Abstract

Significant advancements in waveguide technology in the mid-infrared (MIR) regime during recent decades have assisted in establishing MIR spectroscopic and sensing technologies as a routine tool among nondestructive analytical methods. In this review, the evolution of MIR waveguides along with state-of-the-art technologies facilitating next-generation MIR chem/bio sensors will be discussed introducing a classification scheme defining three “generations” of MIR waveguides: (1) conventional internal reflection elements as “first generation” waveguides; (2) MIR-transparent optical fibers as “second generation” waveguides; and most recently introduced(3) thin-film structures as “third generation” waveguides. Selected application examples for these each waveguide category along with future trends will highlight utility and perspectives for waveguide-based MIR spectroscopy and sensing systems.

© 2016 The Author(s)

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Fahrenfort, “Attenuated Total Reflection: A New Principle for the Production of Useful Infra-Red Reflection Spectra of Organic Compounds”. Spectrochim. Acta 1961; 17(7): 698–709.
  2. N.J. Harrick, Internal Reflection Spectroscopy , New York: Interscience Publishers, 1967.
  3. B. Mizaikoff, “Mid-IR Fiber-Optic Sensors”. Anal. Chem 2003; 75(11): 258A–267A.
  4. D. Perez-Guaita, V. Kokoric, A. Wilk, S. Garrigues, and B. Mizaikoff, “Towards the Determination of Isoprene in Human Breath Using Substrate-Integrated Hollow Waveguide Mid-Infrared Sensors”. J. Breath Res 2014; 8(2): 026003.
  5. S. Hou, C.B. Riley, C.A. Mitchell, R.A. Shaw, J. Bryanton, and K. Bigsby, “Exploration of Attenuated Total Reflectance Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Calibration to Measure Immunoglobulin G in Human Sera”. Talanta 2015; 142: 110–119.
  6. M.J. Maltesen, S. Bjerregaard, L. Hovgaard, S. Havelund, M. van de Weert, and H. Grohganz, “Multivariate Analysis of Phenol in Freeze-Dried and Spray-Dried Insulin Formulations by NIR and FTIR”. Pharm.Sci.Tech 2011; 12(2): 627–636.
  7. U. Willer, M. Saraji, A. Khorsandi, P. Geiser, and W. Schade, “Near- and Mid-Infrared Laser Monitoring of Industrial Processes, Environment and Security Applications”. Opt. Lasers Eng 2006; 44(7): 699–710.
  8. N.N. Misra, C. Sullivan, and P.J. Cullen, “Process Analytical Technology (PAT) and Multivariate Methods for Downstream Processes”. Curr. Biochem. Eng 2015; 2: 4–16.
  9. L. Fernández-Carrasco, D. Torrens-Martín, L.M. Morales, and S. Martínez-Ramírez, “Infrared Spectroscopy in the Analysis of Building and Construction Materials”. In: T. Theophanides, (ed). Infrared Spectroscopy – Materials, Science, Engineering, andTechnology. Inctech 2012. DOI: 10.5772/36186.
  10. S. Schaden, M. Haberkorn, J. Frank, J.R. Baena, and B. Lendl, “Direct Determination of Carbon Dioxide in Aqueous Solution Using Mid-Infrared Quantum Cascade Lasers”. Appl. Spectrosc 2004; 58(6): 667–70.
  11. E. Satheeshkumar and J. Yang, “Preparation and Characterization of Silver Film Coated ZnO Nanowire Gas Sensors Based on the Infrared Surface Enhancement Effect for Detection of VOCs”. RSC Adv 2014; 4(37): 19331.
  12. R. Orghici, U. Willer, M. Gierszewska, S.R. Waldvogel, and W. Schade, “Fiber Optic Evanescent Field Sensor for Detection of Explosives and CO2 Dissolved in Water”. Appl. Phys. B Lasers Opt 2008; 90: 355–360.
  13. S.G. Kazarian, B.J. Briscoe, and T. Welton, “Combining Ionic Liquids and Supercritical Fluids: In Situ ATR-IR Study of CO2 Dissolved in Two Ionic Liquids at High Pressures”. Chem. Commun 2000; 20(20): 2047–2048.
  14. P. Jouy, M. Mangold, B. Tuzson, L. Emmenegger, Y.-C. Chang, L. Hvozdara, H.P. Herzig, P. Wagli, A. Homsy, N.F. de Rooij, A. Wirthmueller, D. Hofstetter, H. Looser, and J. Faist, “Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy for Gases and Liquids Based on Quantum Cascade Technologies”. Analyst 2014; 139(9): 2039–2046.
  15. T. Schädle, B. Pejcic, and B. Mizaikoff, “Monitoring Dissolved Carbon Dioxide and Methane in Brine Environments at High Pressure Using IR-ATR Spectroscopy”. Anal. Methods 2016; 8(4): 756–762.
  16. C. Charlton, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and B. Mizaikoff, “Fabrication and Characterization of Molecular Beam Epitaxy Grown Thin-Film GaAs Waveguides for Mid-Infrared Evanescent Field Chemical Sensing”. Anal. Chem 2006; 78(12): 4224–4227.
  17. X. Wang, S.-S. Kim, R. Roßbach, M. Jetter, P. Michler, and B. Mizaikoff, “Ultra-Sensitive Mid-Infrared Evanescent Field Sensors Combining Thin-Film Strip Waveguides with Quantum Cascade Lasers”. Analyst 2012; 137(10): 2322.
  18. T. Schädle, A. Eifert, C. Kranz, Y. Raichlin, A. Katzir, and B. Mizaikoff, “Mid-Infrared Planar Silver Halide Waveguides with Integrated Grating Couplers”. Appl. Spectrosc 2013; 67(9): 1057–1063.
  19. J.M. Andanson and A. Baiker, “Exploring Catalytic Solid/Liquid Interfaces by In Situ Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy”. Chem. Soc. Rev 2010; 39(12): 4571.
  20. B. Mizaikoff, “Waveguide-Enhanced Mid-Infrared Chem/Bio Sensors”. Chem. Soc. Rev 2013; 42(22): 8683–99.
  21. V. Singh, P.T. Lin, N. Patel, H. Lin, L. Li, and Y. Zou, “Mid-Infrared Materials and Devices on a Si Platform for Optical Sensing”. Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater 2014; 15(1): 014603.
  22. Y. Ren, G. Brown, A. Ródenas, S. Beecher, F. Chen, and A.K. Kar, “Mid-Infrared Waveguide Lasers in Rare-Earth-Doped YAG”. Opt. Lett 2012; 37(16): 3339–3341.
  23. M.N. Polyanskiy, M. Babzien, and I.V. Pogorelsky, “Chirped-Pulse Amplification in a CO2 Laser”. Optica 2015; 2(8): 657–681.
  24. J. Faist, F. Capasso, D.L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A.L. Hutchinson, and A.Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Laser”. Science 1994; 264(5158): 553–556.
  25. F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, L. Sivco, and A.Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Lasers”. Phys. Today 2002; 55(5): 34–40.
  26. C. Young, S.S. Kim, Y. Luzinova, M. Weida, D. Arnone, E. Takeuchi, T. Day, and B. Mizaikoff, “External Cavity Widely Tunable Quantum Cascade Laser Based Hollow Waveguide Gas Sensors for Multianalyte Detection”. Sensors Actuators, B Chem 2009; 140(1): 24–28.
  27. R.Q. Yang, “Infrared Laser Based On Intersubband Transitions in Quantum Wells”. Superlattices Microstruct 1995; 17(1): 77–83.
  28. J.R. Meyer, I. Vurgaftman, R.Q. Yang, and L.R. Ram-Mohan, “Type-II and Type-I Interband Cascade Lasers”. Electron. Lett 1996; 32(1): 45–46.
  29. K. Wörle, F. Seichter, A. Wilk, C. Armacost, T. Day, M. Godejohann, U. Wachter, J. Vogt, P. Radermacher, and B. Mizaikoff, “Breath analysis with broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers”. Anal. Chem 2013; 85(5): 2697–2702.
  30. M. Sieger, J. Haas, M. Jetter, P. Michler, M. Godejohann, and B. Mizaikoff, “Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy Platform Based on GaAs/AlGaAs Thin-Film Waveguides and Quantum Cascade Lasers”. Anal. Chem 2016; 88(5): 2558–2562.
  31. L. Li, Y. Jiang, H. Ye, R.Q. Yang, T.D. Mishima, M.B. Santos, and et al., . “Low-threshold InAs-based interband cascade lasers operating at high temperatures”. Appl. Phys. Lett 2015; 106(25): 251102.
  32. T. Schädle, B. Pejcic, M. Myers, and B. Mizaikoff, “Fingerprinting Oils in Water via Their Dissolved Voc Pattern Using Mid-Infrared Sensors”. Anal. Chem 2014; 86(19): 9512–9517.
  33. Y. Luzinova, B. Zdyrko, I. Luzinov, and B. Mizaikoff, “In Situ Trace Analysis of Oil in Water with Mid-Infrared Fiberoptic Chemical Sensors”. Anal. Chem 2012; 84(3): 1274–1280.
  34. A. Wilk, J. Chance Carter, M. Chrisp, A.M. Manuel, P. Mirkarimi, J.B. Alameda, and et al., . “Substrate-Integrated Hollow Waveguides: A New Level of Integration in Mid-Infrared Gas Sensing”. Anal. Chem 2013; 85(23): 11205–11210.
  35. H.J. Haugan, “Growth and Optimization of InAs /GaSb Superlattice Materials for Mid- Infrared Detectors”. Adv. Mater. Sci. Res 2011; 2: 61–76.
  36. H.J. Haugan, G.J. Brown, F. Szmulowicz, L. Grazulis, W.C. Mitchel, S. Elhamri, and et al., . “InAs / GaSb type-II superlattices for high performance mid-infrared detectors”. J. Cryst. Growth 2005; 278: 198–202.
  37. R. Kesselring, A.W. Kälin, and F.K. Kneubühl, “Fast Mid-Infrared Detectors”. Infrared Phys 1992; 33(5): 423–436.
  38. K. Masuno, S. Kumagai, K. Tashiro, and M. Sasaki, “Enhanced Contrast of Wavelength-Selective Mid-Infrared Detectors Stable against Incident Angle and Temperature Changes”. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 2011; 50: 037201.
  39. A. Graf, M. Arndt, M. Sauer, and G. Gerlach, “Review of Micromachined Thermopiles for Infrared Detection”. Meas. Sci. Technol 2007; 18: R59–R75.
  40. F.-R. Jasnot, N. Péré-Laperne, L.-A. de Vaulchier, Y. Guldner, F. Carosella, R. Ferreira, and et al., . “Magnetotransport in Quantum Cascade Detectors: Analyzing the Current Under Illumination”. Nanoscale Res. Lett 2011; 6(1): 206.
  41. B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, D. Ristanić, H. Detz, A.M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Monolithically Integrated Mid-Infrared Lab-on-a-Chip Using Plasmonics and Quantum Cascade Structures”. Nat. Commun 2014; 5(May): 4085.
  42. D. Hofstetter, F.R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, Q. Yang, C. Manz, and K. Köhler, “Mid-Infrared Quantum Cascade Detectors for Applications in Spectroscopy and Pyrometry”. Appl. Phys. B 2010; 100(2): 313–320.
  43. J. Jiang, Y. Fu, L. Ning, X.S. Chen, W.L. Xu, and W. Lu, “Detection Wavelength of Very Long Wavelength Quantum-Well Infrared Photodetector”. J. Phys. Condens. Matter 2003; 15(37): 6311–6320.
  44. N.J. Harrick, Internal Reflection Spectroscopy , New York: Interscience Publishers, 1979.
  45. C. Vigano, J. Ruysschaert, and E. Goormaghtigh, “Sensor Applications of Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy”. Talanta 2005; 65(5): 1132–1142.
  46. E. Squillante, “Applications of Fiber-Optic Evanescent Wave Spectroscopy”. Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm 1998; 24(12): 1163–1175.
  47. B.H. Stuart, Infrared Spectroscopy: Fundamentals and Applications , Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2005.
  48. A. Messica, A. Greenstein, and A. Katzir, “Theory of Fiber-Optic, Evanescent-Wave Spectroscopy and Sensors”. Appl. Opt 1996; 35(13): 2274–2284.
  49. Y. Xu, A. Cottenden, and N.B. Jones, “A Theoretical Evaluation of Fibre-Optic Evanescent Wave Absorption in Spectroscopy and Sensors”. Opt. Lasers Eng 2006; 44(2): 93–101.
  50. F. Giuliani, H. Wohltjen, and N.L. Jarvis, “Reversible Optical Waveguide Sensor for Ammonia Vapors”. 1983 , 8(1): 54–56.
  51. A. Messica, A. Greenstein, A. Katzir, U. Schiessl, and M. Tacke, “Fiber-Optic Evanescent Wave Sensor for Gas Detection”. Opt. Lett 1994; 19(15): 1167–1169.
  52. F.S. Ligler, “Perspective on Optical Biosensors and Integrated Sensor Systems”. Anal. Chem 2009; 81(2): 519–526.
  53. J.T. Bradshaw, S.B. Mendes, N.R. Armstrong, and S.S. Saavedra, “Broadband Coupling into a Single-Mode, Electroactive Integrated Optical Waveguide for Spectroelectrochemical Analysis of Surface-Confined Redox Couples”. Anal. Chem 2003; 75(5): 1080–1088.
  54. A. Sarkar, “Fabrication Techniques for High-Quality Optical Fibers”. Fiber Integr. Opt 1985; 5(2): 135–149.
  55. A.B. Seddon, N.S. Abdel-Moneim, L. Zhang, W.J. Pan, D. Furniss, C.J. Mellor, T. Kohoutek, J. Orava, T. Wagner, and T.M. Benson, “Mid-Infrared Integrated Optics: Versatile Hot Embossing of Mid-Infrared Glasses for On-Chip Planar Waveguides for Molecular Sensing”. Opt. Eng 2014; 53(7): 71824.
  56. B. Pejcic, L. Boyd, M. Myers, A. Ross, Y. Raichlin, A. Katzir, R. Lu, and B. Mizaikoff, “Direct Quantification of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Geochemical Fluids with a Mid-Infrared Attenuated Total Reflection Sensor”. Org. Geochem 2013; 55: 63–71.
  57. R. Stach, B. Pejcic, E. Crooke, M. Myers, and B. Mizaikoff, “Mid-Infrared Spectroscopic Method for the Identification and Quantification of Dissolved Oil Components in Marine Environments”. Anal. Chem 2015; 87(24): 12306–12312.
  58. C.R. Young, N. Menegazzo, A.E. Riley, C.H. Brons, F.P. Disanzo, J.L. Givens, J.L. Martin, M.M. Disko, and B. Mizaikoff, “Infrared Hollow Waveguide Sensors for Simultaneous Gas Phase Detection of Benzene, Toluene, and Xylenes in Field Environments”. Anal. Chem 2011; 83: 6141–6147.
  59. M. Kansiz, H. Billman-Jacobe, and D. McNaughton, “Quantitative Determination of the Biodegradable Polymer Poly(beta -hydroxybutyrate) in a Recombinant Escherichia coli Strain by Use of Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariative Statistics”. Appl. Environ. Microbiol 2000; 66(8): 3415–3420.
  60. J. Giammarco, B. Zdyrko, L. Petit, J.D. Musgraves, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, K. Richardson, and I. Luzinov, “Towards Universal Enrichment Nanocoating for IR-ATR Waveguides”. Chem. Commun. (Camb) 2011; 47(32): 9104–9106.
  61. Y. Raichlin, D. Avisar, L. Gerber, and A. Katzir, “Flattened Infrared Fiber-Optic Sensors for the Analysis of Micrograms of Insoluble Solid Particles in Solution or in a Dry State”. Vib. Spectrosc 2014; 73: 67–72.
  62. R. Cheheltani, C.M. McGoverin, J. Rao, D.A. Vorp, M.F. Kiani, and N. Pleshko, “Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to Quantify Collagen and Elastin in an In Vitro Model of Extracellular Matrix Degradation in Aorta”. Analyst 2014; 139(12): 3039–3047.
  63. M.P. Hiscocks, K. Ganesan, B.C. Gibson, S.T. Huntington, F. Ladouceur, and S. Prawer, “Diamond Waveguides Fabricated by Reactive Ion Etching”. Opt. Express 2008; 16(24): 19512–19519.
  64. A.M. Zaitsev, “Bulk Diamonds”. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A 2008; 105(46): 17591–17592.
  65. D.I. Shahin, T.J. Anderson, T.I. Feygelson, B.B. Pate, V.D. Wheeler, J.D. Greenlee, J.K. Hite, M.J. Tadjer, A. Christou, and K.D. Hobart, “Thermal Etching of Nanocrystalline Diamond Films”. Diam. Relat. Mater 2015; 59: 116–121.
  66. X. Wang, M. Karlsson, P. Forsberg, M. Sieger, F. Nikolajeff, L. Österlund, and B. Mizaikoff, “Diamonds Are a Spectroscopists Best Friend: Thin-Film Diamond Mid-Infrared Waveguides for Advanced Chemical Sensors/Biosensors”. Anal. Chem 2014; 86(16): 8136–8141.
  67. V. Mittal, A. Aghajani, L.G. Carpenter, J.C. Gates, J. Butement, P.G. Smith, J.S. Wilkinson, and G.S. Murugan, “Fabrication and Characterization of High-Contrast Mid-Infrared GeTe 4 Channel Waveguides”. Opt. Lett 2016; 40(9): 2016–2019.

2016 (3)

T. Schädle, B. Pejcic, and B. Mizaikoff, “Monitoring Dissolved Carbon Dioxide and Methane in Brine Environments at High Pressure Using IR-ATR Spectroscopy”. Anal. Methods 2016; 8(4): 756–762.

M. Sieger, J. Haas, M. Jetter, P. Michler, M. Godejohann, and B. Mizaikoff, “Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy Platform Based on GaAs/AlGaAs Thin-Film Waveguides and Quantum Cascade Lasers”. Anal. Chem 2016; 88(5): 2558–2562.

V. Mittal, A. Aghajani, L.G. Carpenter, J.C. Gates, J. Butement, P.G. Smith, J.S. Wilkinson, and G.S. Murugan, “Fabrication and Characterization of High-Contrast Mid-Infrared GeTe 4 Channel Waveguides”. Opt. Lett 2016; 40(9): 2016–2019.

2015 (6)

D.I. Shahin, T.J. Anderson, T.I. Feygelson, B.B. Pate, V.D. Wheeler, J.D. Greenlee, J.K. Hite, M.J. Tadjer, A. Christou, and K.D. Hobart, “Thermal Etching of Nanocrystalline Diamond Films”. Diam. Relat. Mater 2015; 59: 116–121.

R. Stach, B. Pejcic, E. Crooke, M. Myers, and B. Mizaikoff, “Mid-Infrared Spectroscopic Method for the Identification and Quantification of Dissolved Oil Components in Marine Environments”. Anal. Chem 2015; 87(24): 12306–12312.

L. Li, Y. Jiang, H. Ye, R.Q. Yang, T.D. Mishima, M.B. Santos, and et al., . “Low-threshold InAs-based interband cascade lasers operating at high temperatures”. Appl. Phys. Lett 2015; 106(25): 251102.

M.N. Polyanskiy, M. Babzien, and I.V. Pogorelsky, “Chirped-Pulse Amplification in a CO2 Laser”. Optica 2015; 2(8): 657–681.

S. Hou, C.B. Riley, C.A. Mitchell, R.A. Shaw, J. Bryanton, and K. Bigsby, “Exploration of Attenuated Total Reflectance Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Calibration to Measure Immunoglobulin G in Human Sera”. Talanta 2015; 142: 110–119.

N.N. Misra, C. Sullivan, and P.J. Cullen, “Process Analytical Technology (PAT) and Multivariate Methods for Downstream Processes”. Curr. Biochem. Eng 2015; 2: 4–16.

2014 (10)

E. Satheeshkumar and J. Yang, “Preparation and Characterization of Silver Film Coated ZnO Nanowire Gas Sensors Based on the Infrared Surface Enhancement Effect for Detection of VOCs”. RSC Adv 2014; 4(37): 19331.

D. Perez-Guaita, V. Kokoric, A. Wilk, S. Garrigues, and B. Mizaikoff, “Towards the Determination of Isoprene in Human Breath Using Substrate-Integrated Hollow Waveguide Mid-Infrared Sensors”. J. Breath Res 2014; 8(2): 026003.

P. Jouy, M. Mangold, B. Tuzson, L. Emmenegger, Y.-C. Chang, L. Hvozdara, H.P. Herzig, P. Wagli, A. Homsy, N.F. de Rooij, A. Wirthmueller, D. Hofstetter, H. Looser, and J. Faist, “Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy for Gases and Liquids Based on Quantum Cascade Technologies”. Analyst 2014; 139(9): 2039–2046.

V. Singh, P.T. Lin, N. Patel, H. Lin, L. Li, and Y. Zou, “Mid-Infrared Materials and Devices on a Si Platform for Optical Sensing”. Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater 2014; 15(1): 014603.

T. Schädle, B. Pejcic, M. Myers, and B. Mizaikoff, “Fingerprinting Oils in Water via Their Dissolved Voc Pattern Using Mid-Infrared Sensors”. Anal. Chem 2014; 86(19): 9512–9517.

A.B. Seddon, N.S. Abdel-Moneim, L. Zhang, W.J. Pan, D. Furniss, C.J. Mellor, T. Kohoutek, J. Orava, T. Wagner, and T.M. Benson, “Mid-Infrared Integrated Optics: Versatile Hot Embossing of Mid-Infrared Glasses for On-Chip Planar Waveguides for Molecular Sensing”. Opt. Eng 2014; 53(7): 71824.

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, D. Ristanić, H. Detz, A.M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Monolithically Integrated Mid-Infrared Lab-on-a-Chip Using Plasmonics and Quantum Cascade Structures”. Nat. Commun 2014; 5(May): 4085.

X. Wang, M. Karlsson, P. Forsberg, M. Sieger, F. Nikolajeff, L. Österlund, and B. Mizaikoff, “Diamonds Are a Spectroscopists Best Friend: Thin-Film Diamond Mid-Infrared Waveguides for Advanced Chemical Sensors/Biosensors”. Anal. Chem 2014; 86(16): 8136–8141.

Y. Raichlin, D. Avisar, L. Gerber, and A. Katzir, “Flattened Infrared Fiber-Optic Sensors for the Analysis of Micrograms of Insoluble Solid Particles in Solution or in a Dry State”. Vib. Spectrosc 2014; 73: 67–72.

R. Cheheltani, C.M. McGoverin, J. Rao, D.A. Vorp, M.F. Kiani, and N. Pleshko, “Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to Quantify Collagen and Elastin in an In Vitro Model of Extracellular Matrix Degradation in Aorta”. Analyst 2014; 139(12): 3039–3047.

2013 (5)

K. Wörle, F. Seichter, A. Wilk, C. Armacost, T. Day, M. Godejohann, U. Wachter, J. Vogt, P. Radermacher, and B. Mizaikoff, “Breath analysis with broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers”. Anal. Chem 2013; 85(5): 2697–2702.

B. Pejcic, L. Boyd, M. Myers, A. Ross, Y. Raichlin, A. Katzir, R. Lu, and B. Mizaikoff, “Direct Quantification of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Geochemical Fluids with a Mid-Infrared Attenuated Total Reflection Sensor”. Org. Geochem 2013; 55: 63–71.

A. Wilk, J. Chance Carter, M. Chrisp, A.M. Manuel, P. Mirkarimi, J.B. Alameda, and et al., . “Substrate-Integrated Hollow Waveguides: A New Level of Integration in Mid-Infrared Gas Sensing”. Anal. Chem 2013; 85(23): 11205–11210.

T. Schädle, A. Eifert, C. Kranz, Y. Raichlin, A. Katzir, and B. Mizaikoff, “Mid-Infrared Planar Silver Halide Waveguides with Integrated Grating Couplers”. Appl. Spectrosc 2013; 67(9): 1057–1063.

B. Mizaikoff, “Waveguide-Enhanced Mid-Infrared Chem/Bio Sensors”. Chem. Soc. Rev 2013; 42(22): 8683–99.

2012 (3)

X. Wang, S.-S. Kim, R. Roßbach, M. Jetter, P. Michler, and B. Mizaikoff, “Ultra-Sensitive Mid-Infrared Evanescent Field Sensors Combining Thin-Film Strip Waveguides with Quantum Cascade Lasers”. Analyst 2012; 137(10): 2322.

Y. Luzinova, B. Zdyrko, I. Luzinov, and B. Mizaikoff, “In Situ Trace Analysis of Oil in Water with Mid-Infrared Fiberoptic Chemical Sensors”. Anal. Chem 2012; 84(3): 1274–1280.

Y. Ren, G. Brown, A. Ródenas, S. Beecher, F. Chen, and A.K. Kar, “Mid-Infrared Waveguide Lasers in Rare-Earth-Doped YAG”. Opt. Lett 2012; 37(16): 3339–3341.

2011 (6)

H.J. Haugan, “Growth and Optimization of InAs /GaSb Superlattice Materials for Mid- Infrared Detectors”. Adv. Mater. Sci. Res 2011; 2: 61–76.

M.J. Maltesen, S. Bjerregaard, L. Hovgaard, S. Havelund, M. van de Weert, and H. Grohganz, “Multivariate Analysis of Phenol in Freeze-Dried and Spray-Dried Insulin Formulations by NIR and FTIR”. Pharm.Sci.Tech 2011; 12(2): 627–636.

C.R. Young, N. Menegazzo, A.E. Riley, C.H. Brons, F.P. Disanzo, J.L. Givens, J.L. Martin, M.M. Disko, and B. Mizaikoff, “Infrared Hollow Waveguide Sensors for Simultaneous Gas Phase Detection of Benzene, Toluene, and Xylenes in Field Environments”. Anal. Chem 2011; 83: 6141–6147.

F.-R. Jasnot, N. Péré-Laperne, L.-A. de Vaulchier, Y. Guldner, F. Carosella, R. Ferreira, and et al., . “Magnetotransport in Quantum Cascade Detectors: Analyzing the Current Under Illumination”. Nanoscale Res. Lett 2011; 6(1): 206.

K. Masuno, S. Kumagai, K. Tashiro, and M. Sasaki, “Enhanced Contrast of Wavelength-Selective Mid-Infrared Detectors Stable against Incident Angle and Temperature Changes”. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 2011; 50: 037201.

J. Giammarco, B. Zdyrko, L. Petit, J.D. Musgraves, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, K. Richardson, and I. Luzinov, “Towards Universal Enrichment Nanocoating for IR-ATR Waveguides”. Chem. Commun. (Camb) 2011; 47(32): 9104–9106.

2010 (2)

D. Hofstetter, F.R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, Q. Yang, C. Manz, and K. Köhler, “Mid-Infrared Quantum Cascade Detectors for Applications in Spectroscopy and Pyrometry”. Appl. Phys. B 2010; 100(2): 313–320.

J.M. Andanson and A. Baiker, “Exploring Catalytic Solid/Liquid Interfaces by In Situ Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy”. Chem. Soc. Rev 2010; 39(12): 4571.

2009 (2)

C. Young, S.S. Kim, Y. Luzinova, M. Weida, D. Arnone, E. Takeuchi, T. Day, and B. Mizaikoff, “External Cavity Widely Tunable Quantum Cascade Laser Based Hollow Waveguide Gas Sensors for Multianalyte Detection”. Sensors Actuators, B Chem 2009; 140(1): 24–28.

F.S. Ligler, “Perspective on Optical Biosensors and Integrated Sensor Systems”. Anal. Chem 2009; 81(2): 519–526.

2008 (3)

M.P. Hiscocks, K. Ganesan, B.C. Gibson, S.T. Huntington, F. Ladouceur, and S. Prawer, “Diamond Waveguides Fabricated by Reactive Ion Etching”. Opt. Express 2008; 16(24): 19512–19519.

A.M. Zaitsev, “Bulk Diamonds”. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A 2008; 105(46): 17591–17592.

R. Orghici, U. Willer, M. Gierszewska, S.R. Waldvogel, and W. Schade, “Fiber Optic Evanescent Field Sensor for Detection of Explosives and CO2 Dissolved in Water”. Appl. Phys. B Lasers Opt 2008; 90: 355–360.

2007 (1)

A. Graf, M. Arndt, M. Sauer, and G. Gerlach, “Review of Micromachined Thermopiles for Infrared Detection”. Meas. Sci. Technol 2007; 18: R59–R75.

2006 (3)

Y. Xu, A. Cottenden, and N.B. Jones, “A Theoretical Evaluation of Fibre-Optic Evanescent Wave Absorption in Spectroscopy and Sensors”. Opt. Lasers Eng 2006; 44(2): 93–101.

U. Willer, M. Saraji, A. Khorsandi, P. Geiser, and W. Schade, “Near- and Mid-Infrared Laser Monitoring of Industrial Processes, Environment and Security Applications”. Opt. Lasers Eng 2006; 44(7): 699–710.

C. Charlton, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and B. Mizaikoff, “Fabrication and Characterization of Molecular Beam Epitaxy Grown Thin-Film GaAs Waveguides for Mid-Infrared Evanescent Field Chemical Sensing”. Anal. Chem 2006; 78(12): 4224–4227.

2005 (2)

H.J. Haugan, G.J. Brown, F. Szmulowicz, L. Grazulis, W.C. Mitchel, S. Elhamri, and et al., . “InAs / GaSb type-II superlattices for high performance mid-infrared detectors”. J. Cryst. Growth 2005; 278: 198–202.

C. Vigano, J. Ruysschaert, and E. Goormaghtigh, “Sensor Applications of Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy”. Talanta 2005; 65(5): 1132–1142.

2004 (1)

S. Schaden, M. Haberkorn, J. Frank, J.R. Baena, and B. Lendl, “Direct Determination of Carbon Dioxide in Aqueous Solution Using Mid-Infrared Quantum Cascade Lasers”. Appl. Spectrosc 2004; 58(6): 667–70.

2003 (3)

B. Mizaikoff, “Mid-IR Fiber-Optic Sensors”. Anal. Chem 2003; 75(11): 258A–267A.

J. Jiang, Y. Fu, L. Ning, X.S. Chen, W.L. Xu, and W. Lu, “Detection Wavelength of Very Long Wavelength Quantum-Well Infrared Photodetector”. J. Phys. Condens. Matter 2003; 15(37): 6311–6320.

J.T. Bradshaw, S.B. Mendes, N.R. Armstrong, and S.S. Saavedra, “Broadband Coupling into a Single-Mode, Electroactive Integrated Optical Waveguide for Spectroelectrochemical Analysis of Surface-Confined Redox Couples”. Anal. Chem 2003; 75(5): 1080–1088.

2002 (1)

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, L. Sivco, and A.Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Lasers”. Phys. Today 2002; 55(5): 34–40.

2000 (2)

S.G. Kazarian, B.J. Briscoe, and T. Welton, “Combining Ionic Liquids and Supercritical Fluids: In Situ ATR-IR Study of CO2 Dissolved in Two Ionic Liquids at High Pressures”. Chem. Commun 2000; 20(20): 2047–2048.

M. Kansiz, H. Billman-Jacobe, and D. McNaughton, “Quantitative Determination of the Biodegradable Polymer Poly(beta -hydroxybutyrate) in a Recombinant Escherichia coli Strain by Use of Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariative Statistics”. Appl. Environ. Microbiol 2000; 66(8): 3415–3420.

1998 (1)

E. Squillante, “Applications of Fiber-Optic Evanescent Wave Spectroscopy”. Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm 1998; 24(12): 1163–1175.

1996 (2)

A. Messica, A. Greenstein, and A. Katzir, “Theory of Fiber-Optic, Evanescent-Wave Spectroscopy and Sensors”. Appl. Opt 1996; 35(13): 2274–2284.

J.R. Meyer, I. Vurgaftman, R.Q. Yang, and L.R. Ram-Mohan, “Type-II and Type-I Interband Cascade Lasers”. Electron. Lett 1996; 32(1): 45–46.

1995 (1)

R.Q. Yang, “Infrared Laser Based On Intersubband Transitions in Quantum Wells”. Superlattices Microstruct 1995; 17(1): 77–83.

1994 (2)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D.L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A.L. Hutchinson, and A.Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Laser”. Science 1994; 264(5158): 553–556.

A. Messica, A. Greenstein, A. Katzir, U. Schiessl, and M. Tacke, “Fiber-Optic Evanescent Wave Sensor for Gas Detection”. Opt. Lett 1994; 19(15): 1167–1169.

1992 (1)

R. Kesselring, A.W. Kälin, and F.K. Kneubühl, “Fast Mid-Infrared Detectors”. Infrared Phys 1992; 33(5): 423–436.

1985 (1)

A. Sarkar, “Fabrication Techniques for High-Quality Optical Fibers”. Fiber Integr. Opt 1985; 5(2): 135–149.

1961 (1)

J. Fahrenfort, “Attenuated Total Reflection: A New Principle for the Production of Useful Infra-Red Reflection Spectra of Organic Compounds”. Spectrochim. Acta 1961; 17(7): 698–709.

Abdel-Moneim, N.S.

A.B. Seddon, N.S. Abdel-Moneim, L. Zhang, W.J. Pan, D. Furniss, C.J. Mellor, T. Kohoutek, J. Orava, T. Wagner, and T.M. Benson, “Mid-Infrared Integrated Optics: Versatile Hot Embossing of Mid-Infrared Glasses for On-Chip Planar Waveguides for Molecular Sensing”. Opt. Eng 2014; 53(7): 71824.

Agarwal, A.

J. Giammarco, B. Zdyrko, L. Petit, J.D. Musgraves, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, K. Richardson, and I. Luzinov, “Towards Universal Enrichment Nanocoating for IR-ATR Waveguides”. Chem. Commun. (Camb) 2011; 47(32): 9104–9106.

Aghajani, A.

V. Mittal, A. Aghajani, L.G. Carpenter, J.C. Gates, J. Butement, P.G. Smith, J.S. Wilkinson, and G.S. Murugan, “Fabrication and Characterization of High-Contrast Mid-Infrared GeTe 4 Channel Waveguides”. Opt. Lett 2016; 40(9): 2016–2019.

Alameda, J.B.

A. Wilk, J. Chance Carter, M. Chrisp, A.M. Manuel, P. Mirkarimi, J.B. Alameda, and et al., . “Substrate-Integrated Hollow Waveguides: A New Level of Integration in Mid-Infrared Gas Sensing”. Anal. Chem 2013; 85(23): 11205–11210.

Andanson, J.M.

J.M. Andanson and A. Baiker, “Exploring Catalytic Solid/Liquid Interfaces by In Situ Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy”. Chem. Soc. Rev 2010; 39(12): 4571.

Anderson, T.J.

D.I. Shahin, T.J. Anderson, T.I. Feygelson, B.B. Pate, V.D. Wheeler, J.D. Greenlee, J.K. Hite, M.J. Tadjer, A. Christou, and K.D. Hobart, “Thermal Etching of Nanocrystalline Diamond Films”. Diam. Relat. Mater 2015; 59: 116–121.

Andrews, A.M.

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, D. Ristanić, H. Detz, A.M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Monolithically Integrated Mid-Infrared Lab-on-a-Chip Using Plasmonics and Quantum Cascade Structures”. Nat. Commun 2014; 5(May): 4085.

Armacost, C.

K. Wörle, F. Seichter, A. Wilk, C. Armacost, T. Day, M. Godejohann, U. Wachter, J. Vogt, P. Radermacher, and B. Mizaikoff, “Breath analysis with broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers”. Anal. Chem 2013; 85(5): 2697–2702.

Armstrong, N.R.

J.T. Bradshaw, S.B. Mendes, N.R. Armstrong, and S.S. Saavedra, “Broadband Coupling into a Single-Mode, Electroactive Integrated Optical Waveguide for Spectroelectrochemical Analysis of Surface-Confined Redox Couples”. Anal. Chem 2003; 75(5): 1080–1088.

Arndt, M.

A. Graf, M. Arndt, M. Sauer, and G. Gerlach, “Review of Micromachined Thermopiles for Infrared Detection”. Meas. Sci. Technol 2007; 18: R59–R75.

Arnone, D.

C. Young, S.S. Kim, Y. Luzinova, M. Weida, D. Arnone, E. Takeuchi, T. Day, and B. Mizaikoff, “External Cavity Widely Tunable Quantum Cascade Laser Based Hollow Waveguide Gas Sensors for Multianalyte Detection”. Sensors Actuators, B Chem 2009; 140(1): 24–28.

Avisar, D.

Y. Raichlin, D. Avisar, L. Gerber, and A. Katzir, “Flattened Infrared Fiber-Optic Sensors for the Analysis of Micrograms of Insoluble Solid Particles in Solution or in a Dry State”. Vib. Spectrosc 2014; 73: 67–72.

Babzien, M.

M.N. Polyanskiy, M. Babzien, and I.V. Pogorelsky, “Chirped-Pulse Amplification in a CO2 Laser”. Optica 2015; 2(8): 657–681.

Baena, J.R.

S. Schaden, M. Haberkorn, J. Frank, J.R. Baena, and B. Lendl, “Direct Determination of Carbon Dioxide in Aqueous Solution Using Mid-Infrared Quantum Cascade Lasers”. Appl. Spectrosc 2004; 58(6): 667–70.

Baiker, A.

J.M. Andanson and A. Baiker, “Exploring Catalytic Solid/Liquid Interfaces by In Situ Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy”. Chem. Soc. Rev 2010; 39(12): 4571.

Baumann, E.

D. Hofstetter, F.R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, Q. Yang, C. Manz, and K. Köhler, “Mid-Infrared Quantum Cascade Detectors for Applications in Spectroscopy and Pyrometry”. Appl. Phys. B 2010; 100(2): 313–320.

Beecher, S.

Y. Ren, G. Brown, A. Ródenas, S. Beecher, F. Chen, and A.K. Kar, “Mid-Infrared Waveguide Lasers in Rare-Earth-Doped YAG”. Opt. Lett 2012; 37(16): 3339–3341.

Benson, T.M.

A.B. Seddon, N.S. Abdel-Moneim, L. Zhang, W.J. Pan, D. Furniss, C.J. Mellor, T. Kohoutek, J. Orava, T. Wagner, and T.M. Benson, “Mid-Infrared Integrated Optics: Versatile Hot Embossing of Mid-Infrared Glasses for On-Chip Planar Waveguides for Molecular Sensing”. Opt. Eng 2014; 53(7): 71824.

Bigsby, K.

S. Hou, C.B. Riley, C.A. Mitchell, R.A. Shaw, J. Bryanton, and K. Bigsby, “Exploration of Attenuated Total Reflectance Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Calibration to Measure Immunoglobulin G in Human Sera”. Talanta 2015; 142: 110–119.

Billman-Jacobe, H.

M. Kansiz, H. Billman-Jacobe, and D. McNaughton, “Quantitative Determination of the Biodegradable Polymer Poly(beta -hydroxybutyrate) in a Recombinant Escherichia coli Strain by Use of Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariative Statistics”. Appl. Environ. Microbiol 2000; 66(8): 3415–3420.

Bjerregaard, S.

M.J. Maltesen, S. Bjerregaard, L. Hovgaard, S. Havelund, M. van de Weert, and H. Grohganz, “Multivariate Analysis of Phenol in Freeze-Dried and Spray-Dried Insulin Formulations by NIR and FTIR”. Pharm.Sci.Tech 2011; 12(2): 627–636.

Boyd, L.

B. Pejcic, L. Boyd, M. Myers, A. Ross, Y. Raichlin, A. Katzir, R. Lu, and B. Mizaikoff, “Direct Quantification of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Geochemical Fluids with a Mid-Infrared Attenuated Total Reflection Sensor”. Org. Geochem 2013; 55: 63–71.

Bradshaw, J.T.

J.T. Bradshaw, S.B. Mendes, N.R. Armstrong, and S.S. Saavedra, “Broadband Coupling into a Single-Mode, Electroactive Integrated Optical Waveguide for Spectroelectrochemical Analysis of Surface-Confined Redox Couples”. Anal. Chem 2003; 75(5): 1080–1088.

Briscoe, B.J.

S.G. Kazarian, B.J. Briscoe, and T. Welton, “Combining Ionic Liquids and Supercritical Fluids: In Situ ATR-IR Study of CO2 Dissolved in Two Ionic Liquids at High Pressures”. Chem. Commun 2000; 20(20): 2047–2048.

Brons, C.H.

C.R. Young, N. Menegazzo, A.E. Riley, C.H. Brons, F.P. Disanzo, J.L. Givens, J.L. Martin, M.M. Disko, and B. Mizaikoff, “Infrared Hollow Waveguide Sensors for Simultaneous Gas Phase Detection of Benzene, Toluene, and Xylenes in Field Environments”. Anal. Chem 2011; 83: 6141–6147.

Brown, G.

Y. Ren, G. Brown, A. Ródenas, S. Beecher, F. Chen, and A.K. Kar, “Mid-Infrared Waveguide Lasers in Rare-Earth-Doped YAG”. Opt. Lett 2012; 37(16): 3339–3341.

Brown, G.J.

H.J. Haugan, G.J. Brown, F. Szmulowicz, L. Grazulis, W.C. Mitchel, S. Elhamri, and et al., . “InAs / GaSb type-II superlattices for high performance mid-infrared detectors”. J. Cryst. Growth 2005; 278: 198–202.

Bryanton, J.

S. Hou, C.B. Riley, C.A. Mitchell, R.A. Shaw, J. Bryanton, and K. Bigsby, “Exploration of Attenuated Total Reflectance Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Calibration to Measure Immunoglobulin G in Human Sera”. Talanta 2015; 142: 110–119.

Butement, J.

V. Mittal, A. Aghajani, L.G. Carpenter, J.C. Gates, J. Butement, P.G. Smith, J.S. Wilkinson, and G.S. Murugan, “Fabrication and Characterization of High-Contrast Mid-Infrared GeTe 4 Channel Waveguides”. Opt. Lett 2016; 40(9): 2016–2019.

Capasso, F.

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, L. Sivco, and A.Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Lasers”. Phys. Today 2002; 55(5): 34–40.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D.L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A.L. Hutchinson, and A.Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Laser”. Science 1994; 264(5158): 553–556.

Carosella, F.

F.-R. Jasnot, N. Péré-Laperne, L.-A. de Vaulchier, Y. Guldner, F. Carosella, R. Ferreira, and et al., . “Magnetotransport in Quantum Cascade Detectors: Analyzing the Current Under Illumination”. Nanoscale Res. Lett 2011; 6(1): 206.

Carpenter, L.G.

V. Mittal, A. Aghajani, L.G. Carpenter, J.C. Gates, J. Butement, P.G. Smith, J.S. Wilkinson, and G.S. Murugan, “Fabrication and Characterization of High-Contrast Mid-Infrared GeTe 4 Channel Waveguides”. Opt. Lett 2016; 40(9): 2016–2019.

Chance Carter, J.

A. Wilk, J. Chance Carter, M. Chrisp, A.M. Manuel, P. Mirkarimi, J.B. Alameda, and et al., . “Substrate-Integrated Hollow Waveguides: A New Level of Integration in Mid-Infrared Gas Sensing”. Anal. Chem 2013; 85(23): 11205–11210.

Chang, Y.-C.

P. Jouy, M. Mangold, B. Tuzson, L. Emmenegger, Y.-C. Chang, L. Hvozdara, H.P. Herzig, P. Wagli, A. Homsy, N.F. de Rooij, A. Wirthmueller, D. Hofstetter, H. Looser, and J. Faist, “Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy for Gases and Liquids Based on Quantum Cascade Technologies”. Analyst 2014; 139(9): 2039–2046.

Charlton, C.

C. Charlton, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and B. Mizaikoff, “Fabrication and Characterization of Molecular Beam Epitaxy Grown Thin-Film GaAs Waveguides for Mid-Infrared Evanescent Field Chemical Sensing”. Anal. Chem 2006; 78(12): 4224–4227.

Cheheltani, R.

R. Cheheltani, C.M. McGoverin, J. Rao, D.A. Vorp, M.F. Kiani, and N. Pleshko, “Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to Quantify Collagen and Elastin in an In Vitro Model of Extracellular Matrix Degradation in Aorta”. Analyst 2014; 139(12): 3039–3047.

Chen, F.

Y. Ren, G. Brown, A. Ródenas, S. Beecher, F. Chen, and A.K. Kar, “Mid-Infrared Waveguide Lasers in Rare-Earth-Doped YAG”. Opt. Lett 2012; 37(16): 3339–3341.

Chen, X.S.

J. Jiang, Y. Fu, L. Ning, X.S. Chen, W.L. Xu, and W. Lu, “Detection Wavelength of Very Long Wavelength Quantum-Well Infrared Photodetector”. J. Phys. Condens. Matter 2003; 15(37): 6311–6320.

Cho, A.Y.

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, L. Sivco, and A.Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Lasers”. Phys. Today 2002; 55(5): 34–40.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D.L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A.L. Hutchinson, and A.Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Laser”. Science 1994; 264(5158): 553–556.

Chrisp, M.

A. Wilk, J. Chance Carter, M. Chrisp, A.M. Manuel, P. Mirkarimi, J.B. Alameda, and et al., . “Substrate-Integrated Hollow Waveguides: A New Level of Integration in Mid-Infrared Gas Sensing”. Anal. Chem 2013; 85(23): 11205–11210.

Christou, A.

D.I. Shahin, T.J. Anderson, T.I. Feygelson, B.B. Pate, V.D. Wheeler, J.D. Greenlee, J.K. Hite, M.J. Tadjer, A. Christou, and K.D. Hobart, “Thermal Etching of Nanocrystalline Diamond Films”. Diam. Relat. Mater 2015; 59: 116–121.

Cottenden, A.

Y. Xu, A. Cottenden, and N.B. Jones, “A Theoretical Evaluation of Fibre-Optic Evanescent Wave Absorption in Spectroscopy and Sensors”. Opt. Lasers Eng 2006; 44(2): 93–101.

Crooke, E.

R. Stach, B. Pejcic, E. Crooke, M. Myers, and B. Mizaikoff, “Mid-Infrared Spectroscopic Method for the Identification and Quantification of Dissolved Oil Components in Marine Environments”. Anal. Chem 2015; 87(24): 12306–12312.

Cullen, P.J.

N.N. Misra, C. Sullivan, and P.J. Cullen, “Process Analytical Technology (PAT) and Multivariate Methods for Downstream Processes”. Curr. Biochem. Eng 2015; 2: 4–16.

Day, T.

K. Wörle, F. Seichter, A. Wilk, C. Armacost, T. Day, M. Godejohann, U. Wachter, J. Vogt, P. Radermacher, and B. Mizaikoff, “Breath analysis with broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers”. Anal. Chem 2013; 85(5): 2697–2702.

C. Young, S.S. Kim, Y. Luzinova, M. Weida, D. Arnone, E. Takeuchi, T. Day, and B. Mizaikoff, “External Cavity Widely Tunable Quantum Cascade Laser Based Hollow Waveguide Gas Sensors for Multianalyte Detection”. Sensors Actuators, B Chem 2009; 140(1): 24–28.

de Rooij, N.F.

P. Jouy, M. Mangold, B. Tuzson, L. Emmenegger, Y.-C. Chang, L. Hvozdara, H.P. Herzig, P. Wagli, A. Homsy, N.F. de Rooij, A. Wirthmueller, D. Hofstetter, H. Looser, and J. Faist, “Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy for Gases and Liquids Based on Quantum Cascade Technologies”. Analyst 2014; 139(9): 2039–2046.

de Vaulchier, L.-A.

F.-R. Jasnot, N. Péré-Laperne, L.-A. de Vaulchier, Y. Guldner, F. Carosella, R. Ferreira, and et al., . “Magnetotransport in Quantum Cascade Detectors: Analyzing the Current Under Illumination”. Nanoscale Res. Lett 2011; 6(1): 206.

Detz, H.

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, D. Ristanić, H. Detz, A.M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Monolithically Integrated Mid-Infrared Lab-on-a-Chip Using Plasmonics and Quantum Cascade Structures”. Nat. Commun 2014; 5(May): 4085.

Disanzo, F.P.

C.R. Young, N. Menegazzo, A.E. Riley, C.H. Brons, F.P. Disanzo, J.L. Givens, J.L. Martin, M.M. Disko, and B. Mizaikoff, “Infrared Hollow Waveguide Sensors for Simultaneous Gas Phase Detection of Benzene, Toluene, and Xylenes in Field Environments”. Anal. Chem 2011; 83: 6141–6147.

Disko, M.M.

C.R. Young, N. Menegazzo, A.E. Riley, C.H. Brons, F.P. Disanzo, J.L. Givens, J.L. Martin, M.M. Disko, and B. Mizaikoff, “Infrared Hollow Waveguide Sensors for Simultaneous Gas Phase Detection of Benzene, Toluene, and Xylenes in Field Environments”. Anal. Chem 2011; 83: 6141–6147.

Eifert, A.

T. Schädle, A. Eifert, C. Kranz, Y. Raichlin, A. Katzir, and B. Mizaikoff, “Mid-Infrared Planar Silver Halide Waveguides with Integrated Grating Couplers”. Appl. Spectrosc 2013; 67(9): 1057–1063.

Elhamri, S.

H.J. Haugan, G.J. Brown, F. Szmulowicz, L. Grazulis, W.C. Mitchel, S. Elhamri, and et al., . “InAs / GaSb type-II superlattices for high performance mid-infrared detectors”. J. Cryst. Growth 2005; 278: 198–202.

Emmenegger, L.

P. Jouy, M. Mangold, B. Tuzson, L. Emmenegger, Y.-C. Chang, L. Hvozdara, H.P. Herzig, P. Wagli, A. Homsy, N.F. de Rooij, A. Wirthmueller, D. Hofstetter, H. Looser, and J. Faist, “Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy for Gases and Liquids Based on Quantum Cascade Technologies”. Analyst 2014; 139(9): 2039–2046.

Fahrenfort, J.

J. Fahrenfort, “Attenuated Total Reflection: A New Principle for the Production of Useful Infra-Red Reflection Spectra of Organic Compounds”. Spectrochim. Acta 1961; 17(7): 698–709.

Faist, J.

P. Jouy, M. Mangold, B. Tuzson, L. Emmenegger, Y.-C. Chang, L. Hvozdara, H.P. Herzig, P. Wagli, A. Homsy, N.F. de Rooij, A. Wirthmueller, D. Hofstetter, H. Looser, and J. Faist, “Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy for Gases and Liquids Based on Quantum Cascade Technologies”. Analyst 2014; 139(9): 2039–2046.

C. Charlton, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and B. Mizaikoff, “Fabrication and Characterization of Molecular Beam Epitaxy Grown Thin-Film GaAs Waveguides for Mid-Infrared Evanescent Field Chemical Sensing”. Anal. Chem 2006; 78(12): 4224–4227.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D.L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A.L. Hutchinson, and A.Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Laser”. Science 1994; 264(5158): 553–556.

Fernández-Carrasco, L.

L. Fernández-Carrasco, D. Torrens-Martín, L.M. Morales, and S. Martínez-Ramírez, “Infrared Spectroscopy in the Analysis of Building and Construction Materials”. In: T. Theophanides, (ed). Infrared Spectroscopy – Materials, Science, Engineering, andTechnology. Inctech 2012. DOI: 10.5772/36186.

Ferreira, R.

F.-R. Jasnot, N. Péré-Laperne, L.-A. de Vaulchier, Y. Guldner, F. Carosella, R. Ferreira, and et al., . “Magnetotransport in Quantum Cascade Detectors: Analyzing the Current Under Illumination”. Nanoscale Res. Lett 2011; 6(1): 206.

Feygelson, T.I.

D.I. Shahin, T.J. Anderson, T.I. Feygelson, B.B. Pate, V.D. Wheeler, J.D. Greenlee, J.K. Hite, M.J. Tadjer, A. Christou, and K.D. Hobart, “Thermal Etching of Nanocrystalline Diamond Films”. Diam. Relat. Mater 2015; 59: 116–121.

Forsberg, P.

X. Wang, M. Karlsson, P. Forsberg, M. Sieger, F. Nikolajeff, L. Österlund, and B. Mizaikoff, “Diamonds Are a Spectroscopists Best Friend: Thin-Film Diamond Mid-Infrared Waveguides for Advanced Chemical Sensors/Biosensors”. Anal. Chem 2014; 86(16): 8136–8141.

Frank, J.

S. Schaden, M. Haberkorn, J. Frank, J.R. Baena, and B. Lendl, “Direct Determination of Carbon Dioxide in Aqueous Solution Using Mid-Infrared Quantum Cascade Lasers”. Appl. Spectrosc 2004; 58(6): 667–70.

Fu, Y.

J. Jiang, Y. Fu, L. Ning, X.S. Chen, W.L. Xu, and W. Lu, “Detection Wavelength of Very Long Wavelength Quantum-Well Infrared Photodetector”. J. Phys. Condens. Matter 2003; 15(37): 6311–6320.

Furniss, D.

A.B. Seddon, N.S. Abdel-Moneim, L. Zhang, W.J. Pan, D. Furniss, C.J. Mellor, T. Kohoutek, J. Orava, T. Wagner, and T.M. Benson, “Mid-Infrared Integrated Optics: Versatile Hot Embossing of Mid-Infrared Glasses for On-Chip Planar Waveguides for Molecular Sensing”. Opt. Eng 2014; 53(7): 71824.

Ganesan, K.

Garrigues, S.

D. Perez-Guaita, V. Kokoric, A. Wilk, S. Garrigues, and B. Mizaikoff, “Towards the Determination of Isoprene in Human Breath Using Substrate-Integrated Hollow Waveguide Mid-Infrared Sensors”. J. Breath Res 2014; 8(2): 026003.

Gates, J.C.

V. Mittal, A. Aghajani, L.G. Carpenter, J.C. Gates, J. Butement, P.G. Smith, J.S. Wilkinson, and G.S. Murugan, “Fabrication and Characterization of High-Contrast Mid-Infrared GeTe 4 Channel Waveguides”. Opt. Lett 2016; 40(9): 2016–2019.

Geiser, P.

U. Willer, M. Saraji, A. Khorsandi, P. Geiser, and W. Schade, “Near- and Mid-Infrared Laser Monitoring of Industrial Processes, Environment and Security Applications”. Opt. Lasers Eng 2006; 44(7): 699–710.

Gerber, L.

Y. Raichlin, D. Avisar, L. Gerber, and A. Katzir, “Flattened Infrared Fiber-Optic Sensors for the Analysis of Micrograms of Insoluble Solid Particles in Solution or in a Dry State”. Vib. Spectrosc 2014; 73: 67–72.

Gerlach, G.

A. Graf, M. Arndt, M. Sauer, and G. Gerlach, “Review of Micromachined Thermopiles for Infrared Detection”. Meas. Sci. Technol 2007; 18: R59–R75.

Giammarco, J.

J. Giammarco, B. Zdyrko, L. Petit, J.D. Musgraves, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, K. Richardson, and I. Luzinov, “Towards Universal Enrichment Nanocoating for IR-ATR Waveguides”. Chem. Commun. (Camb) 2011; 47(32): 9104–9106.

Gibson, B.C.

Gierszewska, M.

R. Orghici, U. Willer, M. Gierszewska, S.R. Waldvogel, and W. Schade, “Fiber Optic Evanescent Field Sensor for Detection of Explosives and CO2 Dissolved in Water”. Appl. Phys. B Lasers Opt 2008; 90: 355–360.

Giorgetta, F.R.

D. Hofstetter, F.R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, Q. Yang, C. Manz, and K. Köhler, “Mid-Infrared Quantum Cascade Detectors for Applications in Spectroscopy and Pyrometry”. Appl. Phys. B 2010; 100(2): 313–320.

Giovannini, M.

C. Charlton, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and B. Mizaikoff, “Fabrication and Characterization of Molecular Beam Epitaxy Grown Thin-Film GaAs Waveguides for Mid-Infrared Evanescent Field Chemical Sensing”. Anal. Chem 2006; 78(12): 4224–4227.

Giuliani, F.

F. Giuliani, H. Wohltjen, and N.L. Jarvis, “Reversible Optical Waveguide Sensor for Ammonia Vapors”. 1983 , 8(1): 54–56.

Givens, J.L.

C.R. Young, N. Menegazzo, A.E. Riley, C.H. Brons, F.P. Disanzo, J.L. Givens, J.L. Martin, M.M. Disko, and B. Mizaikoff, “Infrared Hollow Waveguide Sensors for Simultaneous Gas Phase Detection of Benzene, Toluene, and Xylenes in Field Environments”. Anal. Chem 2011; 83: 6141–6147.

Gmachl, C.

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, L. Sivco, and A.Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Lasers”. Phys. Today 2002; 55(5): 34–40.

Godejohann, M.

M. Sieger, J. Haas, M. Jetter, P. Michler, M. Godejohann, and B. Mizaikoff, “Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy Platform Based on GaAs/AlGaAs Thin-Film Waveguides and Quantum Cascade Lasers”. Anal. Chem 2016; 88(5): 2558–2562.

K. Wörle, F. Seichter, A. Wilk, C. Armacost, T. Day, M. Godejohann, U. Wachter, J. Vogt, P. Radermacher, and B. Mizaikoff, “Breath analysis with broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers”. Anal. Chem 2013; 85(5): 2697–2702.

Goormaghtigh, E.

C. Vigano, J. Ruysschaert, and E. Goormaghtigh, “Sensor Applications of Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy”. Talanta 2005; 65(5): 1132–1142.

Graf, A.

A. Graf, M. Arndt, M. Sauer, and G. Gerlach, “Review of Micromachined Thermopiles for Infrared Detection”. Meas. Sci. Technol 2007; 18: R59–R75.

Grazulis, L.

H.J. Haugan, G.J. Brown, F. Szmulowicz, L. Grazulis, W.C. Mitchel, S. Elhamri, and et al., . “InAs / GaSb type-II superlattices for high performance mid-infrared detectors”. J. Cryst. Growth 2005; 278: 198–202.

Greenlee, J.D.

D.I. Shahin, T.J. Anderson, T.I. Feygelson, B.B. Pate, V.D. Wheeler, J.D. Greenlee, J.K. Hite, M.J. Tadjer, A. Christou, and K.D. Hobart, “Thermal Etching of Nanocrystalline Diamond Films”. Diam. Relat. Mater 2015; 59: 116–121.

Greenstein, A.

A. Messica, A. Greenstein, and A. Katzir, “Theory of Fiber-Optic, Evanescent-Wave Spectroscopy and Sensors”. Appl. Opt 1996; 35(13): 2274–2284.

A. Messica, A. Greenstein, A. Katzir, U. Schiessl, and M. Tacke, “Fiber-Optic Evanescent Wave Sensor for Gas Detection”. Opt. Lett 1994; 19(15): 1167–1169.

Grohganz, H.

M.J. Maltesen, S. Bjerregaard, L. Hovgaard, S. Havelund, M. van de Weert, and H. Grohganz, “Multivariate Analysis of Phenol in Freeze-Dried and Spray-Dried Insulin Formulations by NIR and FTIR”. Pharm.Sci.Tech 2011; 12(2): 627–636.

Guldner, Y.

F.-R. Jasnot, N. Péré-Laperne, L.-A. de Vaulchier, Y. Guldner, F. Carosella, R. Ferreira, and et al., . “Magnetotransport in Quantum Cascade Detectors: Analyzing the Current Under Illumination”. Nanoscale Res. Lett 2011; 6(1): 206.

Haas, J.

M. Sieger, J. Haas, M. Jetter, P. Michler, M. Godejohann, and B. Mizaikoff, “Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy Platform Based on GaAs/AlGaAs Thin-Film Waveguides and Quantum Cascade Lasers”. Anal. Chem 2016; 88(5): 2558–2562.

Haberkorn, M.

S. Schaden, M. Haberkorn, J. Frank, J.R. Baena, and B. Lendl, “Direct Determination of Carbon Dioxide in Aqueous Solution Using Mid-Infrared Quantum Cascade Lasers”. Appl. Spectrosc 2004; 58(6): 667–70.

Harrick, N.J.

N.J. Harrick, Internal Reflection Spectroscopy , New York: Interscience Publishers, 1967.

N.J. Harrick, Internal Reflection Spectroscopy , New York: Interscience Publishers, 1979.

Haugan, H.J.

H.J. Haugan, “Growth and Optimization of InAs /GaSb Superlattice Materials for Mid- Infrared Detectors”. Adv. Mater. Sci. Res 2011; 2: 61–76.

H.J. Haugan, G.J. Brown, F. Szmulowicz, L. Grazulis, W.C. Mitchel, S. Elhamri, and et al., . “InAs / GaSb type-II superlattices for high performance mid-infrared detectors”. J. Cryst. Growth 2005; 278: 198–202.

Havelund, S.

M.J. Maltesen, S. Bjerregaard, L. Hovgaard, S. Havelund, M. van de Weert, and H. Grohganz, “Multivariate Analysis of Phenol in Freeze-Dried and Spray-Dried Insulin Formulations by NIR and FTIR”. Pharm.Sci.Tech 2011; 12(2): 627–636.

Herzig, H.P.

P. Jouy, M. Mangold, B. Tuzson, L. Emmenegger, Y.-C. Chang, L. Hvozdara, H.P. Herzig, P. Wagli, A. Homsy, N.F. de Rooij, A. Wirthmueller, D. Hofstetter, H. Looser, and J. Faist, “Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy for Gases and Liquids Based on Quantum Cascade Technologies”. Analyst 2014; 139(9): 2039–2046.

Hiscocks, M.P.

Hite, J.K.

D.I. Shahin, T.J. Anderson, T.I. Feygelson, B.B. Pate, V.D. Wheeler, J.D. Greenlee, J.K. Hite, M.J. Tadjer, A. Christou, and K.D. Hobart, “Thermal Etching of Nanocrystalline Diamond Films”. Diam. Relat. Mater 2015; 59: 116–121.

Hobart, K.D.

D.I. Shahin, T.J. Anderson, T.I. Feygelson, B.B. Pate, V.D. Wheeler, J.D. Greenlee, J.K. Hite, M.J. Tadjer, A. Christou, and K.D. Hobart, “Thermal Etching of Nanocrystalline Diamond Films”. Diam. Relat. Mater 2015; 59: 116–121.

Hofstetter, D.

P. Jouy, M. Mangold, B. Tuzson, L. Emmenegger, Y.-C. Chang, L. Hvozdara, H.P. Herzig, P. Wagli, A. Homsy, N.F. de Rooij, A. Wirthmueller, D. Hofstetter, H. Looser, and J. Faist, “Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy for Gases and Liquids Based on Quantum Cascade Technologies”. Analyst 2014; 139(9): 2039–2046.

D. Hofstetter, F.R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, Q. Yang, C. Manz, and K. Köhler, “Mid-Infrared Quantum Cascade Detectors for Applications in Spectroscopy and Pyrometry”. Appl. Phys. B 2010; 100(2): 313–320.

Homsy, A.

P. Jouy, M. Mangold, B. Tuzson, L. Emmenegger, Y.-C. Chang, L. Hvozdara, H.P. Herzig, P. Wagli, A. Homsy, N.F. de Rooij, A. Wirthmueller, D. Hofstetter, H. Looser, and J. Faist, “Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy for Gases and Liquids Based on Quantum Cascade Technologies”. Analyst 2014; 139(9): 2039–2046.

Hou, S.

S. Hou, C.B. Riley, C.A. Mitchell, R.A. Shaw, J. Bryanton, and K. Bigsby, “Exploration of Attenuated Total Reflectance Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Calibration to Measure Immunoglobulin G in Human Sera”. Talanta 2015; 142: 110–119.

Hovgaard, L.

M.J. Maltesen, S. Bjerregaard, L. Hovgaard, S. Havelund, M. van de Weert, and H. Grohganz, “Multivariate Analysis of Phenol in Freeze-Dried and Spray-Dried Insulin Formulations by NIR and FTIR”. Pharm.Sci.Tech 2011; 12(2): 627–636.

Hu, J.

J. Giammarco, B. Zdyrko, L. Petit, J.D. Musgraves, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, K. Richardson, and I. Luzinov, “Towards Universal Enrichment Nanocoating for IR-ATR Waveguides”. Chem. Commun. (Camb) 2011; 47(32): 9104–9106.

Huntington, S.T.

Hutchinson, A.L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D.L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A.L. Hutchinson, and A.Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Laser”. Science 1994; 264(5158): 553–556.

Hvozdara, L.

P. Jouy, M. Mangold, B. Tuzson, L. Emmenegger, Y.-C. Chang, L. Hvozdara, H.P. Herzig, P. Wagli, A. Homsy, N.F. de Rooij, A. Wirthmueller, D. Hofstetter, H. Looser, and J. Faist, “Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy for Gases and Liquids Based on Quantum Cascade Technologies”. Analyst 2014; 139(9): 2039–2046.

Jarvis, N.L.

F. Giuliani, H. Wohltjen, and N.L. Jarvis, “Reversible Optical Waveguide Sensor for Ammonia Vapors”. 1983 , 8(1): 54–56.

Jasnot, F.-R.

F.-R. Jasnot, N. Péré-Laperne, L.-A. de Vaulchier, Y. Guldner, F. Carosella, R. Ferreira, and et al., . “Magnetotransport in Quantum Cascade Detectors: Analyzing the Current Under Illumination”. Nanoscale Res. Lett 2011; 6(1): 206.

Jetter, M.

M. Sieger, J. Haas, M. Jetter, P. Michler, M. Godejohann, and B. Mizaikoff, “Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy Platform Based on GaAs/AlGaAs Thin-Film Waveguides and Quantum Cascade Lasers”. Anal. Chem 2016; 88(5): 2558–2562.

X. Wang, S.-S. Kim, R. Roßbach, M. Jetter, P. Michler, and B. Mizaikoff, “Ultra-Sensitive Mid-Infrared Evanescent Field Sensors Combining Thin-Film Strip Waveguides with Quantum Cascade Lasers”. Analyst 2012; 137(10): 2322.

Jiang, J.

J. Jiang, Y. Fu, L. Ning, X.S. Chen, W.L. Xu, and W. Lu, “Detection Wavelength of Very Long Wavelength Quantum-Well Infrared Photodetector”. J. Phys. Condens. Matter 2003; 15(37): 6311–6320.

Jiang, Y.

L. Li, Y. Jiang, H. Ye, R.Q. Yang, T.D. Mishima, M.B. Santos, and et al., . “Low-threshold InAs-based interband cascade lasers operating at high temperatures”. Appl. Phys. Lett 2015; 106(25): 251102.

Jones, N.B.

Y. Xu, A. Cottenden, and N.B. Jones, “A Theoretical Evaluation of Fibre-Optic Evanescent Wave Absorption in Spectroscopy and Sensors”. Opt. Lasers Eng 2006; 44(2): 93–101.

Jouy, P.

P. Jouy, M. Mangold, B. Tuzson, L. Emmenegger, Y.-C. Chang, L. Hvozdara, H.P. Herzig, P. Wagli, A. Homsy, N.F. de Rooij, A. Wirthmueller, D. Hofstetter, H. Looser, and J. Faist, “Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy for Gases and Liquids Based on Quantum Cascade Technologies”. Analyst 2014; 139(9): 2039–2046.

Kälin, A.W.

R. Kesselring, A.W. Kälin, and F.K. Kneubühl, “Fast Mid-Infrared Detectors”. Infrared Phys 1992; 33(5): 423–436.

Kansiz, M.

M. Kansiz, H. Billman-Jacobe, and D. McNaughton, “Quantitative Determination of the Biodegradable Polymer Poly(beta -hydroxybutyrate) in a Recombinant Escherichia coli Strain by Use of Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariative Statistics”. Appl. Environ. Microbiol 2000; 66(8): 3415–3420.

Kar, A.K.

Y. Ren, G. Brown, A. Ródenas, S. Beecher, F. Chen, and A.K. Kar, “Mid-Infrared Waveguide Lasers in Rare-Earth-Doped YAG”. Opt. Lett 2012; 37(16): 3339–3341.

Karlsson, M.

X. Wang, M. Karlsson, P. Forsberg, M. Sieger, F. Nikolajeff, L. Österlund, and B. Mizaikoff, “Diamonds Are a Spectroscopists Best Friend: Thin-Film Diamond Mid-Infrared Waveguides for Advanced Chemical Sensors/Biosensors”. Anal. Chem 2014; 86(16): 8136–8141.

Katzir, A.

Y. Raichlin, D. Avisar, L. Gerber, and A. Katzir, “Flattened Infrared Fiber-Optic Sensors for the Analysis of Micrograms of Insoluble Solid Particles in Solution or in a Dry State”. Vib. Spectrosc 2014; 73: 67–72.

B. Pejcic, L. Boyd, M. Myers, A. Ross, Y. Raichlin, A. Katzir, R. Lu, and B. Mizaikoff, “Direct Quantification of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Geochemical Fluids with a Mid-Infrared Attenuated Total Reflection Sensor”. Org. Geochem 2013; 55: 63–71.

T. Schädle, A. Eifert, C. Kranz, Y. Raichlin, A. Katzir, and B. Mizaikoff, “Mid-Infrared Planar Silver Halide Waveguides with Integrated Grating Couplers”. Appl. Spectrosc 2013; 67(9): 1057–1063.

A. Messica, A. Greenstein, and A. Katzir, “Theory of Fiber-Optic, Evanescent-Wave Spectroscopy and Sensors”. Appl. Opt 1996; 35(13): 2274–2284.

A. Messica, A. Greenstein, A. Katzir, U. Schiessl, and M. Tacke, “Fiber-Optic Evanescent Wave Sensor for Gas Detection”. Opt. Lett 1994; 19(15): 1167–1169.

Kazarian, S.G.

S.G. Kazarian, B.J. Briscoe, and T. Welton, “Combining Ionic Liquids and Supercritical Fluids: In Situ ATR-IR Study of CO2 Dissolved in Two Ionic Liquids at High Pressures”. Chem. Commun 2000; 20(20): 2047–2048.

Kesselring, R.

R. Kesselring, A.W. Kälin, and F.K. Kneubühl, “Fast Mid-Infrared Detectors”. Infrared Phys 1992; 33(5): 423–436.

Khorsandi, A.

U. Willer, M. Saraji, A. Khorsandi, P. Geiser, and W. Schade, “Near- and Mid-Infrared Laser Monitoring of Industrial Processes, Environment and Security Applications”. Opt. Lasers Eng 2006; 44(7): 699–710.

Kiani, M.F.

R. Cheheltani, C.M. McGoverin, J. Rao, D.A. Vorp, M.F. Kiani, and N. Pleshko, “Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to Quantify Collagen and Elastin in an In Vitro Model of Extracellular Matrix Degradation in Aorta”. Analyst 2014; 139(12): 3039–3047.

Kim, S.S.

C. Young, S.S. Kim, Y. Luzinova, M. Weida, D. Arnone, E. Takeuchi, T. Day, and B. Mizaikoff, “External Cavity Widely Tunable Quantum Cascade Laser Based Hollow Waveguide Gas Sensors for Multianalyte Detection”. Sensors Actuators, B Chem 2009; 140(1): 24–28.

Kim, S.-S.

X. Wang, S.-S. Kim, R. Roßbach, M. Jetter, P. Michler, and B. Mizaikoff, “Ultra-Sensitive Mid-Infrared Evanescent Field Sensors Combining Thin-Film Strip Waveguides with Quantum Cascade Lasers”. Analyst 2012; 137(10): 2322.

Kimerling, L.

J. Giammarco, B. Zdyrko, L. Petit, J.D. Musgraves, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, K. Richardson, and I. Luzinov, “Towards Universal Enrichment Nanocoating for IR-ATR Waveguides”. Chem. Commun. (Camb) 2011; 47(32): 9104–9106.

Kneubühl, F.K.

R. Kesselring, A.W. Kälin, and F.K. Kneubühl, “Fast Mid-Infrared Detectors”. Infrared Phys 1992; 33(5): 423–436.

Köhler, K.

D. Hofstetter, F.R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, Q. Yang, C. Manz, and K. Köhler, “Mid-Infrared Quantum Cascade Detectors for Applications in Spectroscopy and Pyrometry”. Appl. Phys. B 2010; 100(2): 313–320.

Kohoutek, T.

A.B. Seddon, N.S. Abdel-Moneim, L. Zhang, W.J. Pan, D. Furniss, C.J. Mellor, T. Kohoutek, J. Orava, T. Wagner, and T.M. Benson, “Mid-Infrared Integrated Optics: Versatile Hot Embossing of Mid-Infrared Glasses for On-Chip Planar Waveguides for Molecular Sensing”. Opt. Eng 2014; 53(7): 71824.

Kokoric, V.

D. Perez-Guaita, V. Kokoric, A. Wilk, S. Garrigues, and B. Mizaikoff, “Towards the Determination of Isoprene in Human Breath Using Substrate-Integrated Hollow Waveguide Mid-Infrared Sensors”. J. Breath Res 2014; 8(2): 026003.

Kranz, C.

T. Schädle, A. Eifert, C. Kranz, Y. Raichlin, A. Katzir, and B. Mizaikoff, “Mid-Infrared Planar Silver Halide Waveguides with Integrated Grating Couplers”. Appl. Spectrosc 2013; 67(9): 1057–1063.

Kumagai, S.

K. Masuno, S. Kumagai, K. Tashiro, and M. Sasaki, “Enhanced Contrast of Wavelength-Selective Mid-Infrared Detectors Stable against Incident Angle and Temperature Changes”. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 2011; 50: 037201.

Ladouceur, F.

Lendl, B.

S. Schaden, M. Haberkorn, J. Frank, J.R. Baena, and B. Lendl, “Direct Determination of Carbon Dioxide in Aqueous Solution Using Mid-Infrared Quantum Cascade Lasers”. Appl. Spectrosc 2004; 58(6): 667–70.

Li, L.

L. Li, Y. Jiang, H. Ye, R.Q. Yang, T.D. Mishima, M.B. Santos, and et al., . “Low-threshold InAs-based interband cascade lasers operating at high temperatures”. Appl. Phys. Lett 2015; 106(25): 251102.

V. Singh, P.T. Lin, N. Patel, H. Lin, L. Li, and Y. Zou, “Mid-Infrared Materials and Devices on a Si Platform for Optical Sensing”. Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater 2014; 15(1): 014603.

Ligler, F.S.

F.S. Ligler, “Perspective on Optical Biosensors and Integrated Sensor Systems”. Anal. Chem 2009; 81(2): 519–526.

Lin, H.

V. Singh, P.T. Lin, N. Patel, H. Lin, L. Li, and Y. Zou, “Mid-Infrared Materials and Devices on a Si Platform for Optical Sensing”. Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater 2014; 15(1): 014603.

Lin, P.T.

V. Singh, P.T. Lin, N. Patel, H. Lin, L. Li, and Y. Zou, “Mid-Infrared Materials and Devices on a Si Platform for Optical Sensing”. Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater 2014; 15(1): 014603.

Looser, H.

P. Jouy, M. Mangold, B. Tuzson, L. Emmenegger, Y.-C. Chang, L. Hvozdara, H.P. Herzig, P. Wagli, A. Homsy, N.F. de Rooij, A. Wirthmueller, D. Hofstetter, H. Looser, and J. Faist, “Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy for Gases and Liquids Based on Quantum Cascade Technologies”. Analyst 2014; 139(9): 2039–2046.

Lu, R.

B. Pejcic, L. Boyd, M. Myers, A. Ross, Y. Raichlin, A. Katzir, R. Lu, and B. Mizaikoff, “Direct Quantification of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Geochemical Fluids with a Mid-Infrared Attenuated Total Reflection Sensor”. Org. Geochem 2013; 55: 63–71.

Lu, W.

J. Jiang, Y. Fu, L. Ning, X.S. Chen, W.L. Xu, and W. Lu, “Detection Wavelength of Very Long Wavelength Quantum-Well Infrared Photodetector”. J. Phys. Condens. Matter 2003; 15(37): 6311–6320.

Luzinov, I.

Y. Luzinova, B. Zdyrko, I. Luzinov, and B. Mizaikoff, “In Situ Trace Analysis of Oil in Water with Mid-Infrared Fiberoptic Chemical Sensors”. Anal. Chem 2012; 84(3): 1274–1280.

J. Giammarco, B. Zdyrko, L. Petit, J.D. Musgraves, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, K. Richardson, and I. Luzinov, “Towards Universal Enrichment Nanocoating for IR-ATR Waveguides”. Chem. Commun. (Camb) 2011; 47(32): 9104–9106.

Luzinova, Y.

Y. Luzinova, B. Zdyrko, I. Luzinov, and B. Mizaikoff, “In Situ Trace Analysis of Oil in Water with Mid-Infrared Fiberoptic Chemical Sensors”. Anal. Chem 2012; 84(3): 1274–1280.

C. Young, S.S. Kim, Y. Luzinova, M. Weida, D. Arnone, E. Takeuchi, T. Day, and B. Mizaikoff, “External Cavity Widely Tunable Quantum Cascade Laser Based Hollow Waveguide Gas Sensors for Multianalyte Detection”. Sensors Actuators, B Chem 2009; 140(1): 24–28.

Maltesen, M.J.

M.J. Maltesen, S. Bjerregaard, L. Hovgaard, S. Havelund, M. van de Weert, and H. Grohganz, “Multivariate Analysis of Phenol in Freeze-Dried and Spray-Dried Insulin Formulations by NIR and FTIR”. Pharm.Sci.Tech 2011; 12(2): 627–636.

Mangold, M.

P. Jouy, M. Mangold, B. Tuzson, L. Emmenegger, Y.-C. Chang, L. Hvozdara, H.P. Herzig, P. Wagli, A. Homsy, N.F. de Rooij, A. Wirthmueller, D. Hofstetter, H. Looser, and J. Faist, “Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy for Gases and Liquids Based on Quantum Cascade Technologies”. Analyst 2014; 139(9): 2039–2046.

Manuel, A.M.

A. Wilk, J. Chance Carter, M. Chrisp, A.M. Manuel, P. Mirkarimi, J.B. Alameda, and et al., . “Substrate-Integrated Hollow Waveguides: A New Level of Integration in Mid-Infrared Gas Sensing”. Anal. Chem 2013; 85(23): 11205–11210.

Manz, C.

D. Hofstetter, F.R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, Q. Yang, C. Manz, and K. Köhler, “Mid-Infrared Quantum Cascade Detectors for Applications in Spectroscopy and Pyrometry”. Appl. Phys. B 2010; 100(2): 313–320.

Martin, J.L.

C.R. Young, N. Menegazzo, A.E. Riley, C.H. Brons, F.P. Disanzo, J.L. Givens, J.L. Martin, M.M. Disko, and B. Mizaikoff, “Infrared Hollow Waveguide Sensors for Simultaneous Gas Phase Detection of Benzene, Toluene, and Xylenes in Field Environments”. Anal. Chem 2011; 83: 6141–6147.

Martínez-Ramírez, S.

L. Fernández-Carrasco, D. Torrens-Martín, L.M. Morales, and S. Martínez-Ramírez, “Infrared Spectroscopy in the Analysis of Building and Construction Materials”. In: T. Theophanides, (ed). Infrared Spectroscopy – Materials, Science, Engineering, andTechnology. Inctech 2012. DOI: 10.5772/36186.

Masuno, K.

K. Masuno, S. Kumagai, K. Tashiro, and M. Sasaki, “Enhanced Contrast of Wavelength-Selective Mid-Infrared Detectors Stable against Incident Angle and Temperature Changes”. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 2011; 50: 037201.

McGoverin, C.M.

R. Cheheltani, C.M. McGoverin, J. Rao, D.A. Vorp, M.F. Kiani, and N. Pleshko, “Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to Quantify Collagen and Elastin in an In Vitro Model of Extracellular Matrix Degradation in Aorta”. Analyst 2014; 139(12): 3039–3047.

McNaughton, D.

M. Kansiz, H. Billman-Jacobe, and D. McNaughton, “Quantitative Determination of the Biodegradable Polymer Poly(beta -hydroxybutyrate) in a Recombinant Escherichia coli Strain by Use of Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariative Statistics”. Appl. Environ. Microbiol 2000; 66(8): 3415–3420.

Mellor, C.J.

A.B. Seddon, N.S. Abdel-Moneim, L. Zhang, W.J. Pan, D. Furniss, C.J. Mellor, T. Kohoutek, J. Orava, T. Wagner, and T.M. Benson, “Mid-Infrared Integrated Optics: Versatile Hot Embossing of Mid-Infrared Glasses for On-Chip Planar Waveguides for Molecular Sensing”. Opt. Eng 2014; 53(7): 71824.

Mendes, S.B.

J.T. Bradshaw, S.B. Mendes, N.R. Armstrong, and S.S. Saavedra, “Broadband Coupling into a Single-Mode, Electroactive Integrated Optical Waveguide for Spectroelectrochemical Analysis of Surface-Confined Redox Couples”. Anal. Chem 2003; 75(5): 1080–1088.

Menegazzo, N.

C.R. Young, N. Menegazzo, A.E. Riley, C.H. Brons, F.P. Disanzo, J.L. Givens, J.L. Martin, M.M. Disko, and B. Mizaikoff, “Infrared Hollow Waveguide Sensors for Simultaneous Gas Phase Detection of Benzene, Toluene, and Xylenes in Field Environments”. Anal. Chem 2011; 83: 6141–6147.

Messica, A.

A. Messica, A. Greenstein, and A. Katzir, “Theory of Fiber-Optic, Evanescent-Wave Spectroscopy and Sensors”. Appl. Opt 1996; 35(13): 2274–2284.

A. Messica, A. Greenstein, A. Katzir, U. Schiessl, and M. Tacke, “Fiber-Optic Evanescent Wave Sensor for Gas Detection”. Opt. Lett 1994; 19(15): 1167–1169.

Meyer, J.R.

J.R. Meyer, I. Vurgaftman, R.Q. Yang, and L.R. Ram-Mohan, “Type-II and Type-I Interband Cascade Lasers”. Electron. Lett 1996; 32(1): 45–46.

Michler, P.

M. Sieger, J. Haas, M. Jetter, P. Michler, M. Godejohann, and B. Mizaikoff, “Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy Platform Based on GaAs/AlGaAs Thin-Film Waveguides and Quantum Cascade Lasers”. Anal. Chem 2016; 88(5): 2558–2562.

X. Wang, S.-S. Kim, R. Roßbach, M. Jetter, P. Michler, and B. Mizaikoff, “Ultra-Sensitive Mid-Infrared Evanescent Field Sensors Combining Thin-Film Strip Waveguides with Quantum Cascade Lasers”. Analyst 2012; 137(10): 2322.

Mirkarimi, P.

A. Wilk, J. Chance Carter, M. Chrisp, A.M. Manuel, P. Mirkarimi, J.B. Alameda, and et al., . “Substrate-Integrated Hollow Waveguides: A New Level of Integration in Mid-Infrared Gas Sensing”. Anal. Chem 2013; 85(23): 11205–11210.

Mishima, T.D.

L. Li, Y. Jiang, H. Ye, R.Q. Yang, T.D. Mishima, M.B. Santos, and et al., . “Low-threshold InAs-based interband cascade lasers operating at high temperatures”. Appl. Phys. Lett 2015; 106(25): 251102.

Misra, N.N.

N.N. Misra, C. Sullivan, and P.J. Cullen, “Process Analytical Technology (PAT) and Multivariate Methods for Downstream Processes”. Curr. Biochem. Eng 2015; 2: 4–16.

Mitchel, W.C.

H.J. Haugan, G.J. Brown, F. Szmulowicz, L. Grazulis, W.C. Mitchel, S. Elhamri, and et al., . “InAs / GaSb type-II superlattices for high performance mid-infrared detectors”. J. Cryst. Growth 2005; 278: 198–202.

Mitchell, C.A.

S. Hou, C.B. Riley, C.A. Mitchell, R.A. Shaw, J. Bryanton, and K. Bigsby, “Exploration of Attenuated Total Reflectance Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Calibration to Measure Immunoglobulin G in Human Sera”. Talanta 2015; 142: 110–119.

Mittal, V.

V. Mittal, A. Aghajani, L.G. Carpenter, J.C. Gates, J. Butement, P.G. Smith, J.S. Wilkinson, and G.S. Murugan, “Fabrication and Characterization of High-Contrast Mid-Infrared GeTe 4 Channel Waveguides”. Opt. Lett 2016; 40(9): 2016–2019.

Mizaikoff, B.

T. Schädle, B. Pejcic, and B. Mizaikoff, “Monitoring Dissolved Carbon Dioxide and Methane in Brine Environments at High Pressure Using IR-ATR Spectroscopy”. Anal. Methods 2016; 8(4): 756–762.

M. Sieger, J. Haas, M. Jetter, P. Michler, M. Godejohann, and B. Mizaikoff, “Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy Platform Based on GaAs/AlGaAs Thin-Film Waveguides and Quantum Cascade Lasers”. Anal. Chem 2016; 88(5): 2558–2562.

R. Stach, B. Pejcic, E. Crooke, M. Myers, and B. Mizaikoff, “Mid-Infrared Spectroscopic Method for the Identification and Quantification of Dissolved Oil Components in Marine Environments”. Anal. Chem 2015; 87(24): 12306–12312.

T. Schädle, B. Pejcic, M. Myers, and B. Mizaikoff, “Fingerprinting Oils in Water via Their Dissolved Voc Pattern Using Mid-Infrared Sensors”. Anal. Chem 2014; 86(19): 9512–9517.

D. Perez-Guaita, V. Kokoric, A. Wilk, S. Garrigues, and B. Mizaikoff, “Towards the Determination of Isoprene in Human Breath Using Substrate-Integrated Hollow Waveguide Mid-Infrared Sensors”. J. Breath Res 2014; 8(2): 026003.

X. Wang, M. Karlsson, P. Forsberg, M. Sieger, F. Nikolajeff, L. Österlund, and B. Mizaikoff, “Diamonds Are a Spectroscopists Best Friend: Thin-Film Diamond Mid-Infrared Waveguides for Advanced Chemical Sensors/Biosensors”. Anal. Chem 2014; 86(16): 8136–8141.

K. Wörle, F. Seichter, A. Wilk, C. Armacost, T. Day, M. Godejohann, U. Wachter, J. Vogt, P. Radermacher, and B. Mizaikoff, “Breath analysis with broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers”. Anal. Chem 2013; 85(5): 2697–2702.

T. Schädle, A. Eifert, C. Kranz, Y. Raichlin, A. Katzir, and B. Mizaikoff, “Mid-Infrared Planar Silver Halide Waveguides with Integrated Grating Couplers”. Appl. Spectrosc 2013; 67(9): 1057–1063.

B. Mizaikoff, “Waveguide-Enhanced Mid-Infrared Chem/Bio Sensors”. Chem. Soc. Rev 2013; 42(22): 8683–99.

B. Pejcic, L. Boyd, M. Myers, A. Ross, Y. Raichlin, A. Katzir, R. Lu, and B. Mizaikoff, “Direct Quantification of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Geochemical Fluids with a Mid-Infrared Attenuated Total Reflection Sensor”. Org. Geochem 2013; 55: 63–71.

Y. Luzinova, B. Zdyrko, I. Luzinov, and B. Mizaikoff, “In Situ Trace Analysis of Oil in Water with Mid-Infrared Fiberoptic Chemical Sensors”. Anal. Chem 2012; 84(3): 1274–1280.

X. Wang, S.-S. Kim, R. Roßbach, M. Jetter, P. Michler, and B. Mizaikoff, “Ultra-Sensitive Mid-Infrared Evanescent Field Sensors Combining Thin-Film Strip Waveguides with Quantum Cascade Lasers”. Analyst 2012; 137(10): 2322.

C.R. Young, N. Menegazzo, A.E. Riley, C.H. Brons, F.P. Disanzo, J.L. Givens, J.L. Martin, M.M. Disko, and B. Mizaikoff, “Infrared Hollow Waveguide Sensors for Simultaneous Gas Phase Detection of Benzene, Toluene, and Xylenes in Field Environments”. Anal. Chem 2011; 83: 6141–6147.

C. Young, S.S. Kim, Y. Luzinova, M. Weida, D. Arnone, E. Takeuchi, T. Day, and B. Mizaikoff, “External Cavity Widely Tunable Quantum Cascade Laser Based Hollow Waveguide Gas Sensors for Multianalyte Detection”. Sensors Actuators, B Chem 2009; 140(1): 24–28.

C. Charlton, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and B. Mizaikoff, “Fabrication and Characterization of Molecular Beam Epitaxy Grown Thin-Film GaAs Waveguides for Mid-Infrared Evanescent Field Chemical Sensing”. Anal. Chem 2006; 78(12): 4224–4227.

B. Mizaikoff, “Mid-IR Fiber-Optic Sensors”. Anal. Chem 2003; 75(11): 258A–267A.

Morales, L.M.

L. Fernández-Carrasco, D. Torrens-Martín, L.M. Morales, and S. Martínez-Ramírez, “Infrared Spectroscopy in the Analysis of Building and Construction Materials”. In: T. Theophanides, (ed). Infrared Spectroscopy – Materials, Science, Engineering, andTechnology. Inctech 2012. DOI: 10.5772/36186.

Murugan, G.S.

V. Mittal, A. Aghajani, L.G. Carpenter, J.C. Gates, J. Butement, P.G. Smith, J.S. Wilkinson, and G.S. Murugan, “Fabrication and Characterization of High-Contrast Mid-Infrared GeTe 4 Channel Waveguides”. Opt. Lett 2016; 40(9): 2016–2019.

Musgraves, J.D.

J. Giammarco, B. Zdyrko, L. Petit, J.D. Musgraves, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, K. Richardson, and I. Luzinov, “Towards Universal Enrichment Nanocoating for IR-ATR Waveguides”. Chem. Commun. (Camb) 2011; 47(32): 9104–9106.

Myers, M.

R. Stach, B. Pejcic, E. Crooke, M. Myers, and B. Mizaikoff, “Mid-Infrared Spectroscopic Method for the Identification and Quantification of Dissolved Oil Components in Marine Environments”. Anal. Chem 2015; 87(24): 12306–12312.

T. Schädle, B. Pejcic, M. Myers, and B. Mizaikoff, “Fingerprinting Oils in Water via Their Dissolved Voc Pattern Using Mid-Infrared Sensors”. Anal. Chem 2014; 86(19): 9512–9517.

B. Pejcic, L. Boyd, M. Myers, A. Ross, Y. Raichlin, A. Katzir, R. Lu, and B. Mizaikoff, “Direct Quantification of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Geochemical Fluids with a Mid-Infrared Attenuated Total Reflection Sensor”. Org. Geochem 2013; 55: 63–71.

Nikolajeff, F.

X. Wang, M. Karlsson, P. Forsberg, M. Sieger, F. Nikolajeff, L. Österlund, and B. Mizaikoff, “Diamonds Are a Spectroscopists Best Friend: Thin-Film Diamond Mid-Infrared Waveguides for Advanced Chemical Sensors/Biosensors”. Anal. Chem 2014; 86(16): 8136–8141.

Ning, L.

J. Jiang, Y. Fu, L. Ning, X.S. Chen, W.L. Xu, and W. Lu, “Detection Wavelength of Very Long Wavelength Quantum-Well Infrared Photodetector”. J. Phys. Condens. Matter 2003; 15(37): 6311–6320.

Orava, J.

A.B. Seddon, N.S. Abdel-Moneim, L. Zhang, W.J. Pan, D. Furniss, C.J. Mellor, T. Kohoutek, J. Orava, T. Wagner, and T.M. Benson, “Mid-Infrared Integrated Optics: Versatile Hot Embossing of Mid-Infrared Glasses for On-Chip Planar Waveguides for Molecular Sensing”. Opt. Eng 2014; 53(7): 71824.

Orghici, R.

R. Orghici, U. Willer, M. Gierszewska, S.R. Waldvogel, and W. Schade, “Fiber Optic Evanescent Field Sensor for Detection of Explosives and CO2 Dissolved in Water”. Appl. Phys. B Lasers Opt 2008; 90: 355–360.

Österlund, L.

X. Wang, M. Karlsson, P. Forsberg, M. Sieger, F. Nikolajeff, L. Österlund, and B. Mizaikoff, “Diamonds Are a Spectroscopists Best Friend: Thin-Film Diamond Mid-Infrared Waveguides for Advanced Chemical Sensors/Biosensors”. Anal. Chem 2014; 86(16): 8136–8141.

Pan, W.J.

A.B. Seddon, N.S. Abdel-Moneim, L. Zhang, W.J. Pan, D. Furniss, C.J. Mellor, T. Kohoutek, J. Orava, T. Wagner, and T.M. Benson, “Mid-Infrared Integrated Optics: Versatile Hot Embossing of Mid-Infrared Glasses for On-Chip Planar Waveguides for Molecular Sensing”. Opt. Eng 2014; 53(7): 71824.

Pate, B.B.

D.I. Shahin, T.J. Anderson, T.I. Feygelson, B.B. Pate, V.D. Wheeler, J.D. Greenlee, J.K. Hite, M.J. Tadjer, A. Christou, and K.D. Hobart, “Thermal Etching of Nanocrystalline Diamond Films”. Diam. Relat. Mater 2015; 59: 116–121.

Patel, N.

V. Singh, P.T. Lin, N. Patel, H. Lin, L. Li, and Y. Zou, “Mid-Infrared Materials and Devices on a Si Platform for Optical Sensing”. Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater 2014; 15(1): 014603.

Pejcic, B.

T. Schädle, B. Pejcic, and B. Mizaikoff, “Monitoring Dissolved Carbon Dioxide and Methane in Brine Environments at High Pressure Using IR-ATR Spectroscopy”. Anal. Methods 2016; 8(4): 756–762.

R. Stach, B. Pejcic, E. Crooke, M. Myers, and B. Mizaikoff, “Mid-Infrared Spectroscopic Method for the Identification and Quantification of Dissolved Oil Components in Marine Environments”. Anal. Chem 2015; 87(24): 12306–12312.

T. Schädle, B. Pejcic, M. Myers, and B. Mizaikoff, “Fingerprinting Oils in Water via Their Dissolved Voc Pattern Using Mid-Infrared Sensors”. Anal. Chem 2014; 86(19): 9512–9517.

B. Pejcic, L. Boyd, M. Myers, A. Ross, Y. Raichlin, A. Katzir, R. Lu, and B. Mizaikoff, “Direct Quantification of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Geochemical Fluids with a Mid-Infrared Attenuated Total Reflection Sensor”. Org. Geochem 2013; 55: 63–71.

Péré-Laperne, N.

F.-R. Jasnot, N. Péré-Laperne, L.-A. de Vaulchier, Y. Guldner, F. Carosella, R. Ferreira, and et al., . “Magnetotransport in Quantum Cascade Detectors: Analyzing the Current Under Illumination”. Nanoscale Res. Lett 2011; 6(1): 206.

Perez-Guaita, D.

D. Perez-Guaita, V. Kokoric, A. Wilk, S. Garrigues, and B. Mizaikoff, “Towards the Determination of Isoprene in Human Breath Using Substrate-Integrated Hollow Waveguide Mid-Infrared Sensors”. J. Breath Res 2014; 8(2): 026003.

Petit, L.

J. Giammarco, B. Zdyrko, L. Petit, J.D. Musgraves, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, K. Richardson, and I. Luzinov, “Towards Universal Enrichment Nanocoating for IR-ATR Waveguides”. Chem. Commun. (Camb) 2011; 47(32): 9104–9106.

Pleshko, N.

R. Cheheltani, C.M. McGoverin, J. Rao, D.A. Vorp, M.F. Kiani, and N. Pleshko, “Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to Quantify Collagen and Elastin in an In Vitro Model of Extracellular Matrix Degradation in Aorta”. Analyst 2014; 139(12): 3039–3047.

Pogorelsky, I.V.

M.N. Polyanskiy, M. Babzien, and I.V. Pogorelsky, “Chirped-Pulse Amplification in a CO2 Laser”. Optica 2015; 2(8): 657–681.

Polyanskiy, M.N.

M.N. Polyanskiy, M. Babzien, and I.V. Pogorelsky, “Chirped-Pulse Amplification in a CO2 Laser”. Optica 2015; 2(8): 657–681.

Prawer, S.

Radermacher, P.

K. Wörle, F. Seichter, A. Wilk, C. Armacost, T. Day, M. Godejohann, U. Wachter, J. Vogt, P. Radermacher, and B. Mizaikoff, “Breath analysis with broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers”. Anal. Chem 2013; 85(5): 2697–2702.

Raichlin, Y.

Y. Raichlin, D. Avisar, L. Gerber, and A. Katzir, “Flattened Infrared Fiber-Optic Sensors for the Analysis of Micrograms of Insoluble Solid Particles in Solution or in a Dry State”. Vib. Spectrosc 2014; 73: 67–72.

B. Pejcic, L. Boyd, M. Myers, A. Ross, Y. Raichlin, A. Katzir, R. Lu, and B. Mizaikoff, “Direct Quantification of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Geochemical Fluids with a Mid-Infrared Attenuated Total Reflection Sensor”. Org. Geochem 2013; 55: 63–71.

T. Schädle, A. Eifert, C. Kranz, Y. Raichlin, A. Katzir, and B. Mizaikoff, “Mid-Infrared Planar Silver Halide Waveguides with Integrated Grating Couplers”. Appl. Spectrosc 2013; 67(9): 1057–1063.

Ram-Mohan, L.R.

J.R. Meyer, I. Vurgaftman, R.Q. Yang, and L.R. Ram-Mohan, “Type-II and Type-I Interband Cascade Lasers”. Electron. Lett 1996; 32(1): 45–46.

Rao, J.

R. Cheheltani, C.M. McGoverin, J. Rao, D.A. Vorp, M.F. Kiani, and N. Pleshko, “Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to Quantify Collagen and Elastin in an In Vitro Model of Extracellular Matrix Degradation in Aorta”. Analyst 2014; 139(12): 3039–3047.

Reininger, P.

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, D. Ristanić, H. Detz, A.M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Monolithically Integrated Mid-Infrared Lab-on-a-Chip Using Plasmonics and Quantum Cascade Structures”. Nat. Commun 2014; 5(May): 4085.

Ren, Y.

Y. Ren, G. Brown, A. Ródenas, S. Beecher, F. Chen, and A.K. Kar, “Mid-Infrared Waveguide Lasers in Rare-Earth-Doped YAG”. Opt. Lett 2012; 37(16): 3339–3341.

Richardson, K.

J. Giammarco, B. Zdyrko, L. Petit, J.D. Musgraves, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, K. Richardson, and I. Luzinov, “Towards Universal Enrichment Nanocoating for IR-ATR Waveguides”. Chem. Commun. (Camb) 2011; 47(32): 9104–9106.

Riley, A.E.

C.R. Young, N. Menegazzo, A.E. Riley, C.H. Brons, F.P. Disanzo, J.L. Givens, J.L. Martin, M.M. Disko, and B. Mizaikoff, “Infrared Hollow Waveguide Sensors for Simultaneous Gas Phase Detection of Benzene, Toluene, and Xylenes in Field Environments”. Anal. Chem 2011; 83: 6141–6147.

Riley, C.B.

S. Hou, C.B. Riley, C.A. Mitchell, R.A. Shaw, J. Bryanton, and K. Bigsby, “Exploration of Attenuated Total Reflectance Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Calibration to Measure Immunoglobulin G in Human Sera”. Talanta 2015; 142: 110–119.

Ristanic, D.

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, D. Ristanić, H. Detz, A.M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Monolithically Integrated Mid-Infrared Lab-on-a-Chip Using Plasmonics and Quantum Cascade Structures”. Nat. Commun 2014; 5(May): 4085.

Ródenas, A.

Y. Ren, G. Brown, A. Ródenas, S. Beecher, F. Chen, and A.K. Kar, “Mid-Infrared Waveguide Lasers in Rare-Earth-Doped YAG”. Opt. Lett 2012; 37(16): 3339–3341.

Ross, A.

B. Pejcic, L. Boyd, M. Myers, A. Ross, Y. Raichlin, A. Katzir, R. Lu, and B. Mizaikoff, “Direct Quantification of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Geochemical Fluids with a Mid-Infrared Attenuated Total Reflection Sensor”. Org. Geochem 2013; 55: 63–71.

Roßbach, R.

X. Wang, S.-S. Kim, R. Roßbach, M. Jetter, P. Michler, and B. Mizaikoff, “Ultra-Sensitive Mid-Infrared Evanescent Field Sensors Combining Thin-Film Strip Waveguides with Quantum Cascade Lasers”. Analyst 2012; 137(10): 2322.

Ruysschaert, J.

C. Vigano, J. Ruysschaert, and E. Goormaghtigh, “Sensor Applications of Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy”. Talanta 2005; 65(5): 1132–1142.

Saavedra, S.S.

J.T. Bradshaw, S.B. Mendes, N.R. Armstrong, and S.S. Saavedra, “Broadband Coupling into a Single-Mode, Electroactive Integrated Optical Waveguide for Spectroelectrochemical Analysis of Surface-Confined Redox Couples”. Anal. Chem 2003; 75(5): 1080–1088.

Santos, M.B.

L. Li, Y. Jiang, H. Ye, R.Q. Yang, T.D. Mishima, M.B. Santos, and et al., . “Low-threshold InAs-based interband cascade lasers operating at high temperatures”. Appl. Phys. Lett 2015; 106(25): 251102.

Saraji, M.

U. Willer, M. Saraji, A. Khorsandi, P. Geiser, and W. Schade, “Near- and Mid-Infrared Laser Monitoring of Industrial Processes, Environment and Security Applications”. Opt. Lasers Eng 2006; 44(7): 699–710.

Sarkar, A.

A. Sarkar, “Fabrication Techniques for High-Quality Optical Fibers”. Fiber Integr. Opt 1985; 5(2): 135–149.

Sasaki, M.

K. Masuno, S. Kumagai, K. Tashiro, and M. Sasaki, “Enhanced Contrast of Wavelength-Selective Mid-Infrared Detectors Stable against Incident Angle and Temperature Changes”. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 2011; 50: 037201.

Satheeshkumar, E.

E. Satheeshkumar and J. Yang, “Preparation and Characterization of Silver Film Coated ZnO Nanowire Gas Sensors Based on the Infrared Surface Enhancement Effect for Detection of VOCs”. RSC Adv 2014; 4(37): 19331.

Sauer, M.

A. Graf, M. Arndt, M. Sauer, and G. Gerlach, “Review of Micromachined Thermopiles for Infrared Detection”. Meas. Sci. Technol 2007; 18: R59–R75.

Schade, W.

R. Orghici, U. Willer, M. Gierszewska, S.R. Waldvogel, and W. Schade, “Fiber Optic Evanescent Field Sensor for Detection of Explosives and CO2 Dissolved in Water”. Appl. Phys. B Lasers Opt 2008; 90: 355–360.

U. Willer, M. Saraji, A. Khorsandi, P. Geiser, and W. Schade, “Near- and Mid-Infrared Laser Monitoring of Industrial Processes, Environment and Security Applications”. Opt. Lasers Eng 2006; 44(7): 699–710.

Schaden, S.

S. Schaden, M. Haberkorn, J. Frank, J.R. Baena, and B. Lendl, “Direct Determination of Carbon Dioxide in Aqueous Solution Using Mid-Infrared Quantum Cascade Lasers”. Appl. Spectrosc 2004; 58(6): 667–70.

Schädle, T.

T. Schädle, B. Pejcic, and B. Mizaikoff, “Monitoring Dissolved Carbon Dioxide and Methane in Brine Environments at High Pressure Using IR-ATR Spectroscopy”. Anal. Methods 2016; 8(4): 756–762.

T. Schädle, B. Pejcic, M. Myers, and B. Mizaikoff, “Fingerprinting Oils in Water via Their Dissolved Voc Pattern Using Mid-Infrared Sensors”. Anal. Chem 2014; 86(19): 9512–9517.

T. Schädle, A. Eifert, C. Kranz, Y. Raichlin, A. Katzir, and B. Mizaikoff, “Mid-Infrared Planar Silver Halide Waveguides with Integrated Grating Couplers”. Appl. Spectrosc 2013; 67(9): 1057–1063.

Schiessl, U.

A. Messica, A. Greenstein, A. Katzir, U. Schiessl, and M. Tacke, “Fiber-Optic Evanescent Wave Sensor for Gas Detection”. Opt. Lett 1994; 19(15): 1167–1169.

Schrenk, W.

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, D. Ristanić, H. Detz, A.M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Monolithically Integrated Mid-Infrared Lab-on-a-Chip Using Plasmonics and Quantum Cascade Structures”. Nat. Commun 2014; 5(May): 4085.

Schwarz, B.

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, D. Ristanić, H. Detz, A.M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Monolithically Integrated Mid-Infrared Lab-on-a-Chip Using Plasmonics and Quantum Cascade Structures”. Nat. Commun 2014; 5(May): 4085.

Seddon, A.B.

A.B. Seddon, N.S. Abdel-Moneim, L. Zhang, W.J. Pan, D. Furniss, C.J. Mellor, T. Kohoutek, J. Orava, T. Wagner, and T.M. Benson, “Mid-Infrared Integrated Optics: Versatile Hot Embossing of Mid-Infrared Glasses for On-Chip Planar Waveguides for Molecular Sensing”. Opt. Eng 2014; 53(7): 71824.

Seichter, F.

K. Wörle, F. Seichter, A. Wilk, C. Armacost, T. Day, M. Godejohann, U. Wachter, J. Vogt, P. Radermacher, and B. Mizaikoff, “Breath analysis with broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers”. Anal. Chem 2013; 85(5): 2697–2702.

Shahin, D.I.

D.I. Shahin, T.J. Anderson, T.I. Feygelson, B.B. Pate, V.D. Wheeler, J.D. Greenlee, J.K. Hite, M.J. Tadjer, A. Christou, and K.D. Hobart, “Thermal Etching of Nanocrystalline Diamond Films”. Diam. Relat. Mater 2015; 59: 116–121.

Shaw, R.A.

S. Hou, C.B. Riley, C.A. Mitchell, R.A. Shaw, J. Bryanton, and K. Bigsby, “Exploration of Attenuated Total Reflectance Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Calibration to Measure Immunoglobulin G in Human Sera”. Talanta 2015; 142: 110–119.

Sieger, M.

M. Sieger, J. Haas, M. Jetter, P. Michler, M. Godejohann, and B. Mizaikoff, “Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy Platform Based on GaAs/AlGaAs Thin-Film Waveguides and Quantum Cascade Lasers”. Anal. Chem 2016; 88(5): 2558–2562.

X. Wang, M. Karlsson, P. Forsberg, M. Sieger, F. Nikolajeff, L. Österlund, and B. Mizaikoff, “Diamonds Are a Spectroscopists Best Friend: Thin-Film Diamond Mid-Infrared Waveguides for Advanced Chemical Sensors/Biosensors”. Anal. Chem 2014; 86(16): 8136–8141.

Singh, V.

V. Singh, P.T. Lin, N. Patel, H. Lin, L. Li, and Y. Zou, “Mid-Infrared Materials and Devices on a Si Platform for Optical Sensing”. Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater 2014; 15(1): 014603.

Sirtori, C.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D.L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A.L. Hutchinson, and A.Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Laser”. Science 1994; 264(5158): 553–556.

Sivco, D.L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D.L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A.L. Hutchinson, and A.Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Laser”. Science 1994; 264(5158): 553–556.

Sivco, L.

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, L. Sivco, and A.Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Lasers”. Phys. Today 2002; 55(5): 34–40.

Smith, P.G.

V. Mittal, A. Aghajani, L.G. Carpenter, J.C. Gates, J. Butement, P.G. Smith, J.S. Wilkinson, and G.S. Murugan, “Fabrication and Characterization of High-Contrast Mid-Infrared GeTe 4 Channel Waveguides”. Opt. Lett 2016; 40(9): 2016–2019.

Squillante, E.

E. Squillante, “Applications of Fiber-Optic Evanescent Wave Spectroscopy”. Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm 1998; 24(12): 1163–1175.

Stach, R.

R. Stach, B. Pejcic, E. Crooke, M. Myers, and B. Mizaikoff, “Mid-Infrared Spectroscopic Method for the Identification and Quantification of Dissolved Oil Components in Marine Environments”. Anal. Chem 2015; 87(24): 12306–12312.

Strasser, G.

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, D. Ristanić, H. Detz, A.M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Monolithically Integrated Mid-Infrared Lab-on-a-Chip Using Plasmonics and Quantum Cascade Structures”. Nat. Commun 2014; 5(May): 4085.

Stuart, B.H.

B.H. Stuart, Infrared Spectroscopy: Fundamentals and Applications , Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2005.

Sullivan, C.

N.N. Misra, C. Sullivan, and P.J. Cullen, “Process Analytical Technology (PAT) and Multivariate Methods for Downstream Processes”. Curr. Biochem. Eng 2015; 2: 4–16.

Szmulowicz, F.

H.J. Haugan, G.J. Brown, F. Szmulowicz, L. Grazulis, W.C. Mitchel, S. Elhamri, and et al., . “InAs / GaSb type-II superlattices for high performance mid-infrared detectors”. J. Cryst. Growth 2005; 278: 198–202.

Tacke, M.

A. Messica, A. Greenstein, A. Katzir, U. Schiessl, and M. Tacke, “Fiber-Optic Evanescent Wave Sensor for Gas Detection”. Opt. Lett 1994; 19(15): 1167–1169.

Tadjer, M.J.

D.I. Shahin, T.J. Anderson, T.I. Feygelson, B.B. Pate, V.D. Wheeler, J.D. Greenlee, J.K. Hite, M.J. Tadjer, A. Christou, and K.D. Hobart, “Thermal Etching of Nanocrystalline Diamond Films”. Diam. Relat. Mater 2015; 59: 116–121.

Takeuchi, E.

C. Young, S.S. Kim, Y. Luzinova, M. Weida, D. Arnone, E. Takeuchi, T. Day, and B. Mizaikoff, “External Cavity Widely Tunable Quantum Cascade Laser Based Hollow Waveguide Gas Sensors for Multianalyte Detection”. Sensors Actuators, B Chem 2009; 140(1): 24–28.

Tashiro, K.

K. Masuno, S. Kumagai, K. Tashiro, and M. Sasaki, “Enhanced Contrast of Wavelength-Selective Mid-Infrared Detectors Stable against Incident Angle and Temperature Changes”. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 2011; 50: 037201.

Torrens-Martín, D.

L. Fernández-Carrasco, D. Torrens-Martín, L.M. Morales, and S. Martínez-Ramírez, “Infrared Spectroscopy in the Analysis of Building and Construction Materials”. In: T. Theophanides, (ed). Infrared Spectroscopy – Materials, Science, Engineering, andTechnology. Inctech 2012. DOI: 10.5772/36186.

Tuzson, B.

P. Jouy, M. Mangold, B. Tuzson, L. Emmenegger, Y.-C. Chang, L. Hvozdara, H.P. Herzig, P. Wagli, A. Homsy, N.F. de Rooij, A. Wirthmueller, D. Hofstetter, H. Looser, and J. Faist, “Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy for Gases and Liquids Based on Quantum Cascade Technologies”. Analyst 2014; 139(9): 2039–2046.

van de Weert, M.

M.J. Maltesen, S. Bjerregaard, L. Hovgaard, S. Havelund, M. van de Weert, and H. Grohganz, “Multivariate Analysis of Phenol in Freeze-Dried and Spray-Dried Insulin Formulations by NIR and FTIR”. Pharm.Sci.Tech 2011; 12(2): 627–636.

Vigano, C.

C. Vigano, J. Ruysschaert, and E. Goormaghtigh, “Sensor Applications of Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy”. Talanta 2005; 65(5): 1132–1142.

Vogt, J.

K. Wörle, F. Seichter, A. Wilk, C. Armacost, T. Day, M. Godejohann, U. Wachter, J. Vogt, P. Radermacher, and B. Mizaikoff, “Breath analysis with broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers”. Anal. Chem 2013; 85(5): 2697–2702.

Vorp, D.A.

R. Cheheltani, C.M. McGoverin, J. Rao, D.A. Vorp, M.F. Kiani, and N. Pleshko, “Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to Quantify Collagen and Elastin in an In Vitro Model of Extracellular Matrix Degradation in Aorta”. Analyst 2014; 139(12): 3039–3047.

Vurgaftman, I.

J.R. Meyer, I. Vurgaftman, R.Q. Yang, and L.R. Ram-Mohan, “Type-II and Type-I Interband Cascade Lasers”. Electron. Lett 1996; 32(1): 45–46.

Wachter, U.

K. Wörle, F. Seichter, A. Wilk, C. Armacost, T. Day, M. Godejohann, U. Wachter, J. Vogt, P. Radermacher, and B. Mizaikoff, “Breath analysis with broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers”. Anal. Chem 2013; 85(5): 2697–2702.

Wagli, P.

P. Jouy, M. Mangold, B. Tuzson, L. Emmenegger, Y.-C. Chang, L. Hvozdara, H.P. Herzig, P. Wagli, A. Homsy, N.F. de Rooij, A. Wirthmueller, D. Hofstetter, H. Looser, and J. Faist, “Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy for Gases and Liquids Based on Quantum Cascade Technologies”. Analyst 2014; 139(9): 2039–2046.

Wagner, T.

A.B. Seddon, N.S. Abdel-Moneim, L. Zhang, W.J. Pan, D. Furniss, C.J. Mellor, T. Kohoutek, J. Orava, T. Wagner, and T.M. Benson, “Mid-Infrared Integrated Optics: Versatile Hot Embossing of Mid-Infrared Glasses for On-Chip Planar Waveguides for Molecular Sensing”. Opt. Eng 2014; 53(7): 71824.

Waldvogel, S.R.

R. Orghici, U. Willer, M. Gierszewska, S.R. Waldvogel, and W. Schade, “Fiber Optic Evanescent Field Sensor for Detection of Explosives and CO2 Dissolved in Water”. Appl. Phys. B Lasers Opt 2008; 90: 355–360.

Wang, X.

X. Wang, M. Karlsson, P. Forsberg, M. Sieger, F. Nikolajeff, L. Österlund, and B. Mizaikoff, “Diamonds Are a Spectroscopists Best Friend: Thin-Film Diamond Mid-Infrared Waveguides for Advanced Chemical Sensors/Biosensors”. Anal. Chem 2014; 86(16): 8136–8141.

X. Wang, S.-S. Kim, R. Roßbach, M. Jetter, P. Michler, and B. Mizaikoff, “Ultra-Sensitive Mid-Infrared Evanescent Field Sensors Combining Thin-Film Strip Waveguides with Quantum Cascade Lasers”. Analyst 2012; 137(10): 2322.

Weida, M.

C. Young, S.S. Kim, Y. Luzinova, M. Weida, D. Arnone, E. Takeuchi, T. Day, and B. Mizaikoff, “External Cavity Widely Tunable Quantum Cascade Laser Based Hollow Waveguide Gas Sensors for Multianalyte Detection”. Sensors Actuators, B Chem 2009; 140(1): 24–28.

Welton, T.

S.G. Kazarian, B.J. Briscoe, and T. Welton, “Combining Ionic Liquids and Supercritical Fluids: In Situ ATR-IR Study of CO2 Dissolved in Two Ionic Liquids at High Pressures”. Chem. Commun 2000; 20(20): 2047–2048.

Wheeler, V.D.

D.I. Shahin, T.J. Anderson, T.I. Feygelson, B.B. Pate, V.D. Wheeler, J.D. Greenlee, J.K. Hite, M.J. Tadjer, A. Christou, and K.D. Hobart, “Thermal Etching of Nanocrystalline Diamond Films”. Diam. Relat. Mater 2015; 59: 116–121.

Wilk, A.

D. Perez-Guaita, V. Kokoric, A. Wilk, S. Garrigues, and B. Mizaikoff, “Towards the Determination of Isoprene in Human Breath Using Substrate-Integrated Hollow Waveguide Mid-Infrared Sensors”. J. Breath Res 2014; 8(2): 026003.

K. Wörle, F. Seichter, A. Wilk, C. Armacost, T. Day, M. Godejohann, U. Wachter, J. Vogt, P. Radermacher, and B. Mizaikoff, “Breath analysis with broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers”. Anal. Chem 2013; 85(5): 2697–2702.

A. Wilk, J. Chance Carter, M. Chrisp, A.M. Manuel, P. Mirkarimi, J.B. Alameda, and et al., . “Substrate-Integrated Hollow Waveguides: A New Level of Integration in Mid-Infrared Gas Sensing”. Anal. Chem 2013; 85(23): 11205–11210.

Wilkinson, J.S.

V. Mittal, A. Aghajani, L.G. Carpenter, J.C. Gates, J. Butement, P.G. Smith, J.S. Wilkinson, and G.S. Murugan, “Fabrication and Characterization of High-Contrast Mid-Infrared GeTe 4 Channel Waveguides”. Opt. Lett 2016; 40(9): 2016–2019.

Willer, U.

R. Orghici, U. Willer, M. Gierszewska, S.R. Waldvogel, and W. Schade, “Fiber Optic Evanescent Field Sensor for Detection of Explosives and CO2 Dissolved in Water”. Appl. Phys. B Lasers Opt 2008; 90: 355–360.

U. Willer, M. Saraji, A. Khorsandi, P. Geiser, and W. Schade, “Near- and Mid-Infrared Laser Monitoring of Industrial Processes, Environment and Security Applications”. Opt. Lasers Eng 2006; 44(7): 699–710.

Wirthmueller, A.

P. Jouy, M. Mangold, B. Tuzson, L. Emmenegger, Y.-C. Chang, L. Hvozdara, H.P. Herzig, P. Wagli, A. Homsy, N.F. de Rooij, A. Wirthmueller, D. Hofstetter, H. Looser, and J. Faist, “Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy for Gases and Liquids Based on Quantum Cascade Technologies”. Analyst 2014; 139(9): 2039–2046.

Wohltjen, H.

F. Giuliani, H. Wohltjen, and N.L. Jarvis, “Reversible Optical Waveguide Sensor for Ammonia Vapors”. 1983 , 8(1): 54–56.

Wörle, K.

K. Wörle, F. Seichter, A. Wilk, C. Armacost, T. Day, M. Godejohann, U. Wachter, J. Vogt, P. Radermacher, and B. Mizaikoff, “Breath analysis with broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers”. Anal. Chem 2013; 85(5): 2697–2702.

Xu, W.L.

J. Jiang, Y. Fu, L. Ning, X.S. Chen, W.L. Xu, and W. Lu, “Detection Wavelength of Very Long Wavelength Quantum-Well Infrared Photodetector”. J. Phys. Condens. Matter 2003; 15(37): 6311–6320.

Xu, Y.

Y. Xu, A. Cottenden, and N.B. Jones, “A Theoretical Evaluation of Fibre-Optic Evanescent Wave Absorption in Spectroscopy and Sensors”. Opt. Lasers Eng 2006; 44(2): 93–101.

Yang, J.

E. Satheeshkumar and J. Yang, “Preparation and Characterization of Silver Film Coated ZnO Nanowire Gas Sensors Based on the Infrared Surface Enhancement Effect for Detection of VOCs”. RSC Adv 2014; 4(37): 19331.

Yang, Q.

D. Hofstetter, F.R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, Q. Yang, C. Manz, and K. Köhler, “Mid-Infrared Quantum Cascade Detectors for Applications in Spectroscopy and Pyrometry”. Appl. Phys. B 2010; 100(2): 313–320.

Yang, R.Q.

L. Li, Y. Jiang, H. Ye, R.Q. Yang, T.D. Mishima, M.B. Santos, and et al., . “Low-threshold InAs-based interband cascade lasers operating at high temperatures”. Appl. Phys. Lett 2015; 106(25): 251102.

J.R. Meyer, I. Vurgaftman, R.Q. Yang, and L.R. Ram-Mohan, “Type-II and Type-I Interband Cascade Lasers”. Electron. Lett 1996; 32(1): 45–46.

R.Q. Yang, “Infrared Laser Based On Intersubband Transitions in Quantum Wells”. Superlattices Microstruct 1995; 17(1): 77–83.

Ye, H.

L. Li, Y. Jiang, H. Ye, R.Q. Yang, T.D. Mishima, M.B. Santos, and et al., . “Low-threshold InAs-based interband cascade lasers operating at high temperatures”. Appl. Phys. Lett 2015; 106(25): 251102.

Young, C.

C. Young, S.S. Kim, Y. Luzinova, M. Weida, D. Arnone, E. Takeuchi, T. Day, and B. Mizaikoff, “External Cavity Widely Tunable Quantum Cascade Laser Based Hollow Waveguide Gas Sensors for Multianalyte Detection”. Sensors Actuators, B Chem 2009; 140(1): 24–28.

Young, C.R.

C.R. Young, N. Menegazzo, A.E. Riley, C.H. Brons, F.P. Disanzo, J.L. Givens, J.L. Martin, M.M. Disko, and B. Mizaikoff, “Infrared Hollow Waveguide Sensors for Simultaneous Gas Phase Detection of Benzene, Toluene, and Xylenes in Field Environments”. Anal. Chem 2011; 83: 6141–6147.

Zaitsev, A.M.

A.M. Zaitsev, “Bulk Diamonds”. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A 2008; 105(46): 17591–17592.

Zdyrko, B.

Y. Luzinova, B. Zdyrko, I. Luzinov, and B. Mizaikoff, “In Situ Trace Analysis of Oil in Water with Mid-Infrared Fiberoptic Chemical Sensors”. Anal. Chem 2012; 84(3): 1274–1280.

J. Giammarco, B. Zdyrko, L. Petit, J.D. Musgraves, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, K. Richardson, and I. Luzinov, “Towards Universal Enrichment Nanocoating for IR-ATR Waveguides”. Chem. Commun. (Camb) 2011; 47(32): 9104–9106.

Zhang, L.

A.B. Seddon, N.S. Abdel-Moneim, L. Zhang, W.J. Pan, D. Furniss, C.J. Mellor, T. Kohoutek, J. Orava, T. Wagner, and T.M. Benson, “Mid-Infrared Integrated Optics: Versatile Hot Embossing of Mid-Infrared Glasses for On-Chip Planar Waveguides for Molecular Sensing”. Opt. Eng 2014; 53(7): 71824.

Zou, Y.

V. Singh, P.T. Lin, N. Patel, H. Lin, L. Li, and Y. Zou, “Mid-Infrared Materials and Devices on a Si Platform for Optical Sensing”. Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater 2014; 15(1): 014603.

1983 (1)

F. Giuliani, H. Wohltjen, and N.L. Jarvis, “Reversible Optical Waveguide Sensor for Ammonia Vapors”. 1983 , 8(1): 54–56.

Adv. Mater. Sci. Res (1)

H.J. Haugan, “Growth and Optimization of InAs /GaSb Superlattice Materials for Mid- Infrared Detectors”. Adv. Mater. Sci. Res 2011; 2: 61–76.

Anal. Chem (12)

T. Schädle, B. Pejcic, M. Myers, and B. Mizaikoff, “Fingerprinting Oils in Water via Their Dissolved Voc Pattern Using Mid-Infrared Sensors”. Anal. Chem 2014; 86(19): 9512–9517.

Y. Luzinova, B. Zdyrko, I. Luzinov, and B. Mizaikoff, “In Situ Trace Analysis of Oil in Water with Mid-Infrared Fiberoptic Chemical Sensors”. Anal. Chem 2012; 84(3): 1274–1280.

A. Wilk, J. Chance Carter, M. Chrisp, A.M. Manuel, P. Mirkarimi, J.B. Alameda, and et al., . “Substrate-Integrated Hollow Waveguides: A New Level of Integration in Mid-Infrared Gas Sensing”. Anal. Chem 2013; 85(23): 11205–11210.

K. Wörle, F. Seichter, A. Wilk, C. Armacost, T. Day, M. Godejohann, U. Wachter, J. Vogt, P. Radermacher, and B. Mizaikoff, “Breath analysis with broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers”. Anal. Chem 2013; 85(5): 2697–2702.

M. Sieger, J. Haas, M. Jetter, P. Michler, M. Godejohann, and B. Mizaikoff, “Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy Platform Based on GaAs/AlGaAs Thin-Film Waveguides and Quantum Cascade Lasers”. Anal. Chem 2016; 88(5): 2558–2562.

B. Mizaikoff, “Mid-IR Fiber-Optic Sensors”. Anal. Chem 2003; 75(11): 258A–267A.

C. Charlton, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and B. Mizaikoff, “Fabrication and Characterization of Molecular Beam Epitaxy Grown Thin-Film GaAs Waveguides for Mid-Infrared Evanescent Field Chemical Sensing”. Anal. Chem 2006; 78(12): 4224–4227.

X. Wang, M. Karlsson, P. Forsberg, M. Sieger, F. Nikolajeff, L. Österlund, and B. Mizaikoff, “Diamonds Are a Spectroscopists Best Friend: Thin-Film Diamond Mid-Infrared Waveguides for Advanced Chemical Sensors/Biosensors”. Anal. Chem 2014; 86(16): 8136–8141.

F.S. Ligler, “Perspective on Optical Biosensors and Integrated Sensor Systems”. Anal. Chem 2009; 81(2): 519–526.

J.T. Bradshaw, S.B. Mendes, N.R. Armstrong, and S.S. Saavedra, “Broadband Coupling into a Single-Mode, Electroactive Integrated Optical Waveguide for Spectroelectrochemical Analysis of Surface-Confined Redox Couples”. Anal. Chem 2003; 75(5): 1080–1088.

R. Stach, B. Pejcic, E. Crooke, M. Myers, and B. Mizaikoff, “Mid-Infrared Spectroscopic Method for the Identification and Quantification of Dissolved Oil Components in Marine Environments”. Anal. Chem 2015; 87(24): 12306–12312.

C.R. Young, N. Menegazzo, A.E. Riley, C.H. Brons, F.P. Disanzo, J.L. Givens, J.L. Martin, M.M. Disko, and B. Mizaikoff, “Infrared Hollow Waveguide Sensors for Simultaneous Gas Phase Detection of Benzene, Toluene, and Xylenes in Field Environments”. Anal. Chem 2011; 83: 6141–6147.

Anal. Methods (1)

T. Schädle, B. Pejcic, and B. Mizaikoff, “Monitoring Dissolved Carbon Dioxide and Methane in Brine Environments at High Pressure Using IR-ATR Spectroscopy”. Anal. Methods 2016; 8(4): 756–762.

Analyst (3)

P. Jouy, M. Mangold, B. Tuzson, L. Emmenegger, Y.-C. Chang, L. Hvozdara, H.P. Herzig, P. Wagli, A. Homsy, N.F. de Rooij, A. Wirthmueller, D. Hofstetter, H. Looser, and J. Faist, “Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy for Gases and Liquids Based on Quantum Cascade Technologies”. Analyst 2014; 139(9): 2039–2046.

X. Wang, S.-S. Kim, R. Roßbach, M. Jetter, P. Michler, and B. Mizaikoff, “Ultra-Sensitive Mid-Infrared Evanescent Field Sensors Combining Thin-Film Strip Waveguides with Quantum Cascade Lasers”. Analyst 2012; 137(10): 2322.

R. Cheheltani, C.M. McGoverin, J. Rao, D.A. Vorp, M.F. Kiani, and N. Pleshko, “Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to Quantify Collagen and Elastin in an In Vitro Model of Extracellular Matrix Degradation in Aorta”. Analyst 2014; 139(12): 3039–3047.

Appl. Environ. Microbiol (1)

M. Kansiz, H. Billman-Jacobe, and D. McNaughton, “Quantitative Determination of the Biodegradable Polymer Poly(beta -hydroxybutyrate) in a Recombinant Escherichia coli Strain by Use of Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariative Statistics”. Appl. Environ. Microbiol 2000; 66(8): 3415–3420.

Appl. Opt (1)

A. Messica, A. Greenstein, and A. Katzir, “Theory of Fiber-Optic, Evanescent-Wave Spectroscopy and Sensors”. Appl. Opt 1996; 35(13): 2274–2284.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

D. Hofstetter, F.R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, Q. Yang, C. Manz, and K. Köhler, “Mid-Infrared Quantum Cascade Detectors for Applications in Spectroscopy and Pyrometry”. Appl. Phys. B 2010; 100(2): 313–320.

Appl. Phys. B Lasers Opt (1)

R. Orghici, U. Willer, M. Gierszewska, S.R. Waldvogel, and W. Schade, “Fiber Optic Evanescent Field Sensor for Detection of Explosives and CO2 Dissolved in Water”. Appl. Phys. B Lasers Opt 2008; 90: 355–360.

Appl. Phys. Lett (1)

L. Li, Y. Jiang, H. Ye, R.Q. Yang, T.D. Mishima, M.B. Santos, and et al., . “Low-threshold InAs-based interband cascade lasers operating at high temperatures”. Appl. Phys. Lett 2015; 106(25): 251102.

Appl. Spectrosc (2)

S. Schaden, M. Haberkorn, J. Frank, J.R. Baena, and B. Lendl, “Direct Determination of Carbon Dioxide in Aqueous Solution Using Mid-Infrared Quantum Cascade Lasers”. Appl. Spectrosc 2004; 58(6): 667–70.

T. Schädle, A. Eifert, C. Kranz, Y. Raichlin, A. Katzir, and B. Mizaikoff, “Mid-Infrared Planar Silver Halide Waveguides with Integrated Grating Couplers”. Appl. Spectrosc 2013; 67(9): 1057–1063.

Chem. Commun (1)

S.G. Kazarian, B.J. Briscoe, and T. Welton, “Combining Ionic Liquids and Supercritical Fluids: In Situ ATR-IR Study of CO2 Dissolved in Two Ionic Liquids at High Pressures”. Chem. Commun 2000; 20(20): 2047–2048.

Chem. Commun. (Camb) (1)

J. Giammarco, B. Zdyrko, L. Petit, J.D. Musgraves, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, K. Richardson, and I. Luzinov, “Towards Universal Enrichment Nanocoating for IR-ATR Waveguides”. Chem. Commun. (Camb) 2011; 47(32): 9104–9106.

Chem. Soc. Rev (2)

J.M. Andanson and A. Baiker, “Exploring Catalytic Solid/Liquid Interfaces by In Situ Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy”. Chem. Soc. Rev 2010; 39(12): 4571.

B. Mizaikoff, “Waveguide-Enhanced Mid-Infrared Chem/Bio Sensors”. Chem. Soc. Rev 2013; 42(22): 8683–99.

Curr. Biochem. Eng (1)

N.N. Misra, C. Sullivan, and P.J. Cullen, “Process Analytical Technology (PAT) and Multivariate Methods for Downstream Processes”. Curr. Biochem. Eng 2015; 2: 4–16.

Diam. Relat. Mater (1)

D.I. Shahin, T.J. Anderson, T.I. Feygelson, B.B. Pate, V.D. Wheeler, J.D. Greenlee, J.K. Hite, M.J. Tadjer, A. Christou, and K.D. Hobart, “Thermal Etching of Nanocrystalline Diamond Films”. Diam. Relat. Mater 2015; 59: 116–121.

Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm (1)

E. Squillante, “Applications of Fiber-Optic Evanescent Wave Spectroscopy”. Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm 1998; 24(12): 1163–1175.

Electron. Lett (1)

J.R. Meyer, I. Vurgaftman, R.Q. Yang, and L.R. Ram-Mohan, “Type-II and Type-I Interband Cascade Lasers”. Electron. Lett 1996; 32(1): 45–46.

Fiber Integr. Opt (1)

A. Sarkar, “Fabrication Techniques for High-Quality Optical Fibers”. Fiber Integr. Opt 1985; 5(2): 135–149.

Infrared Phys (1)

R. Kesselring, A.W. Kälin, and F.K. Kneubühl, “Fast Mid-Infrared Detectors”. Infrared Phys 1992; 33(5): 423–436.

J. Breath Res (1)

D. Perez-Guaita, V. Kokoric, A. Wilk, S. Garrigues, and B. Mizaikoff, “Towards the Determination of Isoprene in Human Breath Using Substrate-Integrated Hollow Waveguide Mid-Infrared Sensors”. J. Breath Res 2014; 8(2): 026003.

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

H.J. Haugan, G.J. Brown, F. Szmulowicz, L. Grazulis, W.C. Mitchel, S. Elhamri, and et al., . “InAs / GaSb type-II superlattices for high performance mid-infrared detectors”. J. Cryst. Growth 2005; 278: 198–202.

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

J. Jiang, Y. Fu, L. Ning, X.S. Chen, W.L. Xu, and W. Lu, “Detection Wavelength of Very Long Wavelength Quantum-Well Infrared Photodetector”. J. Phys. Condens. Matter 2003; 15(37): 6311–6320.

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys (1)

K. Masuno, S. Kumagai, K. Tashiro, and M. Sasaki, “Enhanced Contrast of Wavelength-Selective Mid-Infrared Detectors Stable against Incident Angle and Temperature Changes”. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 2011; 50: 037201.

Meas. Sci. Technol (1)

A. Graf, M. Arndt, M. Sauer, and G. Gerlach, “Review of Micromachined Thermopiles for Infrared Detection”. Meas. Sci. Technol 2007; 18: R59–R75.

Nanoscale Res. Lett (1)

F.-R. Jasnot, N. Péré-Laperne, L.-A. de Vaulchier, Y. Guldner, F. Carosella, R. Ferreira, and et al., . “Magnetotransport in Quantum Cascade Detectors: Analyzing the Current Under Illumination”. Nanoscale Res. Lett 2011; 6(1): 206.

Nat. Commun (1)

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, D. Ristanić, H. Detz, A.M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Monolithically Integrated Mid-Infrared Lab-on-a-Chip Using Plasmonics and Quantum Cascade Structures”. Nat. Commun 2014; 5(May): 4085.

Opt. Eng (1)

A.B. Seddon, N.S. Abdel-Moneim, L. Zhang, W.J. Pan, D. Furniss, C.J. Mellor, T. Kohoutek, J. Orava, T. Wagner, and T.M. Benson, “Mid-Infrared Integrated Optics: Versatile Hot Embossing of Mid-Infrared Glasses for On-Chip Planar Waveguides for Molecular Sensing”. Opt. Eng 2014; 53(7): 71824.

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lasers Eng (2)

Y. Xu, A. Cottenden, and N.B. Jones, “A Theoretical Evaluation of Fibre-Optic Evanescent Wave Absorption in Spectroscopy and Sensors”. Opt. Lasers Eng 2006; 44(2): 93–101.

U. Willer, M. Saraji, A. Khorsandi, P. Geiser, and W. Schade, “Near- and Mid-Infrared Laser Monitoring of Industrial Processes, Environment and Security Applications”. Opt. Lasers Eng 2006; 44(7): 699–710.

Opt. Lett (3)

Y. Ren, G. Brown, A. Ródenas, S. Beecher, F. Chen, and A.K. Kar, “Mid-Infrared Waveguide Lasers in Rare-Earth-Doped YAG”. Opt. Lett 2012; 37(16): 3339–3341.

A. Messica, A. Greenstein, A. Katzir, U. Schiessl, and M. Tacke, “Fiber-Optic Evanescent Wave Sensor for Gas Detection”. Opt. Lett 1994; 19(15): 1167–1169.

V. Mittal, A. Aghajani, L.G. Carpenter, J.C. Gates, J. Butement, P.G. Smith, J.S. Wilkinson, and G.S. Murugan, “Fabrication and Characterization of High-Contrast Mid-Infrared GeTe 4 Channel Waveguides”. Opt. Lett 2016; 40(9): 2016–2019.

Optica (1)

M.N. Polyanskiy, M. Babzien, and I.V. Pogorelsky, “Chirped-Pulse Amplification in a CO2 Laser”. Optica 2015; 2(8): 657–681.

Org. Geochem (1)

B. Pejcic, L. Boyd, M. Myers, A. Ross, Y. Raichlin, A. Katzir, R. Lu, and B. Mizaikoff, “Direct Quantification of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Geochemical Fluids with a Mid-Infrared Attenuated Total Reflection Sensor”. Org. Geochem 2013; 55: 63–71.

Pharm.Sci.Tech (1)

M.J. Maltesen, S. Bjerregaard, L. Hovgaard, S. Havelund, M. van de Weert, and H. Grohganz, “Multivariate Analysis of Phenol in Freeze-Dried and Spray-Dried Insulin Formulations by NIR and FTIR”. Pharm.Sci.Tech 2011; 12(2): 627–636.

Phys. Today (1)

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, L. Sivco, and A.Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Lasers”. Phys. Today 2002; 55(5): 34–40.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A (1)

A.M. Zaitsev, “Bulk Diamonds”. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A 2008; 105(46): 17591–17592.

RSC Adv (1)

E. Satheeshkumar and J. Yang, “Preparation and Characterization of Silver Film Coated ZnO Nanowire Gas Sensors Based on the Infrared Surface Enhancement Effect for Detection of VOCs”. RSC Adv 2014; 4(37): 19331.

Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater (1)

V. Singh, P.T. Lin, N. Patel, H. Lin, L. Li, and Y. Zou, “Mid-Infrared Materials and Devices on a Si Platform for Optical Sensing”. Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater 2014; 15(1): 014603.

Science (1)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D.L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A.L. Hutchinson, and A.Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Laser”. Science 1994; 264(5158): 553–556.

Sensors Actuators, B Chem (1)

C. Young, S.S. Kim, Y. Luzinova, M. Weida, D. Arnone, E. Takeuchi, T. Day, and B. Mizaikoff, “External Cavity Widely Tunable Quantum Cascade Laser Based Hollow Waveguide Gas Sensors for Multianalyte Detection”. Sensors Actuators, B Chem 2009; 140(1): 24–28.

Spectrochim. Acta (1)

J. Fahrenfort, “Attenuated Total Reflection: A New Principle for the Production of Useful Infra-Red Reflection Spectra of Organic Compounds”. Spectrochim. Acta 1961; 17(7): 698–709.

Superlattices Microstruct (1)

R.Q. Yang, “Infrared Laser Based On Intersubband Transitions in Quantum Wells”. Superlattices Microstruct 1995; 17(1): 77–83.

Talanta (2)

S. Hou, C.B. Riley, C.A. Mitchell, R.A. Shaw, J. Bryanton, and K. Bigsby, “Exploration of Attenuated Total Reflectance Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Calibration to Measure Immunoglobulin G in Human Sera”. Talanta 2015; 142: 110–119.

C. Vigano, J. Ruysschaert, and E. Goormaghtigh, “Sensor Applications of Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy”. Talanta 2005; 65(5): 1132–1142.

Vib. Spectrosc (1)

Y. Raichlin, D. Avisar, L. Gerber, and A. Katzir, “Flattened Infrared Fiber-Optic Sensors for the Analysis of Micrograms of Insoluble Solid Particles in Solution or in a Dry State”. Vib. Spectrosc 2014; 73: 67–72.

Other (4)

N.J. Harrick, Internal Reflection Spectroscopy , New York: Interscience Publishers, 1979.

B.H. Stuart, Infrared Spectroscopy: Fundamentals and Applications , Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2005.

N.J. Harrick, Internal Reflection Spectroscopy , New York: Interscience Publishers, 1967.

L. Fernández-Carrasco, D. Torrens-Martín, L.M. Morales, and S. Martínez-Ramírez, “Infrared Spectroscopy in the Analysis of Building and Construction Materials”. In: T. Theophanides, (ed). Infrared Spectroscopy – Materials, Science, Engineering, andTechnology. Inctech 2012. DOI: 10.5772/36186.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.