Abstract

Calibration transfer for use with spectroscopic instruments, particularly for near-infrared, infrared, and Raman analysis, has been the subject of multiple articles, research papers, book chapters, and technical reviews. There has been a myriad of approaches published and claims made for resolving the problems associated with transferring calibrations; however, the capability of attaining identical results over time from two or more instruments using an identical calibration still eludes technologists. Calibration transfer, in a precise definition, refers to a series of analytical approaches or chemometric techniques used to attempt to apply a single spectral database, and the calibration model developed using that database, for two or more instruments, with statistically retained accuracy and precision. Ideally, one would develop a single calibration for any particular application, and move it indiscriminately across instruments and achieve identical analysis or prediction results. There are many technical aspects involved in such precision calibration transfer, related to the measuring instrument reproducibility and repeatability, the reference chemical values used for the calibration, the multivariate mathematics used for calibration, and sample presentation repeatability and reproducibility. Ideally, a multivariate model developed on a single instrument would provide a statistically identical analysis when used on other instruments following transfer. This paper reviews common calibration transfer techniques, mostly related to instrument differences, and the mathematics of the uncertainty between instruments when making spectroscopic measurements of identical samples. It does not specifically address calibration maintenance or reference laboratory differences.

© 2017 The Author(s)

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