Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) can provide positive identification of an analyte or an analyte mixture with high sensitivity and selectivity. Better understanding of the theory and advances in the understanding of the practice have led to the development of practical applications in which the unique advantages of SERS/SERRS have been used to provide effective solutions to difficult analytical problems. This review presents a basic theory and illustrates the way in which SERS/SERRS has been developed for practical use.

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