Abstract

In this paper, we review the historical evolution of predictions of the performance of optical communication systems. We will describe how such predictions were made from the outset of research in laser-based optical communications and how they have evolved to their present form, accurately predicting the performance of coherently detected communication systems.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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K. Zou, Y. Zhu, and F. Zhang, “800  Gb/s (8 × 100  Gb/s) Nyquist half-cycle single sideband modulation direct detection transmission over 320  km SSMF at C-band,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35, 1900–1905 (2017).
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E. El-Fiky, M. Chagnon, M. Sowailem, A. Samani, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. V. Plant, “168  Gb/s single carrier PAM4 transmission for intra data center optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 314–317 (2017).
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R. Sharma and G. Garg, “Path averaged soliton systems for long-haul communication,” Int. J. Res. Eng. 4, 22–27 (2017).

M. Sorokina, S. Sygletos, and S. Turitsyn, “Ripple distribution for nonlinear fibre-optic channels,” Opt. Express 25, 2228–2238 (2017).
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M. Secondini and E. Forestieri, “Scope and limitations of the nonlinear Shannon limit,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35, 893–902 (2017).
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A. D. Ellis, M. A. Z. Al Khateeb, and M. E. McCarthy, “Impact of optical phase conjugation on the nonlinear Shannon limit,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35, 792–798 (2017).
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L. Galdino, D. Semrau, D. Lavery, G. Saavedra, C. B. Czegledi, E. Agrell, R. I. Killey, and P. Bayvel, “On the limits of digital back-propagation in the presence of transceiver noise,” Opt. Express 25, 4564–4578 (2017).
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D. J. Ives, A. Alvarado, and S. J. Savory, “Throughput gains from adaptive transceivers in nonlinear elastic optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35, 1280–1289 (2017).
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2016 (26)

K. Solis-Trapala, M. Pelusi, H. N. Tan, T. Inoue, and S. Namiki, “Optimized WDM transmission impairment mitigation by multiple phase conjugations,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 431–440 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Umeki, T. Kazama, A. Sano, K. Shibahara, K. Suzuki, M. Abe, H. Takenouchi, and Y. Miyamoto, “Simultaneous nonlinearity mitigation in 92 × 180-Gbit/s PDM-16QAM transmission over 3840  km using PPLN-based guard-band-less optical phase conjugation,” Opt. Express 24, 16945–16951 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Guitierrez, E. Martin, P. Perry, A. D. Ellis, P. Anandarajah, and L. Barry, “WDM orthogonal subcarrier multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 1815–1823 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. E. McCarthy, M. A. Z. Al Khateeb, and A. D. Ellis, “PMD tolerant nonlinear compensation using in-line phase conjugation,” Opt. Express 24, 3385–3392 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Temprana, N. Alic, B. P. P. Kuo, and S. Radic, “Beating the nonlinear capacity limit,” Opt. Photon. News 27(3), 30–37 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Dar and P. J. Winzer, “On the limits of digital back-propagation in fully loaded WDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1253–1256 (2016).
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D. Lavery, D. Ives, G. Liga, A. Alvarado, S. J. Savory, and P. Bayvel, “The benefit of split nonlinearity compensation for single-channel optical fiber communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1803–1806 (2016).
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D. J. Elson, L. Galdino, R. Maher, R. I. Killey, B. C. Thomsen, and P. Bayvel, “High spectral density transmission emulation using amplified spontaneous emission noise,” Opt. Lett. 41, 68–71 (2016).
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M. Sorokina, S. Sygletos, and S. Turitsyn, “Sparse identification for nonlinear optical communication systems: SINO method,” Opt. Express 24, 30433–30443 (2016).
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J. Gonçalves, C. S. Martins, F. P. Guiomar, T. R. Cunha, J. C. Pedro, A. N. Pinto, and P. M. Lavrador, “Nonlinear compensation with DBP aided by a memory polynomial,” Opt. Express 24, 30309–30316 (2016).
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J. Thrane, J. Wass, M. Piels, J. C. M. Diniz, R. Jones, and D. Zibar, “Machine learning techniques for optical performance monitoring from directly detected PDM-QAM signals,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35, 868–875 (2016).
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A. Lord, A. Soppera, and A. Jacquet, “The impact of capacity growth in national telecommunications networks,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A 374, 20140431 (2016).
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E. Agrell, A. Alvarado, and F. R. Kschischang, “Implications of information theory in optical fibre communications,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A 374, 20140438 (2016).

M. A. Z. Al-Khateeb, M. E. McCarthy, C. S. Costa, and A. D. Ellis, “Effect of second order signal-noise interactions in nonlinearity compensated optical transmission systems,” Opt. Lett. 41, 1849–1852 (2016).
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P. Serena, “Nonlinear signal-noise interaction in optical links with nonlinear equalization,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 1476–1483 (2016).
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A. D. Ellis, M. Tan, M. A. Iqbal, M. A. Z. Al Khateeb, V. Gordienko, G. S. Mondaca, S. Fabbri, M. F. C. Stephens, M. E. McCarthy, A. Perentos, I. D. Phillips, D. Lavery, G. Liga, R. Maher, P. Harper, N. J. Doran, S. K. Turitsyn, S. Sygletos, and P. Bayvel, “4  Tb/s transmission reach enhancement using 10 × 400  Gb/s super-channels and polarization insensitive dual band optical phase conjugation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 1717–1723 (2016).
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R. Nagesh, R. Mohan, and R. S. Asha, “A survey on dispersion management using optical solitons in optical communication system,” Procedia Technol. 25, 552–559 (2016).
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W. Liu, Y. Zhang, L. Pang, H. Yan, G. Ma, and M. Lei, “Study on the control technology of optical solitons in optical fibers,” Nonlinear Dynam. 86, 1069–1073 (2016).
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S. Hari, M. I. Yousefi, and F. R. Kschischang, “Multieigenvalue communication,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 3110–3117 (2016).
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S. A. Derevyanko, J. E. Prilepsky, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Capacity estimates for optical transmission based on the nonlinear Fourier transform,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12710 (2016).
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K. Zhong, X. Zhou, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, W. Zhou, W. Chen, and C. Lu, “Transmission of a 120-GBd PM-NRZ signal using a monolithic double-side EML,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 2176–2179 (2016).
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M. Morsy-Osman, M. Chagnon, and D. V. Plant, “Four-dimensional modulation and Stokes direct detection of polarization division multiplexed intensities, inter polarization phase and inter polarization differential phase,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 1585–1592 (2016).
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A. Amari, P. Ciblat, and Y. Jaouën, “Inter-subcarrier nonlinear interference canceler for long-haul Nyquist-WDM transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 2760–2763 (2016).
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M. Tan, P. Rosa, S. T. Le, M. A. Iqbal, I. D. Phillips, and P. Harper, “Transmission performance improvement using random DFB laser based Raman amplification and bidirectional second-order pumping,” Opt. Express 24, 2215–2221 (2016).
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A. D. Ellis, N. Mac Suibhne, D. Saad, and D. N. Payne, “Communication networks beyond the capacity crunch,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A 374, 20150191 (2016).
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A. Alvarado, E. Agrell, D. Lavery, R. Maher, and P. Bayvel, “Replacing the soft-decision FEC limit paradigm in the design of optical communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 707–721 (2016).
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2015 (16)

K. Zhong, X. Zhou, Y. Gao, W. Chen, J. Man, L. Zeng, and C. Lu, “140  Gbit/s 20  km transmission of PAM-4 signal at 1.3  μm for short reach communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27, 1757–1760 (2015).
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M. Morsy-Osman, M. Chagnon, M. Poulin, S. Lessard, and D. V. Plant, “224-Gb/s 10-km transmission of PDM PAM-4 at 1.3  μm using a single intensity-modulated laser and a direct-detection MIMO DSP-based receiver,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 1417–1424 (2015).
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L. Yi, X. Wang, Z. Li, J. Huang, J. Han, and W. Hu, “Upstream dispersion management supporting 100  km differential reach in TWDM-PON,” Opt. Express 23, 7971–7977 (2015).
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P. J. Winzer, “Scaling optical fiber networks: challenges and solutions,” Opt. Photon. News 26(3), 28–35 (2015).
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J. X. Cai, Y. Sun, H. Zhang, H. G. Batshon, M. V. Mazurczyk, O. V. Sinkin, D. G. Foursa, and A. Pilipetskii, “49.3  Tb/s transmission over 9100  km using C+L EDFA and 54  Tb/s transmission over 9150  km using hybrid-Raman EDFA,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 2724–2734 (2015).
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A. D. Ellis, M. E. McCarthy, M. A. Z. Al-Khateeb, and S. Sygletos, “Capacity limits of systems employing multiple optical phase conjugators,” Opt. Express 23, 20381–20393 (2015).
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K. Roberts, S. H. Foo, M. Moyer, M. Hubbard, A. Sinclair, J. Gaudette, and C. Laperle, “High capacity transport—100G and beyond,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 563–578 (2015).
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I. Sackey, F. Da Ros, J. K. Fischer, T. Richter, M. Jazayerifar, C. Peucheret, K. Petermann, and C. Schubert, “Kerr nonlinearity mitigation: mid-link spectral inversion versus digital backpropagation in 5 × 28-GBd PDM 16-QAM signal transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 1821–1827 (2015).
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F. Zhang, Q. Zhuge, M. Qiu, W. Wang, M. Chagnon, and D. V. Plant, “XPM model-based digital backpropagation for subcarrier-multiplexing systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 5140–5150 (2015).
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E. Temprana, E. Myslivets, L. Liu, V. Ataie, A. Wiberg, B. P. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Two-fold transmission reach enhancement enabled by transmitter-side digital backpropagation and optical frequency comb-derived information carriers,” Opt. Express 23, 20774–20783 (2015).
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R. Dar, M. Feder, A. Mecozzi, and M. Shtaif, “Inter-channel nonlinear interference noise in WDM systems: modeling and mitigation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 1044–1053 (2015).
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M. Tan, P. Rosa, S. T. Le, I. D. Phillips, and P. Harper, “Evaluation of 100G DP-QPSK long-haul transmission performance using second order co-pumped Raman laser based amplification,” Opt. Express 23, 22181–22189 (2015).
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S. T. Le, M. E. McCarthy, N. M. Suibhne, A. D. Ellis, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Phase-conjugated pilots for fibre nonlinearity compensation in CO-OFDM transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 1308–1314 (2015).
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D. Vukovic, J. Schröder, F. Da Ros, L. B. Du, C. J. Chae, D.-Y. Choi, M. D. Pelusi, and C. Peucheret, “Multichannel nonlinear distortion compensation using optical phase conjugation in a silicon nanowire,” Opt. Express 23, 3640–3646 (2015).
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H. Eliasson, P. Johannisson, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Mitigation of nonlinearities using conjugate data repetition,” Opt. Express 23, 2392–2402 (2015).
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M. A. Jarajreh, E. Giacoumidis, I. Aldaya, S. T. Le, A. Tsokanos, Z. Ghassemlooy, and N. J. Doran, “Artificial neural network nonlinear equalizer for coherent optical OFDM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 387–390 (2015).
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2014 (14)

C. Xia, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, N. K. Fontaine, L. Zhu, and G. Li, “Multi-channel nonlinearity compensation of PDM-QPSK signals in dispersion-managed transmission using dispersion-folded digital backward propagation,” Opt. Express 22, 5859–5866 (2014).
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M. H. Shoreh, “Compensation of nonlinearity impairments in coherent optical OFDM systems using multiple optical phase conjugate modules,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 6, 549–558 (2014).
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M. Morshed, L. B. Du, B. Foo, M. D. Pelusi, B. Corcoran, and A. J. Lowery, “Experimental demonstrations of dual polarization CO-OFDM using mid-span spectral inversion for nonlinearity compensation,” Opt. Express 22, 10455–10466 (2014).
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L. B. Du, D. Rafique, A. Napoli, B. Spinnler, A. D. Ellis, M. Kuschnerov, and A. J. Lowery, “Digital fiber nonlinearity compensation: toward 1-Tb/s transport,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 31(2), 46–56 (2014).
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G. Liga, T. Xu, A. Alvarado, R. I. Killey, and P. Bayvel, “On the performance of multichannel digital backpropagation in high-capacity long-haul optical transmission,” Opt. Express 22, 30053–30062 (2014).
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N. J. Doran and A. D. Ellis, “Minimising total energy requirements in amplified links by optimising amplifier spacing,” Opt. Express 22, 19810–19817 (2014).
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E. Agrell, A. Alvarado, G. Durisi, and M. Karlsson, “Capacity of a nonlinear optical channel with finite memory,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 2862–2876 (2014).
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A. Nespola, S. Straullu, A. Carena, G. Bosco, R. Cigliutti, V. Curri, and J. Bauwelinck, “GN-model validation over seven fiber types in uncompensated PM-16QAM Nyquist-WDM links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 206–209 (2014).
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R. Dar, M. Shtaif, and M. Feder, “New bounds on the capacity of the nonlinear fiber-optic channel,” Opt. Lett. 39, 398–401 (2014).
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K. Igarashi, T. Tsuritani, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, K. Maeda, M. Tadakuma, and M. Suzuki, “Super-Nyquist-WDM transmission over 7,326-km seven-core fiber with capacity-distance product of 1.03 exabit/s km,” Opt. Express 22, 1220–1228 (2014).
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O. Yushko, A. Redyuk, M. Fedoruk, K. J. Blow, N. J. Doran, A. D. Ellis, and S. Turitsyn, “Timing and phase jitter suppression in coherent soliton transmission,” Opt. Lett. 39, 6308–6311 (2014).
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S. E. Alavi, I. S. Amiri, S. M. Idrus, A. S. Supa’at, J. Ali, and P. P. Yupapin, “All-optical OFDM generation for IEEE802.11a based on soliton carriers using microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. J. 6, 1–9 (2014).

A. A. Redyuk, O. E. Nanii, V. N. Treshchikov, V. Mikhailov, and M. P. Fedoruk, “100  Gb s−1 coherent dense wavelength division multiplexing system reach extension beyond the limit of electronic dispersion compensation using optical dispersion management,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12, 025101 (2014).
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M. Chagnon, M. Osman, M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, J.-F. Gagné, Y. Painchaud, C. Paquet, S. Lessard, and D. Plant, “Experimental study of 112  Gb/s short reach transmission employing PAM formats and SiP intensity modulator at 1.3  μm,” Opt. Express 22, 21018–21036 (2014).
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2013 (11)

J. Stark, Y. T. Hsueh, T. F. Detwiler, M. M. Filer, S. Tibuleac, and S. E. Ralph, “System performance prediction with the Gaussian noise model in 100G PDM-QPSK coherent optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 3352–3360 (2013).
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P. Johannisson and M. Karlsson, “Perturbation analysis of nonlinear propagation in a strongly dispersive optical communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 1273–1282 (2013).
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M. Secondini, E. Forestieri, and G. Prati, “Achievable information rate in nonlinear WDM fiber-optic systems with arbitrary modulation formats and dispersion maps,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 3839–3852 (2013).
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F. Fresi, M. Secondini, G. Berrettini, G. Meloni, and L. Poti, “Impact of optical and electrical narrowband spectral shaping in faster than Nyquist Tb superchannel,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 2301–2303 (2013).
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T. Omiya, M. Yoshida, and M. Nakazawa, “400  Gbit/s 256 QAM-OFDM transmission over 720  km with a 14  bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency by using high-resolution FDE,” Opt. Express 21, 2632–2641 (2013).
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M. D. Pelusi, “Fiber looped phase conjugation of polarization multiplexed signals for pre-compensation of fiber nonlinearity effect,” Opt. Express 21, 21423–21432 (2013).
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D. Rafique, S. Sygletos, and A. D. Ellis, “Intra-channel nonlinearity compensation for PM-16QAM traffic co-propagating with 28  Gbaud m-ary QAM neighbours,” Opt. Express 21, 4174–4182 (2013).
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S. L. I. Olsson, B. Corcoran, C. Lundström, E. Tipsuwannakul, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Injection-locking based pump recovery for phase-sensitive amplified links,” Opt. Express 21, 14512–14529 (2013).
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X. Liu, A. R. Chraplyvy, P. J. Winzer, R. W. Tkach, and S. Chandrasekhar, “Phase-conjugated twin waves for communication beyond the Kerr nonlinearity limit,” Nat. Photonics 7, 560–568 (2013).
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D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7, 354–362 (2013).
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S. K. Routray, R. M. Morais, J. R. Ferreira da Rocha, and A. N. Pinto, “Statistical model for link lengths in optical transport networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 5, 762–773 (2013).
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2012 (9)

M. D. Pelusi and B. J. Eggleton, “Optically tunable compensation of nonlinear signal distortion in optical fiber by end-span optical phase conjugation,” Opt. Express 20, 8015–8023 (2012).
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L. Liu, L. Li, Y. Huang, K. Cui, Q. Xiong, F. N. Hauske, C. Xie, and Y. Cai, “Intrachannel nonlinearity compensation by inverse Volterra series transfer function,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 310–316 (2012).
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C.-Y. Lin, R. Asif, M. Holtmannspoetter, and B. Schmauss, “Nonlinear mitigation using carrier phase estimation and digital backward propagation in coherent QAM transmission,” Opt. Express 20, B405–B412 (2012).
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P. Poggiolini, “The GN Model of non-linear propagation in uncompensated coherent optical systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 3857–3879 (2012).
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F. Vacondio, O. Rival, C. Simonneau, E. Grellier, A. Bononi, L. Lorcy, J.-C. Antona, and S. Bigo, “On nonlinear distortions of highly dispersive optical coherent systems,” Opt. Express 20, 1022–1032 (2012).
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G. Gao, X. Chen, and W. Shieh, “Influence of PMD on fiber nonlinearity compensation using digital back propagation,” Opt. Express 20, 14406–14418 (2012).
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G. Gao, X. Chen, and W. Shieh, “Analytical expressions for nonlinear transmission performance of coherent optical OFDM systems with frequency guard band,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 2447–2454 (2012).
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R. J. Essiambre and R. W. Tkach, “Capacity trends and limits of optical communication networks,” Proc. IEEE 100, 1035–1055 (2012).
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R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, and J. Meyer, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 61–63 (2012).
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2011 (10)

R. S. Tucker, “Green optical communications-part I: energy limitations in transport,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 245–260 (2011).
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D. Rafique and A. D. Ellis, “Digital back-propagation for spectrally efficient WDM 112  Gbit/s PM m-ary QAM transmission,” Opt. Express 19, 5219–5224 (2011).
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D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26  Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics 5, 364–371 (2011).
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D. Rafique and A. D. Ellis, “Impact of signal-ASE four-wave mixing on the effectiveness of digital back-propagation in 112  Gb/s PM-QPSK systems,” Opt. Express 19, 3449–3454 (2011).
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B. Farhang-Boroujeny, “OFDM versus filter bank multicarrier,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 28(3), 92–112 (2011).
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V. Pechenkin and I. J. Fair, “On four-wave mixing suppression in dispersion-managed fiber-optic OFDM systems with an optical phase conjugation module,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 1678–1691 (2011).
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D. Rafique, M. Mussolin, M. Forzati, J. Martensson, M. Chugtai, and A. D. Ellis, “Compensation of intra channel nonlinear fibre impairments using simplified digital back propagation algorithm,” Opt. Express 19, 9453–9460 (2011).
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D. Rafique and A. D. Ellis, “Various nonlinearity mitigation techniques employing optical and electronic approaches,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1838–1840 (2011).
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N. R. Das and S. Sarkar, “Probability of power depletion in SRS cross-talk and optimum detection threshold for minimum BER in a WDM receiver,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 424–430 (2011).
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S. Vergeles and S. K. Turitsyn, “Optical rogue waves in telecommunication data streams,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 061801 (2011).
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2010 (5)

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X. Tang and Z. Wu, “WDM transmissions exploiting optical phase conjugation,” Annales des Télécommunications 62, 518–530 (2007).

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2006 (2)

S. L. Jansen, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, S. Calabro, H. Suche, P. M. Krummrich, W. Sohler, G.-D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Optical phase conjugation for ultra long-haul phase-shift-keyed transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 54–64 (2006).
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M. H. Taghavi, G. C. Papen, and P. H. Siegel, “On the multiuser capacity of WDM in a nonlinear optical fiber: coherent communication,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52, 5008–5022 (2006).
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2005 (1)

R. I. Killey, P. M. Watts, V. Mikhailov, M. Glick, and P. Bayvel, “Electronic dispersion compensation by signal predistortion using digital processing and a dual-drive Mach–Zehnder modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 714–716 (2005).
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2004 (6)

J. D. Ania-Castañón, “Quasi-lossless transmission using second-order Raman amplification and fibre Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 12, 4372–4377 (2004).
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M. G. Taylor, “Coherent detection method using DSP for demodulation of signal and subsequent equalization of propagation impairments,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 674–676 (2004).
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J. Bromage, “Raman amplification for fiber communications systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 79–93 (2004).
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J. M. Kahn and K.-P. Ho, “Spectral efficiency limits and modulation/detection techniques for DWDM systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 259–272 (2004).
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K.-P. Ho and J. M. Kahn, “Electronic compensation technique to mitigate nonlinear phase noise,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 779–783 (2004).
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K. Willox, “Q factor: the wrong answer for service providers and equipment manufacturers,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 41(2), S18–S21 (2003).
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O. V. Sinkin, R. Holzlöhner, J. Zweck, and C. R. Menyuk, “Optimization of the split-step Fourier method in modeling optical-fiber communications systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 61–68 (2003).
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H. Kim and A. H. Gnauck, “Experimental investigation of the performance limitation of DPSK systems due to nonlinear phase noise,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 320–322 (2003).
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K. Rottwitt, J. Bromage, A. J. Stentz, L. Leng, M. E. Lines, and H. Smith, “Scaling the Raman gain coefficient: applications to germanosilicate fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1652–1662 (2003).
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2001 (1)

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2000 (4)

R. I. Killey, H. J. Thiele, V. Mikhailov, and P. Bayvel, “Prediction of transmission penalties due to cross-phase modulation in WDM systems using a simplified technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 804–806 (2000).
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K.-P. Ho, “Statistical properties of stimulated Raman crosstalk in WDM systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 915–921 (2000).
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1999 (4)

S. Walklin and J. Conradi, “Multilevel signaling for increasing the reach of 10  Gb/s lightwave systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2235–2248 (1999).
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1998 (3)

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1997 (5)

D. D. Marcenac, D. Nesset, A. E. Kelly, M. Brierly, A. D. Ellis, D. G. Moodie, and C. W. Ford, “40  Gbit/s transmission over 406  km of NDSF using mid-span spectral inversion by four-wave-mixing in a 2  mm long semiconductor optical amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33, 879–880 (1997).
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1996 (5)

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1995 (7)

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1994 (5)

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1993 (3)

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1992 (10)

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1991 (4)

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1990 (5)

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1989 (2)

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1988 (1)

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1987 (1)

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1986 (1)

1985 (1)

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1984 (2)

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1983 (1)

1982 (1)

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1980 (1)

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1979 (1)

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1978 (1)

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1977 (1)

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1975 (1)

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1972 (1)

1970 (3)

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1969 (1)

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1966 (3)

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1963 (1)

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1962 (1)

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1961 (1)

1958 (1)

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1948 (1)

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1942 (1)

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1928 (1)

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M. Murakami, T. Takahashi, M. Aoyama, M. Amemiya, M. Sumida, N. Ohkawa, Y. Fukada, T. Imai, and M. Aiki, “2.5  Gbit/s-9720  km, 10  Gbit/s-6480  km transmission in the FSA commercial system with 90  km spaced optical amplifier repeaters and dispersion-managed cables,” Electron. Lett. 31, 814–816 (1995).
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M. A. Jarajreh, E. Giacoumidis, I. Aldaya, S. T. Le, A. Tsokanos, Z. Ghassemlooy, and N. J. Doran, “Artificial neural network nonlinear equalizer for coherent optical OFDM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 387–390 (2015).
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E. Agrell, A. Alvarado, G. Durisi, and M. Karlsson, “Capacity of a nonlinear optical channel with finite memory,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 2862–2876 (2014).
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M. Murakami, T. Takahashi, M. Aoyama, M. Amemiya, M. Sumida, N. Ohkawa, Y. Fukada, T. Imai, and M. Aiki, “2.5  Gbit/s-9720  km, 10  Gbit/s-6480  km transmission in the FSA commercial system with 90  km spaced optical amplifier repeaters and dispersion-managed cables,” Electron. Lett. 31, 814–816 (1995).
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G. Saavedra, M. Tan, D. J. Elson, L. Galdino, D. Semrau, M. A. Iqbal, I. Phillips, P. Harper, N. MacSuibhne, A. Ellis, D. Lavery, B. C. Thomsen, R. Killey, and P. Bayvel, “Experimental investigation of nonlinear signal distortions in ultra-wideband transmission systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper W1G.1.

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N. J. Doran and A. D. Ellis, “Minimising total energy requirements in amplified links by optimising amplifier spacing,” Opt. Express 22, 19810–19817 (2014).
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J. C. Cartledge, A. D. Ellis, A. Shiner, A. I. A. El-Rahman, M. E. McCarthy, M. Reimer, A. Borowiec, and A. Kashi, “Signal processing techniques for reducing the impact of fiber nonlinearities on system performance,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Th4F.5.

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