths Near the Southern California Shore”. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2004. 49(4): 291–294.

2001 (1)

A. Brazma, P. Hingamp, J. Quackenbush, G. Sherlock, et al. “Minimum Information About a Microarray Experiment (MIAME): Toward Standards for Microarray Data”. Nat. Genet. 2001. 29(4): 365–371. 10.1038/Ng1201-365.

1998 (1)

P.B. Key M.H. Fulton G.I. Scott S.L. Layman E.F. Wirth. “Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Malathion on Three Life Stages of the Grass Shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio”. Aquat. Toxicol. 1998. 40(4): 311–322.

1995 (1)

L.B. Spear, D.G. Ainley, C.A. Ribic. “Incidence of Plastic in Seabirds from the Tropical Pacific, 1984–1991: Relation with Distribution of Species, Sex, Age, Season, Year and Body Weight”. Mar. Environ. Res. 1995. 40(2): 123–146.

1963 (1)

H. Van Den Dool, P. Dec. Kratz. “A Generalization of the Retention Index System Including Linear Temperature Programmed Gas: Liquid Partition Chromatography”. J. Chromatogr. A . 1963. 11: 463–471.

Ainley, D.G.

L.B. Spear, D.G. Ainley, C.A. Ribic. “Incidence of Plastic in Seabirds from the Tropical Pacific, 1984–1991: Relation with Distribution of Species, Sex, Age, Season, Year and Body Weight”. Mar. Environ. Res. 1995. 40(2): 123–146.

Albotra, S.D.

S.N. Athey, S.D. Albotra, C.A. Gordon, B. Monteleone, et al. “Trophic Transfer of Microplastics in an Estuarine Food Chain and the Effects of a Sorbed Legacy Pollutant”. Limnol. Ocean. 2020. 5(1): 154–162.

Ammendolia, J.

F. Liboiron, J. Ammendolia, J. Saturno, J. Melvin, et al. “A Zero Percent Plastic Ingestion Rate by Silver Hake (Merluccius Bilinearis) from the South Coast of Newfoundland, Canada”. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2018. 131: 267–275.

Anastasopoulou, A.

M. Torre N. Digka A. Anastasopoulou C. Tsangaris Mytilineou. “Anthropogenic Microfibres Pollution in Marine Biota. A New and Simple Methodology to Minimize Airborne Contamination”. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2016. 113(1–2): 55–61.

Andrade, J.M.

J.M. Andrade, B. Ferreiro, P. López-Mahía, S. Muniategui-Lorenzo. “Standardization of the Minimum Information for Publication of Infrared-Related Data When Microplastics Are Characterized”. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2020. 154. 10.1016/J.Marpolbul.2020.111035.

Anouk Simard, M.

A. Rowshyra Castañeda Suncica Avlijas M. Anouk Simard Anthony Ricciardia. “Microplastic Pollution Discovered in St. Lawrence River Sediments”. NRC Press. 2014. 88(1–2): 5–6.

Arl, M.

D.S. Vicentini, D.J. Nogueira, S.P. Melegari, M. Arl, et al. “Toxicological Evaluation and Quantification of Ingested Metal-Core Nanoplastic by Daphnia Magna Through Fluorescence and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometric Methods”. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2019. 38(10): 2101–2110.

Athey, S.N.

S.N. Athey, S.D. Albotra, C.A. Gordon, B. Monteleone, et al. “Trophic Transfer of Microplastics in an Estuarine Food Chain and the Effects of a Sorbed Legacy Pollutant”. Limnol. Ocean. 2020. 5(1): 154–162.

Avery-Gomm, S.

J.F. Provencher, A.L. Bond, S. Avery-Gomm, S.B. Borrelle, et al. “Quantifying Ingested Debris in Marine Megafauna: A Review and Recommendations for Standardization”. Anal. Methods. 2017. 9(9): 1454–1469.

S. Avery-Gomm, M. Valliant, C.R. Schacter, K.F. Robbins, et al. “A Study of Wrecked Dovekies (Alle Alle) in the Western North Atlantic Highlights the Importance of Using Standardized Methods to Quantify Plastic Ingestion”. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2016. 113(1–2): 75–80.

Avlijas, Suncica

A. Rowshyra Castañeda Suncica Avlijas M. Anouk Simard Anthony Ricciardia. “Microplastic Pollution Discovered in St. Lawrence River Sediments”. NRC Press. 2014. 88(1–2): 5–6.

Bagaev, A.

A. Bagaev A. Mizyuk L. Khatmullina I. Isachenko I. Chubarenko. “Anthropogenic Fibres in the Baltic Sea Water Column: Field Data, Laboratory and Numerical Testing of Their Motion”. Sci. Total Environ. 2017. 599–600: 560–571.

Baggelaar, P.

M. Schulz W. Van Loon D.M. Fleet P. Baggelaar E. Van Der Meulen. “OSPAR Standard Method and Software for Statistical Analysis of Beach Litter Data”. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2017. 122(1–2): 166–175.

Baker, M.

M. Baker. “Is There a Reproducibility Crisis? A Nature Survey Lifts the Lid on How Researchers View the Crisis Rocking Science and What They Think Will Help”. Nature. 2016. 533(7604): 452–455.

Barrett, H.A.

R.E. Mcneish, L.H. Kim, H.A. Barrett, S.A. Mason, et al. “Microplastic in Riverine Fish Is Connected to Species Traits”. Sci. Rep. 2018. 8(1): 11639.

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A.P.W. Barrows, C.A. Neumann, M.L. Berger, S.D. Shaw. “Grab: vs. Neuston Tow Net: A Microplastic Sampling Performance Comparison and Possible Advances in the Field”. Anal. Methods. 2017. 9(9): 1446–1453. 10.1039/C6ay02387h.

R.Z. Miller A.J.R. Watts B.O. Winslow T.S. Galloway A.P.W. Barrows. “Mountains to the Sea: River Study of Plastic and Non-Plastic Microfiber Pollution in the Northeast USA”. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2017. 124(1): 245–251.

Battiste, D.

C.C. Wessel, G.R. Lockridge, D. Battiste, J. Cebrian. “Abundance and Characteristics of Microplastics in Beach Sediments: Insights into Microplastic Accumulation in Northern Gulf of Mexico Estuaries”. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2016. 109(1): 178–183.

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K. Enders, R. Lenz, S. Beer, C.A. Stedmon. “Extraction of Microplastic from Biota: Recommended Acidic Digestion Destroys Common Plastic Polymers”. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 2017. 74(1): 326–331.

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L.I. Devriese, M.D. Van Der Meulen, T. Maes, K. Bekaert, et al. “Microplastic Contamination in Brown Shrimp (Crangon crangon, Linnaeus 1758) from Coastal Waters of the Southern North Sea and Channel Area”. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2015. 98(1–2): 179–187.

B. De Witte, L. Devriese, K. Bekaert, S. Hoffman, et al. “Quality Assessment of the Blue Mussel (Mytilus edulis): Comparison Between Commercial and Wild Types”. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2014. 85(1): 146–155.

Beletsky, D.

R.N. Cable, D. Beletsky, R. Beletsky, K. Wigginton, et al. “Distribution and Modeled Transport of Plastic Pollution in the Great Lakes, the World's Largest Freshwater Resource”. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng. China. 2017. 5: 45.

Beletsky, R.

R.N. Cable, D. Beletsky, R. Beletsky, K. Wigginton, et al. “Distribution and Modeled Transport of Plastic Pollution in the Great Lakes, the World's Largest Freshwater Resource”. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng. China. 2017. 5: 45.

Benes, V.

S.A. Bustin, V. Benes, J.A. Garson, J. Hellemans, et al. “The MIQE Guidelines: Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments”. Clin. Chem. 2009. 55(4): 611–622. 10.1373/Clinchem.2008.112797.

Berger, M.L.

A.P.W. Barrows, C.A. Neumann, M.L. Berger, S.D. Shaw. “Grab: vs. Neuston Tow Net: A Microplastic Sampling Performance Comparison and Possible Advances in the Field”. Anal. Methods. 2017. 9(9): 1446–1453. 10.1039/C6ay02387h.

Besseling, E.

E. Hermsen, S.M. Mintenig, E. Besseling, A.A. Koelmans. “Quality Criteria for the Analysis of Microplastic in Biota Samples: A Critical Review”. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2018. 52(18): 10230–10240. 10.1021/Acs.Est.8b01611.

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P.L. Corcoran, M.C. Biesinger, M. Grifi. “Plastics and Beaches: A Degrading Relationship”. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2009. 58(1): 80–84.

Bikker, J.

C.M. Rochman, C. Brookson, J. Bikker, N. Djuric, et al. “Rethinking Microplastics as a Diverse Contaminant Suite”. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2019. 38(4): 703–711.

Binz, P.-A.

C.F. Taylor, N.W. Paton, K.S. Lilley, P.-A. Binz, et al. “The Minimum Information About a Proteomics Experiment (MIAPE)”. Nat. Biotechnol. 2007. 25(8): 887–893. 10.1038/Nbt1329.

Bodin, J.

N.B. Hartmann, S. Rist, J. Bodin, L.H. Jensen, et al. “Microplastics As Vectors for Environmental Contaminants: Exploring Sorption, Desorption, and Transfer to Biota”. Integr. Environ. Assess. Manag. 2017. 13(3): 488–493.

Bond, A.L.

J.F. Provencher, A.L. Bond, S. Avery-Gomm, S.B. Borrelle, et al. “Quantifying Ingested Debris in Marine Megafauna: A Review and Recommendations for Standardization”. Anal. Methods. 2017. 9(9): 1454–1469.

Boricaud, B.

L. Hermabessiere, C. Himber, B. Boricaud, M. Kazour, et al. “Optimization, Performance, and Application of a Pyrolysis-GC/MS Method for the Identification of Microplastics”. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 2018. 410(25): 6663–6676.

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J.F. Provencher, A.L. Bond, S. Avery-Gomm, S.B. Borrelle, et al. “Quantifying Ingested Debris in Marine Megafauna: A Review and Recommendations for Standardization”. Anal. Methods. 2017. 9(9): 1454–1469.

Brandsma, S.H.

H.A. Leslie, S.H. Brandsma, M.J.M. Van Velzen, A.D. Vethaak. “Microplastics En Route: Field Measurements in the Dutch River Delta and Amsterdam Canals, Wastewater Treatment Plants, North Sea Sediments and Biota”. Environ. Int. 2017. 101: 133–142.

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C. Wesch, A.M. Elert, M. Wörner, U. Braun, et al. “Assuring Quality in Microplastic Monitoring: About the Value of Clean-Air Devices as Essentials for Verified Data”. Sci. Rep. 2017. 7(1): 5424.

Brazma, A.

A. Brazma, P. Hingamp, J. Quackenbush, G. Sherlock, et al. “Minimum Information About a Microarray Experiment (MIAME): Toward Standards for Microarray Data”. Nat. Genet. 2001. 29(4): 365–371. 10.1038/Ng1201-365.

Brookson, C.

C.M. Rochman, C. Brookson, J. Bikker, N. Djuric, et al. “Rethinking Microplastics as a Diverse Contaminant Suite”. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2019. 38(4): 703–711.

Browne, M.A.

C.M. Rochman, M.A. Browne, A.J. Underwood, J.A. Van Franeker, et al. “The Ecological Impacts of Marine Debris: Unraveling the Demonstrated Evidence from What Is Perceived”. Ecology. 2016. 97(2): 302–312.

M.A. Browne, T.S. Galloway, R.C. Thompson. “Spatial Patterns of Plastic Debris along Estuarine Shorelines”. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2010. 44(9): 3404–3409.

Bucsics, T.

P. Schwabl B. Liebmann S. Koppel P. Konigshofer T. Bucsics M. Trauner, et al. “Assessment of Microplastic Concentrations in Human Stool-Preliminary Results of a Prospective Study”. United Eur. Gastroenterol J . 2018. 6: A127.

Burke, A.

A.L. Lusher, A. Burke, I. O'Connor, R. Officer. “Microplastic Pollution in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean: Validated and Opportunistic Sampling”. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2014. 88(1–2): 325–333. 10.1016/J.Marpolbul.2014.08.023.

Burkhardt-Holm, P.

T. Mani S. Primpke C. Lorenz G. Gerdts P. Burkhardt-Holm. “Microplastic Pollution in Benthic Midstream Sediments of the Rhine River”. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2019. 53(10): 6053–6062.

Bustin, S.A.

S.A. Bustin, V. Benes, J.A. Garson, J. Hellemans, et al. “The MIQE Guidelines: Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments”. Clin. Chem. 2009. 55(4): 611–622. 10.1373/Clinchem.2008.112797.

Cabernard, L.

L. Cabernard L. Roscher C. Lorenz G. Gerdts S. Primpke. “Comparison of Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy for the Quantification of Microplastics in the Aquatic Environment”. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2018. 52(22): 13279–13288.

Cable, R.N.

R.N. Cable, D. Beletsky, R. Beletsky, K. Wigginton, et al. “Distribution and Modeled Transport of Plastic Pollution in the Great Lakes, the World's Largest Freshwater Resource”. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng. China. 2017. 5: 45.

Cai, Z.

P. Wu, Z. Cai, H. Jin, Y. Tang. “Adsorption Mechanisms of Five Bisphenol Analogues on PVC Microplastics”. Sci. Total Environ. 2019. 650(Pt 1): 671–678.

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M. Walpitagama, M. Carve, A.M. Douek, C. Trestrail, et al. “Additives Migrating from 3D-Printed Plastic Induce Developmental Toxicity and Neuro-Behavioural Alterations in Early Life Zebrafish (Danio rerio)”. Aquat. Toxicol. 2019. 213: 105227.

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A. Dehaut, A.-L. Cassone, L. Frère, L. Hermabessiere, et al. “Microplastics in Seafood: Benchmark Protocol for Their Extraction and Characterization”. Environ. Pollut. 2016. 215: 223–233.

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A. Rowshyra Castañeda Suncica Avlijas M. Anouk Simard Anthony Ricciardia. “Microplastic Pollution Discovered in St. Lawrence River Sediments”. NRC Press. 2014. 88(1–2): 5–6.

Cebrian, J.

C.C. Wessel, G.R. Lockridge, D. Battiste, J. Cebrian. “Abundance and Characteristics of Microplastics in Beach Sediments: Insights into Microplastic Accumulation in Northern Gulf of Mexico Estuaries”. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2016. 109(1): 178–183.

Chambers, L.G.

K.M. Martin E.A. Hasenmueller J.R. White L.G. Chambers J.L. Conkle. “Sampling, Sorting, and Characterizing Microplastics in Aquatic Environments with High Suspended Sediment Loads and Large Floating Debris”. J. Vis. Exp. 2018. 137. 10.3791/57969.

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G.A. Covernton, C.M. Pearce, H.J. Gurney-Smith, S.G. Chastain, et al. “Size and Shape Matter: A Preliminary Analysis of Microplastic Sampling Technique in Seawater Studies with Implications for Ecological Risk Assessment”. Sci. Total Environ. 2019. 667: 124–132.

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J. Li, H. Liu, J.P. Chen. “Microplastics in Freshwater Systems: A Review on Occurrence, Environmental Effects, and Methods for Microplastics Detection”. Water Res. 2018. 137: 362–374.

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S. Ghosal M. Chen J. Wagner Z.-M. Wang S. Wall. “Molecular Identification of Polymers and Anthropogenic Particles Extracted from Oceanic Water and Fish Stomach: A Raman Micro-Spectroscopy Study”. Environ. Pollut. 2017. 33: 1113–1124.

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Supplementary Material (2)

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» Supplement 1       sj-pdf-1-asp-10.1177_0003702820930292 - Supplemental material for Reporting Guidelines to Increase the Reproducibility and Comparability of Research on Microplastics
» Supplement 2       sj-pdf-2-asp-10.1177_0003702820930292 - Supplemental material for Reporting Guidelines to Increase the Reproducibility and Comparability of Research on Microplastics

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