Abstract

We report the first transcutaneous Raman spectrum of human bone <i>in vivo</i> obtained at skin-safe laser illumination levels. The spectrum of thumb distal phalanx was obtained using spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS), which provides chemically specific information on deep layers of human tissue, well beyond the reach of existing comparative approaches. The spectroscopy is based on collecting Raman spectra away from the point of laser illumination using concentric rings of optical fibers. As a generic analytical tool this approach paves the way for a range of uses including disease diagnosis, noninvasive probing of pharmaceutical products, biofilms, catalysts, paints, and in dermatological applications.

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