${\mathrm{Y}}_{2}{\mathrm{O}}_{2}\mathrm{S}$

${\mathrm{Eu}}^{3+}$
,
${\mathrm{Mg}}^{2+}$
,
${\mathrm{Ti}}^{4+}$
 612  1  Nanorod shape [291] (2003) 
${\mathrm{Gd}}_{2}{\mathrm{O}}_{2}\mathrm{S}$

${\mathrm{Eu}}^{3+}$
,
${\mathrm{Mg}}^{2+}$
,
${\mathrm{Ti}}^{4+}$
 615 
$<1$
 NPs regular shape, bimodality optical/NMR [292] (2015) 
SrS 
${\mathrm{Eu}}^{2+}$
,
${\mathrm{Dy}}^{3+}$
 616  /  NPs [293] (2009) 
CaS 
${\mathrm{Eu}}^{2+}$
,
${\mathrm{Dy}}^{3+}$
 650  5  Photostimulation [294] (2015) 
${\mathrm{Ca}}_{3}{({\mathrm{PO}}_{4})}_{2}$

${\mathrm{Eu}}^{2+}$
,
${\mathrm{Dy}}^{3+}$
,
${\mathrm{Mn}}^{2+}$
 660  /  Fully biocompatible, NPs and in vivo imaging [295] (2015) 
${\mathrm{MgSiO}}_{3}$

${\mathrm{Mn}}^{2+}$
,
${\mathrm{Eu}}^{2+}$
,
${\mathrm{Dy}}^{3+}$
 660  4  Pioneer work, bulk, no bioimaging [296] (2003) 
${\mathrm{Ca}}_{2}{\mathrm{Si}}_{5}{\mathrm{N}}_{8}$

${\mathrm{Eu}}^{2+}$
,
${\mathrm{Tm}}^{3+}$
 610 
$>1$
 Bioimaging applications [297] (2012) 
${\mathrm{SrAl}}_{2}{\mathrm{O}}_{4}$

${\mathrm{Eu}}^{2+}$
,
${\mathrm{Dy}}^{3+}$
 550 
$>10$
 NPs, functionalization, bioimaging applications, green emission [298] (2014) 
${\mathrm{Ca}}_{0.2}{\mathrm{Zn}}_{0.9}{\mathrm{Mg}}_{0.9}{\mathrm{Si}}_{2}{\mathrm{O}}_{6}$

${\mathrm{Mn}}^{2+}$
,
${\mathrm{Eu}}^{2+}$
,
${\mathrm{Dy}}^{3+}$
 699  1 h  NPs, functionalization, pioneer work for bioimaging (cancer cells imaging, cell targeting) [299,300,301] (2007, 2011, 2012) 
${\mathrm{CaMgSi}}_{2}{\mathrm{O}}_{6}$

${\mathrm{Mn}}^{2+}$
,
${\mathrm{Eu}}^{2+}$
,
${\mathrm{Pr}}^{3+}$
 685  1 h  NPs, functionalization, bioimaging [302] (2011) 
${\mathrm{MAlO}}_{3}$
$(\mathrm{M}=\mathrm{La},\mathrm{Gd})$

${\mathrm{Mn}}^{4+}/{\mathrm{Ge}}^{4+}$
 730   Bioimaging in pork tissue [303] (2014) 
${\mathrm{Ga}}_{2}{\mathrm{O}}_{3}$

${\mathrm{Cr}}^{3+}$
 640–780 
$>1$
 Nanowires, nanorods, no bioimaging [304] (2011) 
${\mathrm{ZnGa}}_{2}{\mathrm{O}}_{4}$

${\mathrm{Cr}}^{3+}$
 690–730 
$>10$
 NPs, functionalization, bioimaging (cancer cells imaging, cell targeting, cytotoxicity, visible light stimulation) [305] (2014) 
${\mathrm{ZnGa}}_{2}{\mathrm{O}}_{4}$

${\mathrm{Cr}}^{3+}$
 690–730 
$<1$
 NIR photostimulation [306] (2014) 
$\mathrm{Zn}{(\mathrm{Ga},\mathrm{Gd})}_{2}{\mathrm{O}}_{4}$

${\mathrm{Cr}}^{3+}$
 690–730   NPs, functionalization, bimodality optical/NMR imaging [307] (2015) 
${\mathrm{ZnGa}}_{2}{\mathrm{O}}_{4}/{\mathrm{SiO}}_{2}$

${\mathrm{Cr}}^{3+}$
 690–730 
$>10$
 NPs, core–shell structure, drug delivery [308] (2014) 
${\mathrm{Zn}}_{1.1}{\mathrm{Ga}}_{1.8}{\mathrm{Ge}}_{0.1}{\mathrm{O}}_{4}/{\mathrm{SiO}}_{2}$

${\mathrm{Cr}}^{3+}$
,
${\mathrm{Eu}}^{3+}$
 690–720 
$>100$
 NPs, core–shell structure, drug delivery [309] (2015) 
${\mathrm{Zn}}_{3}{\mathrm{Ga}}_{2}{\mathrm{Ge}}_{2}{\mathrm{O}}_{10}$

${\mathrm{Cr}}^{3+}$
 630–750 
$>100$
 Imaging of pork tissue, photostimulation, cytotoxicity [310] (2014) 
${\mathrm{Zn}}_{3}{\mathrm{Ga}}_{2}{\mathrm{Sn}}_{1}{\mathrm{O}}_{10}$

${\mathrm{Cr}}^{3+}$
 650–800 
$>100$
 Imaging of goldfish [311] (2014) 
${\mathrm{Zn}}_{2.94}{\mathrm{Ga}}_{1.96}{\mathrm{Ge}}_{2}{\mathrm{O}}_{10}$

${\mathrm{Cr}}^{3+}$
,
${\mathrm{Pr}}^{3+}$
 650–800 
$>100$
 NPs, functionalization [312] (2013) 
${\mathrm{Zn}}_{3}{\mathrm{Ga}}_{2}{\mathrm{GeO}}_{8}$

${\mathrm{Cr}}^{3+}$
,
${\mathrm{Yb}}^{3+}$
,
${\mathrm{Er}}^{3+}$
 700 
$<1$
 Upconversion [313] (2014) 
${\mathrm{LiGa}}_{5}{\mathrm{O}}_{8}$

${\mathrm{Cr}}^{3+}$
 640–780 
$>100$
 NPs, functionalization, bioimaging, visible light stimulation, photostimulation [314,315] (2013,2014) 
${\mathrm{Ca}}_{3}{\mathrm{Ga}}_{2}{\mathrm{Ge}}_{3}{\mathrm{O}}_{12}$

${\mathrm{Cr}}^{3+}$
,
${\mathrm{Yb}}^{3+}$
,
${\mathrm{Tm}}^{3+}$
 690–750  /  NIR stimulation, upconversion [316] (2014) 
${\mathrm{SrSnO}}_{4}$

${\mathrm{Nd}}^{3+}$
 850–1040 
$<1$
 Finger image [317] (2014) 
${\mathrm{Sr}}_{2}{\mathrm{MgSi}}_{2}{\mathrm{O}}_{7}$

${\mathrm{Eu}}^{2+}$
,
${\mathrm{Dy}}^{3+}$
 480 
$<1$
 FRET, blue emission [318,319] (2014) 
${\mathrm{SiO}}_{2}/{\mathrm{SrMgSi}}_{2}{\mathrm{O}}_{6}$

${\mathrm{Eu}}^{2+}$
,
${\mathrm{Pr}}^{3+}$
,
${\mathrm{Mn}}^{2+}$
 660 
$>1$
 Bioimaging, intraperitoneal injection [320] (2014) 