Abstract

An overview of recent achievements in the field of femtosecond laser writing in transparent materials is presented. Thanks to the unique properties of light–matter interaction on the ultrashort time scale, this direct writing technique has led to observation of unique phenomena, including nonreciprocal writing and anisotropic photosensitivity, in transparent materials and allowed engineering of novel photonic devices.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (8)

C. Corbari, A. Champion, M. Gecevičius, M. Beresna, Y. Bellouard, and P. G. Kazansky, “Femtosecond versus picosecond laser machining of nano-gratings and micro-channels in silica glass,” Opt. Express 21, 3946–3958 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Tillmann, B. Dakic, R. Heilmann, S. Nolte, A. Szameit, and P. Walther, “Experimental boson sampling,” Nat. Photonics 7, 540–544 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Gecevičius, M. Beresna, J. Zhang, W. Yang, H. Takebe, and P. G. Kazansky, “Extraordinary anisotropy of ultrafast laser writing in glass,” Opt. Express 21, 3959–3968 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Schaap and Y. Bellouard, “Molding topologically-complex 3D polymer microstructures from femtosecond laser machined glass,” Opt. Mater. Express 3, 1428–1437 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and H. Kazuyuki, “Nanomodification of glass using fs laser,” Int. J. Appl. Glas. Sci. 4, 182–191 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Richter, C. Miese, S. Döring, F. Zimmermann, M. J. Withford, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Laser induced nanogratings beyond fused silica-periodic nanostructures in borosilicate glasses and ULETM,” Opt. Mater. Express 3, 1161–1166 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liao, Y. Shen, L. Qiao, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Femtosecond laser nanostructuring in porous glass with sub-50  nm feature sizes,” Opt. Lett. 38, 187–189 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, and P. G. Kazansky, “Broadband anisotropy of femtosecond laser induced nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 131903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (12)

S. Richter, A. Plech, M. Steinert, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, F. Zimmermann, U. Peschel, E. B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “On the fundamental structure of femtosecond laser-induced nanogratings,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 787–792 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, T. Taylor, and A. V. Kavokin, “Exciton mediated self-organization in glass driven by ultrashort light pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 053120 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The Femtoprint Project,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 7, 1–10 (2012).

B. Lenssen and Y. Bellouard, “Optically transparent glass micro-actuator fabricated by femtosecond laser exposure and chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 103503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Schaap, T. Rohrlack, and Y. Bellouard, “Optical classification of algae species with a glass lab-on-a-chip,” Lab Chip 12, 1527–1532 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Choudhury, D. Jaque, A. Rodenas, W. T. Ramsay, L. Paterson, and A. K. Kar, “Quantum dot enabled thermal imaging of optofluidic devices,” Lab Chip 12, 2414–2420 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Salter, A. Jesacher, J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, N. Thomas-Peter, R. D. Simmonds, N. K. Langford, I. A. Walmsley, and M. J. Booth, “Adaptive slit beam shaping for direct laser written waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 37, 470–472 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, “Femtosecond laser processing for optofluidic fabrication,” Lab Chip 12, 3576–3589 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Skuja, K. Kajihara, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Oxygen-excess-related point defects in glassy/amorphous SiO2 and related materials,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 286, 159–168 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Sibbett, A. A. Lagatsky, and C. T. A. Brown, “The development and application of femtosecond laser systems,” Opt. Express 20, 6989–7001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Bauer, I. Zawischa, D. H. Sutter, A. Killi, and T. Dekorsy, “Mode-locked Yb:YAG thin-disk oscillator with 41  μJ pulse energy at 145  W average infrared power and high power frequency conversion,” Opt. Express 20, 9698–9704 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. R. E. Baer, O. H. Heckl, C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, C. Kränkel, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Frontiers in passively mode-locked high-power thin disk laser oscillators,” Opt. Express 20, 7054–7065 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (19)

Y. Bellouard and M.-O. Hongler, “Femtosecond-laser generation of self-organized bubble patterns in fused silica,” Opt. Express 19, 6807–6821 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, N. M. Bulgakova, and P. G. Kazansky, “Twisting light with micro-spheres produced by ultrashort light pulses,” Opt. Express 19, 18989–18996 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, and P. G. Kazansky, “Polarization sensitive elements fabricated by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Opt. Mater. Express 1, 783–795 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 201101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, V. Shvedov, W. Krolikowski, and A. Rode, “Revealing local field structure of focused ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 123901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Bressel, D. de Ligny, C. Sonneville, V. Martinez, V. Mizeikis, R. Buividas, and S. Juodkazis, “Femtosecond laser induced density changes in GeO2 and SiO2 glasses: fictive temperature effect [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 1, 605–613 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Vailionis, E. G. Gamaly, V. Mizeikis, W. Yang, A. V. Rode, and S. Juodkazis, “Evidence of superdense aluminium synthesized by ultrafast microexplosion,” Nat. Commun. 2, 445 (2011).
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J. O. Owens, M. A. Broome, D. N. Biggerstaff, M. E. Goggin, A. Fedrizzi, T. Linjordet, M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, J. Twamley, M. J. Withford, and A. G. White, “Two-photon quantum walks in an elliptical direct-write waveguide array,” New J. Phys. 13, 075003 (2011).
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A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, “Integrated photonic quantum gates for polarization qubits,” Nat. Commun. 2, 566 (2011).
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R. R. Thomson, T. A. Birks, S. G. Leon-Saval, A. K. Kar, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Ultrafast laser inscription of an integrated photonic lantern,” Opt. Express 19, 5698–5705 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Simmonds, P. S. Salter, A. Jesacher, and M. J. Booth, “Three dimensional laser microfabrication in diamond using a dual adaptive optics system,” Opt. Express 19, 24122–24128 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Poumellec, M. Lancry, A. Chahid-Erraji, and P. G. Kazansky, “Modification thresholds in femtosecond laser processing of pure silica: review of dependencies on laser parameters [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 1, 766–782 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, Y. Svirko, S. Akturk, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Photosensitivity control of an isotropic medium through polarization of light pulses with tilted intensity front,” Opt. Express 19, 20657–20664 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. He, Y. Cheng, J. Lin, J. Ni, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Independent control of aspect ratios in the axial and lateral cross sections of a focal spot for three-dimensional femtosecond laser micromachining,” New J. Phys. 13, 083014 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Yu, Y. Liao, F. He, B. Zeng, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Tuning etch selectivity of fused silica irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses by controlling polarization of the writing pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 053114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Buividas, L. Rosa, R. Sliupas, T. Kudrius, G. Slekys, V. Datsyuk, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanism of fine ripple formation on surfaces of (semi)transparent materials via a half-wavelength cavity feedback,” Nanotechnology 22, 055304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Vella, F. Messina, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Unraveling exciton dynamics in amorphous silicon dioxide: interpretation of the optical features from 8 to 11  eV,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 4–11 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Bressel, D. de Ligny, E. G. Gamaly, A. V. Rode, and S. Juodkazis, “Observation of O2 inside voids formed in GeO2 glass by tightly-focused fs-laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. Express 1, 1150–1158 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, M. Lancry, K. Cook, A. Weickman, F. Brisset, and B. Poumellec, “Anatomy of a femtosecond laser processed silica waveguide [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 1, 998–1008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (13)

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. 22, 4039–4043 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys. A 100, 1–6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Grojo, M. Gertsvolf, S. Lei, T. Barillot, D. Rayner, and P. Corkum, “Exciton-seeded multiphoton ionization in bulk SiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 3–6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Messina, E. Vella, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Evidence of delocalized excitons in amorphous solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 116401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Madani-Grasset and Y. Bellouard, “Femtosecond laser micromachining of fused silica molds,” Opt. Express 18, 21826–21840 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Vitek, E. Block, Y. Bellouard, D. E. Adams, S. Backus, D. Kleinfeld, C. G. Durfee, and J. A. Squier, “Spatio-temporally focused femtosecond laser pulses for nonreciprocal writing in optically transparent materials,” Opt. Express 18, 24673–24678 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Rajesh and Y. Bellouard, “Towards fast femtosecond laser micromachining of fused silica: the effect of deposited energy,” Opt. Express 18, 21490–21497 (2010).
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M. Shimizu, M. Sakakura, M. Ohnishi, Y. Shimotsuma, T. Nakaya, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Mechanism of heat-modification inside a glass after irradiation with high-repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 073533 (2010).
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D. N. Vitek, D. E. Adams, A. Johnson, P. S. Tsai, S. Backus, C. G. Durfee, D. Kleinfeld, and J. A. Squier, “Temporally focused femtosecond laser pulses for low numerical aperture micromachining through optically transparent materials,” Opt. Express 18, 18086–18094 (2010).
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F. He, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, J. Ni, H. Xiong, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Fabrication of microfluidic channels with a circular cross section using spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1106–1108 (2010).
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M. Endo, “Sheet metal cutting with a 2  kW radially polarized CO,” Proc. SPIE 7751, 77511B (2010).

M. Beresna and P. G. Kazansky, “Polarization diffraction grating produced by femtosecond laser nanostructuring in glass,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1662–1664 (2010).
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P. Russbueldt, T. Mans, J. Weitenberg, H. D. Hoffmann, and R. Poprawe, “Compact diode-pumped 1.1  kW Yb:YAG Innoslab femtosecond amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 35, 4169–4171 (2010).
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2009 (7)

Q. Zhan, “Cylindrical vector beams: from mathematical concepts to applications,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 1–57 (2009).
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F. M. Bain, A. A. Lagatsky, R. R. Thomson, N. D. Psaila, N. V. Kuleshov, A. K. Kar, W. Sibbett, and C. T. A. Brown, “Ultrafast laser inscribed Yb:KGd(WO4)2 and Yb:KY(WO4)2 channel waveguide lasers,” Opt. Express 17, 22417–22422 (2009).
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R. M. Vazquez, R. Osellame, D. Nolli, C. Dongre, H. van den Vlekkert, R. Ramponi, M. Pollnau, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of femtosecond laser written optical waveguides in a lab-on-chip,” Lab Chip 9, 91–96 (2009).
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M. Kim, D. J. Hwang, H. Jeon, K. Hiromatsu, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Single cell detection using a glass-based optofluidic device fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Lab Chip 9, 311–318 (2009).
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J. Gottmann, D. Wortmann, and M. Hörstmann-Jungemann, “Fabrication of sub-wavelength surface ripples and in-volume nanostructures by fs-laser induced selective etching,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 5641–5646 (2009).
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G. D. Marshall, A. Politi, J. C. F. Matthews, P. Dekker, M. Ams, M. J. Withford, and J. L. O’Brien, “Laser written waveguide photonic quantum circuits,” Opt. Express 17, 12546–12554 (2009).
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R. R. Thomson, A. K. Kar, and J. Allington-Smith, “Ultrafast laser inscription: an enabling technology for astrophotonics,” Opt. Express 17, 1963–1969 (2009).
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2008 (11)

W. Yang, C. Corbari, P. G. Kazansky, K. Sakaguchi, and I. C. S. Carvalho, “Low loss photonic components in high index bismuth borate glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Express 16, 16215–16226 (2008).
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S. Maruo and J. T. Fourkas, “Recent progress in multiphoton microfabrication,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 100–111 (2008).
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R. R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2, 219–225 (2008).
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A. V. Smith and B. T. Do, “Bulk and surface laser damage of silica by picosecond and nanosecond pulses at 1064  nm,” Appl. Opt. 47, 4812–4832 (2008).
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G. Miyaji and K. Miyazaki, “Origin of periodicity in nanostructuring on thin film surfaces ablated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 16, 16265–16271 (2008).
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R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 26–46 (2008).
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Y. Bellouard, E. Barthel, A. A. Said, M. Dugan, and P. Bado, “Scanning thermal microscopy and Raman analysis of bulk fused silica exposed to low energy femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 16, 19520–19534 (2008).
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W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 171109 (2008).
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H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2, 501–505 (2008).
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J. Song, X. Wang, X. Hu, Y. Dai, J. Qiu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Formation mechanism of self-organized voids in dielectrics induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 092904 (2008).
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K. Moh, X. Yuan, J. Bu, S. Zhu, and B. Gao, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging of cell-substrate contacts with radially polarized beams,” Opt. Express 16, 20734–20741 (2008).
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2007 (7)

B. Hao and J. Leger, “Experimental measurement of longitudinal component in the vicinity of focused radially polarized beam,” Opt. Express 15, 3550–3556 (2007).
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P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “‘Quill’ writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
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R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Femtosecond laser erasing and rewriting of self-organized planar nanocracks in fused silica glass,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2888–2890 (2007).
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D. G. Papazoglou, I. Zergioti, and S. Tzortzakis, “Plasma strings from ultraviolet laser filaments drive permanent structural modifications in fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2055–2057 (2007).
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R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, N. D. Psaila, A. Fender, S. Campbell, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, D. T. Reid, and A. K. Kar, “Ultrafast-laser inscription of a three dimensional fan-out device for multicore fiber coupling applications,” Opt. Express 15, 11691–11697 (2007).
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M. Sakakura, M. Terazima, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Observation of pressure wave generated by focusing a femtosecond laser pulse inside a glass,” Opt. Express 15, 5674–5686 (2007).
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2006 (15)

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 166101 (2006).
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A. Zoubir, C. Rivero, R. Grodsky, K. Richardson, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and M. Couzi, “Laser-induced defects in fused silica by femtosecond IR irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 224117 (2006).
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S. M. Eaton, W. Chen, L. Zhang, H. Zhang, R. Iyer, J. S. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, “Telecom-band directional coupler written with femtosecond fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2174–2176 (2006).
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J. Ashcom, R. Gattass, and C. Schaffer, “Numerical aperture dependence of damage and supercontinuum generation from femtosecond laser pulses in bulk fused silica,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 2317–2322 (2006).
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E. Bricchi and P. G. Kazansky, “Extraordinary stability of anisotropic femtosecond direct-written structures embedded in silica glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111119 (2006).
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V. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. Taylor, D. Rayner, and P. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
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W. Yang, E. Bricchi, P. G. Kazansky, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, “Self-assembled periodic sub-wavelength structures by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Express 14, 10117–10124 (2006).
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Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and K. Miura, “Nanofabrication in transparent materials with a femtosecond pulse laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 646–656 (2006).
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R. R. Gattass, L. R. Cerami, and E. Mazur, “Micromachining of bulk glass with bursts of femtosecond laser pulses at variable repetition rates,” Opt. Express 14, 5279–5284 (2006).
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S. Carrasco, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, and J. T. Fourkas, “Second- and third-harmonic generation with vector Gaussian beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 2134–2141 (2006).
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D. P. Biss, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, “Dark-field imaging with cylindrical-vector beams,” Appl. Opt. 45, 470–479 (2006).
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D. G. Papazoglou and M. J. Loulakis, “Embedded birefringent computer-generated holograms fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1441–1443 (2006).
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W. Cai, A. R. Libertun, and R. Piestun, “Polarization selective computer-generated holograms realized in glass by femtosecond laser induced nanogratings,” Opt. Express 14, 3785–3791 (2006).
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S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, T. Hashimoto, E. G. Gamaly, and B. Luther-Davies, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in a bulk of silica: formation of nanovoids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201909 (2006).
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M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Study of the influence of femtosecond laser polarisation on direct writing of waveguides,” Opt. Express 14, 13158–13163 (2006).
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2005 (11)

E. Toratani, M. Kamata, and M. Obara, “Self-fabrication of void array in fused silica by femtosecond laser processing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 171103 (2005).
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G. Zhu, J. van Howe, M. Durst, W. Zipfel, and C. Xu, “Simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing of femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 13, 2153–2159 (2005).
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C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Polarization-selective etching in femtosecond laser-assisted microfluidic channel fabrication in fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1867–1869 (2005).
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Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, “Nano-modification inside transparent materials by femtosecond laser single beam,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 19, 225–238 (2005).
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Y. Nasu, M. Kohtoku, and Y. Hibino, “Low-loss waveguides written with a femtosecond laser for flexible interconnection in a planar light-wave circuit,” Opt. Lett. 30, 723–725 (2005).
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S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. R. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13, 4708–4716 (2005).
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C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104 (2005).
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S. Onda, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Study of filamentary damage in synthesized silica induced by chirped femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2437–2443 (2005).
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A. G. Okhrimchuk, A. V. Shestakov, I. Khrushchev, and J. Mitchell, “Depressed cladding, buried waveguide laser formed in a YAG:Nd3+ crystal by femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2248–2250 (2005).
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S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, M. Miwa, and H. Misawa, “Two-photon lithography of nanorods in SU-8 photoresist,” Nanotechnology 16, 846–849 (2005).
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2004 (5)

M. F. Yanik, H. H. N. Cinar, A. D. Chisholm, Y. Jin, and A. Ben-Yakar, “Neurosurgery: functional regeneration after laser axotomy,” Nature 432, 822 (2004).
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O. Efimov, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Intrinsic single- and multiple-pulse laser-induced damage in silicate glasses in the femtosecond-to-nanosecond region,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 042903 (2004).
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S. S. Mao, F. Quere, S. Guizard, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, G. Petite, and P. Martin, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. A 79, 1695–1709 (2004).

E. Bricchi, B. G. Klappauf, and P. G. Kazansky, “Form birefringence and negative index change created by femtosecond direct writing in transparent materials,” Opt. Lett. 29, 119–121 (2004).
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S. Akturk, X. Gu, E. Zeek, and R. Trebino, “Pulse-front tilt caused by spatial and temporal chirp,” Opt. Express 12, 4399–4410 (2004).
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2003 (8)

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, “Control of the cross-sectional shape of a hollow microchannel embedded in photostructurable glass by use of a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 28, 55–57 (2003).
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A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4462–4464 (2003).
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N. Yasumaru, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, “Femtosecond-laser-induced nanostructure formed on hard thin films of TiN and DLC,” Appl. Phys. A 76, 983–985 (2003).
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R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1559–1567 (2003).
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A. Marcinkevičius, V. Mizeikis, S. Juodkazis, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Effect of refractive index-mismatch on laser microfabrication in silica glass,” Appl. Phys. A 76, 257–260 (2003).
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Y. Shimotsuma, P. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
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D. P. Biss and T. G. Brown, “Polarization-vortex-driven second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 28, 923–925 (2003).
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2002 (8)

E. Hasman, Z. Bomzon, A. Niv, G. Biener, and V. Kleiner, “Polarization beam-splitters and optical switches based on space-variant computer-generated subwavelength quasi-periodic structures,” Opt. Commun. 209, 45–54 (2002).
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L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).
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R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, and G. Cerullo, “Optical gain in Er-Yb doped waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 38, 964–965 (2002).
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G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Femtosecond micromachining of symmetric waveguides at 1.5  μm by astigmatic beam focusing,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1938–1940 (2002).
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A. M. Streltsov and N. F. Borrelli, “Study of femtosecond-laser-written waveguides in glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2496–2504 (2002).
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N. F. Borrelli, C. M. Smith, J. J. Price, and D. C. Allan, “Polarized excimer laser-induced birefringence in silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 219–221 (2002).
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E. Bricchi, J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, B. G. Klappauf, and J. J. Baumberg, “Birefringent Fresnel zone plates in silica fabricated by femtosecond laser machining,” Opt. Lett. 27, 2200–2202 (2002).
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J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, and J. J. Baumberg, “Embedded anisotropic microreflectors by femtosecond-laser nanomachining,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 196–198 (2002).
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2001 (7)

2000 (3)

Y. Sikorski, A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. Winick, “Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 36, 226–227 (2000).
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1999 (8)

V. G. Niziev and A. V. Nesterov, “Influence of beam polarization on laser cutting efficiency,” J. Phys. D. 32, 1455–1461 (1999).
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K. König, I. Riemann, P. Fischer, and K. J. Halbhuber, “Intracellular nanosurgery with near infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Cell. Mol. Biol. 45, 195–201 (1999).

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P. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, “Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199–2202 (1999).
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L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 171, 279–284 (1999).
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1998 (2)

L. Skuja, “Optically active oxygen-deficiency-related centers in amorphous silicon dioxide,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 16–48 (1998).
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K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
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1996 (4)

1995 (1)

P. P. Pronko, S. K. Dutta, J. Squier, J. V. Rudd, D. Du, and G. Mourou, “Machining of sub-micron holes using a femtosecond laser at 800  nm,” Opt. Commun. 114, 106–110 (1995).
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1994 (1)

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7  ns to 150  fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071–3073 (1994).
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R. Srinivasan, E. Sutcliffe, and B. Braren, “Ablation and etching of polymethylmethacrylate by very short (160  fs) ultraviolet (308  nm) laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1285–1287 (1987).
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P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “‘Quill’ writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
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Arai, A. Y.

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Backus, S.

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Y. Bellouard, E. Barthel, A. A. Said, M. Dugan, and P. Bado, “Scanning thermal microscopy and Raman analysis of bulk fused silica exposed to low energy femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 16, 19520–19534 (2008).
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P. Martin, S. Guizard, P. Daguzan, G. Petite, P. D’Oliveira, P. Meynadier, and M. Perdrix, “Subpicosecond study of carrier trapping dynamics in wide-band-gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 5799–5810 (1997).
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F. Messina, E. Vella, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Evidence of delocalized excitons in amorphous solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 116401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. Taylor, D. Rayner, and P. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, “Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199–2202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A.-C. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, “Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883–3886 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Other (5)

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A. A. Said, M. A. Dugan, T. Sosnowski, and P. Bado, “Waveguide fabrication methods and devices,” U.S. patent7,294,454 B1 (November13, 2007).

M. Lancry, F. Brisset, and B. Poumellec, “In the heart of nanogratings made up during femtosecond laser irradiation,” in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Femtosecond Laser Symposium III (BWC), OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper BWC3.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 1999).

E. Bricchi, “Femtosecond laser micro-machining and consequent self-assembled nano-structures in transparent materials,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Southampton, 2005).

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Figures (33)

Figure 1
Figure 1

Threshold pulse energies for different regimes of femtosecond-laser-induced modification in fused silica. Regime 1 corresponds to smooth refractive index modification. Regimes 2 and 3 correspond to nanograting formation. Reproduced with permission from Hnatovsky et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104 (2005) [35]. Copyright 2005, AIP Publishing LLC.

Figure 2
Figure 2

Femtosecond laser inscription (a) without and (b) with aberration correction using adaptive optics. Top (xy) and side (xz) view of a graphitic structure fabricated in diamond. The scale bar represents 5 μm. Reproduced with permission from Simmonds et al. [41]. Copyright 2011, Optical Society of America.

Figure 3
Figure 3

(Left) Micrographs of femtosecond laser-written tracks in various glasses. (Right) Near-field patterns at 800 nm on fluoride glass waveguides where the core diameters are (a) 8 μm, (b) 17 μm, and (c) 25 μm. Reproduced with permission from Miura et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997) [44]. Copyright 1997, AIP Publishing LLC.

Figure 4
Figure 4

Structural models of perfect SiO2 lattice and most-abundant laser-induced defects. Purple spheres, silicon; red, oxygen. Oxygen deficiency centers: E, asymmetrically relaxed oxygen vacancy with an unpaired electron localized in a sp3-like orbital of a single Si atom; ODC(II), divalent Si atom. Oxygen excess center: NBOHC, oxygen dangling bond. Based on [59,60].

Figure 5
Figure 5

Cross section of a depressed cladding waveguide inscribed in YAG:Nd3+. Multiple laser-written tracks create a stress zone with a refractive index increase, where light can be guided. Reproduced with permission from Okhrimchuk et al. [16]. Copyright 2005, Optical Society of America.

Figure 6
Figure 6

(a) Transverse and (b) longitudinal writing geometries for femtosecond laser waveguide fabrication in the bulk of transparent materials. The gray arrows indicate sample movement direction.

Figure 7
Figure 7

(a) Slit beam shaping setup. (b) Cross sections of laser-written waveguides in bismuth borate glass depending on slit width and focal depth. Reprinted from Yang et al. [70].

Figure 8
Figure 8

Optical microscope images of soda-lime glass modified regions after exposure to femtosecond laser pulses. In (a), the exposure time was kept constant (1 s) at different pulse energies. In (b), the material was irradiated with 2.0 μJ laser pulses with different exposure times. The ambient temperature is indicated on the left side. Reproduced with permission from Shimizu et al., J. Appl. Phys. 108, 073533 (2010) [78]. Copyright 2010, AIP Publishing LLC.

Figure 9
Figure 9

(Left) Measured (solid squares) and theoretically fitted (line) pulse width as a function of sample position. The location of the focal plane of the objective lens is set to be zero. Reproduced with permission from Zhu et al. [79]. Copyright 2005, Optical Society of America. (Right) Numerically calculated laser intensity distributions at the focus produced by an objective lens (a) without and (b) with a temporal focusing technique. Reproduced with permission from He et al. [82]. Copyright 2010, Optical Society of America.

Figure 10
Figure 10

Microscope bright-field image of the line structures written using femtosecond pulses with (a) positive pulse front tilt or (b) negative pulse front tilt. The distance between the lines is 25 μm. The writing direction is shown by the arrows. The respective screen shots containing laser pulse parameters measured by a GRENOUILLE (grating-eliminated no-nonsense observation of ultrafast incident laser light e-fields) device are shown. Reprinted from Yang et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 171109 (2008) [88].

Figure 11
Figure 11

(a) Spectra of transmitted light during laser exposure with two orthogonal polarizations. The pump power at 800 nm was reduced by a factor of 105 using a notch filter. The results of two independent measurements for each polarization display good reproducibility. (b), (c) Transmitted light optical microscope images of modified regions irradiated for 1 s with two orthogonal polarizations. (d), (e) Corresponding Raman spectra along line scans through the irradiated regions. Reprinted from Kazansky et al. [87].

Figure 12
Figure 12

Dots written with orthogonal polarizations and three different pulse front tilt values. As the pulse front tilt value decreases, the difference for two perpendicular polarizations becomes negligible. Reprinted from Kazansky et al. [87].

Figure 13
Figure 13

(Left) Illustration of the two-step microfabrication process of femtosecond laser assisted chemical etching of fused silica. Reproduced from Bellouard et al. [91]. (Right) Deposited energy versus etched length for various repetition rates as measured in an optical microscope. The laser polarization is transverse to the writing direction. The pulse energy Ep is 215 nJ. Reproduced with permission from Rajesh and Bellouard [95]. Copyright 2010, Optical Society of America.

Figure 14
Figure 14

Optical microscope image of partially etched channels written with femtosecond lasers at different repetition rates (500 and 860 kHz). In both cases, etching rate dependence on deposited energy is similar. Reproduced with permission from Rajesh and Bellouard [95]. Copyright 2010, Optical Society of America.

Figure 15
Figure 15

Nanograting formation dependence on the laser pulse energy. A single nanoplane was induced by 60 nJ laser pulses. Reproduced with permission from Liao et al. [117]. Copyright 2013, Optical Society of America.

Figure 16
Figure 16

Scanning electron microscope images of nanogratings formed by three different central wavelengths of the irradiated laser pulses. E, electric field of the writing laser; k, wave vector of the writing laser beam. (a) τp=520fs, Ep=0.9μJ, writing speed 200μm/s, repetition rate 500 kHz. (b) τp=150fs, Ep=0.5μJ, writing speed 100μm/s, repetition rate 250 kHz. (c) τp=490fs, Ep=0.15μJ, writing speed 200μm/s, repetition rate 200 kHz. Reprinted from Yang et al. [119].

Figure 17
Figure 17

Nanograting period evolution predicted by plasmon interference theory. Inset shows a wavevector matching diagram. Reprinted from Shimotsuma et al. [34].

Figure 18
Figure 18

Theoretical simulation of the exciton–polariton interaction in silica glass. (a) A schematic of the exciton–polariton dispersion, showing a point on the upper polariton branch (UP) and a point on the lower polariton branch (LP) with the same group velocity, and their splitting in energy ΔE (not to scale). Panel (c) shows the grating in x and in z, while (b) shows a zoom of the grating in the z direction. In (c), the exciton mean free path is taken as d=300nm and the exciton mass equal to the free electron mass. Time t=300fs relative to the arrival of the light pulse at z=0. ωLT=0.5meV, γ=1meV, ne=105cm1, and εb=3.

Figure 19
Figure 19

Secondary electron image of the laser-written track after cleaving the sample. Reproduced with permission from Lancry et al. [131]. Copyright 2010, Optical Society of America.

Figure 20
Figure 20

(Left) Microscope image of the central part of the Fresnel zone plate in the cross-polarized light. (Right) Phase retardation Δφ of the zone plate measured with the interferometric setup. Reproduced with permission from Bricchi [143].

Figure 21
Figure 21

CCD camera images of the reflection from laser-written tracks. The red arrows indicate the orientation of the polarization of the writing beam. The strong reflection is observed only along the electric field direction. Reproduced with permission from Bricchi [143].

Figure 22
Figure 22

Spectrum of the light reflected from a laser-inscribed track. Two peaks can be explained by refractive index modulation with a period of 150 nm. Reprinted from Mills et al. [144].

Figure 23
Figure 23

Reconstruction of a CGH. The highlighted areas were used for measuring the signal-to-noise ratio. P, input beam polarization; PA, analyzer direction. (a) Reconstruction under crossed polarizers with input polarization at θ=45°, (b) reconstruction under crossed polarizers with input polarization at θ=2°, and (c) reconstruction with parallel polarizers at 0°. Reproduced with permission from Papazoglou and Loulakis [145]. Copyright 2006, Optical Society of America.

Figure 24
Figure 24

(a) Microscope image where pseudo colors indicate the direction of the slow axis in the polarization diffraction grating. (b) Slow axis orientation and the corresponding phase modulation for two circular polarizations across the red horizontal line indicated in (a). The direction of the phase grating depends on the handedness of the circular polarization. (c) Gray-scale map of birefringent grating phase variation measured with a digital holography microscope for linear polarization. (d) Far-field diffraction images for the incident right/left-handed circular and linear polarizations.

Figure 25
Figure 25

Radially/azimuthally polarized optical vortex split by a polarization diffraction grating into two circularly polarized waves of opposite handedness: plane wave and optical vortex.

Figure 26
Figure 26

Schematic description of two parameters describing birefringence: slow axis angle θ and retardance (nxny)·d.

Figure 27
Figure 27

(Left) Abrio image representing in false colors the recorded information in slow axis and retardance. (Middle and right) Decoupled images of Maxwell and Newton (no additional operations on images were performed). Reprinted from Beresna et al. [125].

Figure 28
Figure 28

Schematic drawings of nanograting distribution in (a) quarter- and (b) half-wave polarization converters. Femtosecond-laser-written radial polarization converters for (c) circular and (d) linear incident polarizations. The pseudo color indicates direction of the slow axis. Reprinted from Beresna et al. [159].

Figure 29
Figure 29

Modeled (top) and measured (bottom) profiles of generated radial polarization directly (a) after a converter and (b)–(d) after a polarizer. The white arrows indicate the transmission axis of the polarizer inserted between the converter and the CCD camera. Reprinted from Beresna et al. [159].

Figure 30
Figure 30

Array of dots written with 100 fs laser pulses (left) and an array written with 200 ps laser pulses (right). Reproduced with permission from Glezer et al. [7]. Copyright 1996, Optical Society of America.

Figure 31
Figure 31

(Left) Cross section of the 0.9 mm thick borosilicate glass after irradiation with a 10 μJ femtosecond laser beam at a 1 kHz repetition rate for 0.25 s. The focus was 750 μm below the entrance surface. (Right) Cross section of the glass sample after the laser exposure for 1 s (1000 pulses) focused at depths of (A) 750 μm, (B) 860 μm, and (C) 940 μm from the entrance surface. The dotted lines indicate the focal planes of the laser beam. Enlargements of parts of (a)–(c) are shown below. Reprinted with permission from Kanehira et al., Nano Lett. 5, 1591–1595 (2005) [165]. Copyright 2005 American Chemical Society.

Figure 32
Figure 32

(Left) Optical vortex generation on an isotropic sphere. Incident circularly polarized light with plane front (l=0) after refraction on a spherical surface is partially converted into an optical vortex with orbital angular momentum l=2. (Right) Optical setups for optical vortex observation. P, polarizer; C, condenser; S, sample; O, objective. Vortex patterns (measured and modeled), observed under left- and right-handed polarizations, show mirror symmetry, indicating reverse of the orbital momentum sign. Reprinted from Beresna et al. [167].

Figure 33
Figure 33

Transition from chaos to order. The pattern of bubbles depends on the writing speed. The tracks were written with the same pulse energy (300 nJ) at a 9.4 MHz repetition rate. The bubble pattern also depends on the writing direction (indicated by arrows at the bottom of the image). Reproduced with permission from Bellouard and Hongler [169]. Copyright 2011, The Optical Society of America.

Equations (19)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

γ=ωemecn0ε0EgI.
PPI(I)=σkIk,
kωEg.
ηav(t)=η02wimpt=η0ewimptln2,
Λgr=λ1±sinθ,
kph+kgr=kpl,
Λgr=2π1Te(meω23kBe2ηe3ε0k)kph2.
ηcr=ω2ε0mee2.
ηTPD=ηcr44×1020cm3.
Epol=3εpEεp+2εd,Eeq=3εdEεp+2εd,
Epol<Eeq.
Pexc(z)=χeE(z),
χe=εbωLTω0ωiγ,
H=22m2x2+α|ψ|2,
ψ=Na(2π)1/4ex2/a2,
SiO2+XSi+O2,
ne=n12n22ffn22+(1ff)n12,no=ffn12+(1ff)n22,
ne2no2=ff(1ff)(n12n22)2ffn22+(1ff)n120,
(cos(2θ)sin(2θ)sin(2θ)cos(2θ))(1i)=e2θi(1i),(cos(2θ)sin(2θ)sin(2θ)cos(2θ))(1i)=e2θi(1i).

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