X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has been used to identify and determine the oxidation states of a number of major and minor elements present on the surface of fly ash particles. With the use of a sputtering-etching procedure, relative concentrations as a function of depth were obtained for Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Na, C, O, and S. The concentrations of Na, C, O, and S were found to decrease and Si, Al, and Fe were found to increase upon sputtering to a depth of approximately 50 Å.
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