Abstract

In this tutorial I analyze the polarization-dependent properties of different optical contrasts widely used today in imaging, applied to biology and biomedical diagnostics. I derive the essential properties of the polarization dependence of optical processes such as two-photon fluorescence, nonlinear coherent effects in the nonresonant as well as vibrational-resonant regimes, and analyze how they can be exploited to provide information on the molecular orientational organization in a biological sample. Two examples will be detailed: the first one the measurement of lipid order in artificial and cell membranes by using fluorescent labeling, and the second one structural imaging of collagen in tissues by using second-harmonic generation.

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2011 (2)

S. Brustlein, P. Ferrand, N. Walther, S. Brasselet, C. Billaudeau, D. Marguet, and H. Rigneault, "Optical parametric oscillators based light source for Coherent Raman Scattering microscopy: practical overview," J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 021106 (2011).
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J. T. Madden, V. J. Hall, and G. J. Simpson, "Mining the polarization-dependence of nonlinear optical measurements," Analyst (London) 136, 652‒662 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (13)

P. Schön, M. Behrndt, D. Ait-Belkacem, H. Rigneault, and S. Brasselet, "Polarization and phase pulse shaping applied to structural contrast in nonlinear microscopy imaging," Phys. Rev. A 81, 013809 (2010).
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A. L. Mattheyses, M. Kampmann, C. E. Atkinson, and S. M. Simon, "Fluorescence anisotropy reveals order and disorder of protein domains in the nuclear pore complex," Biophys. J. 99, 1706‒1717 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Anantharam, B. Onoa, R. H. Edwards, R. W. Holz, and D. Axelrod, "Localized topological changes of the plasma membrane upon exocytosis visualized by polarized TIRFM," J. Cell Biol. 188, 415‒428 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Munhoz, H. Rigneault, and S. Brasselet, "High order symmetry structural properties of vibrational resonances using multiple-field polarization coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 123903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gasecka, L.-Q. Dieu, D. Brühwiler, and S. Brasselet, "Probing molecular order in zeolite L inclusion compounds using two-photon fluorescence polarimetric microscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 114, 4192‒4198 (2010).
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J. Adler, A. I. Shevchuk, P. Novak, Y. E. Korchev, and I. Parmryd, "Plasma membrane topography and interpretation of single-particle tracks," Nat. Methods 7, 170‒171 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Nucciotti, C. Stringari, L. Sacconi, F. Vanzi, L. Fusi, M. Linari, G. Piazzesi, V. Lombardi, and F. S. Pavone, "Probing myosin structural conformation in vivo by second-harmonic generation microscopy," Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 7763‒7768 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Zimmerley, R. Younger, T. Valenton, D. C. Oertel, J. L. Ward, and E. O. Potma, "Molecular orientation in dry and hydrated cellulose fibers: a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy study," J. Phys. Chem. B 114, 10200‒10208 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cicchi, A. Crisci, A. Cosci, G. Nesi, D. Kapsokalyvas, S. Giancane, M. Carini, and F. S. Pavone, "Time- and spectral-resolved two-photon imaging of healthy bladder mucosa and carcinoma in situ," Opt. Express 18, 3840‒3849 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Olivier, F. Aptel, K. Plamann, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, "Harmonic microscopy of isotropic and anisotropic microstructure of the human cornea," Opt. Express 18, 5028‒5040 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Aït-Belkacem, A. Gasecka, F. Munhoz, S. Brustlein, and S. Brasselet, "Influence of birefringence on polarization resolved nonlinear microscopy and collagen SHG structural imaging," Opt. Express 18, 14859‒14870 (2010).
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I. Amat-Roldan, S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, P. Loza-Alvarez, and D. Artigas, "Fast image analysis in polarization SHG microscopy," Opt. Express 18, 17209‒17219 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Gusachenko, G. Latour, and M.-C. Schanne-Klein, "Polarization-resolved second harmonic microscopy in anisotropic thick tissues," Opt. Express 18, 19339‒19352 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (15)

O. Masihzadeh, P. Schlup, and R. A. Bartels, "Control and measurement of spatially inhomogeneous polarization distributions in third-harmonic generation microscopy," Opt. Lett. 34, 1090‒1092 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Nadiarnykh and P. J. Campagnola, "Retention of polarization signatures in SHG microscopy of scattering tissues through optical clearing," Opt. Express 17, 5794‒5806 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Masihzadeh, P. Schlup, and R. A. Bartels, "Enhanced spatial resolution in third-harmonic microscopy through polarization switching," Opt. Lett. 34, 1240‒1242 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Park, N. J. Kemp, H. G. Rylander, and T. E. Milner, "Complex polarization ratio to determine polarization properties of anisotropic tissue using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 17, 13402‒13417 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Recher, D. Rouède, P. Richard, A. Simon, J.-J. Bellanger, and F. Tiaho, "Three distinct sarcomeric patterns of skeletal muscle revealed by SHG and TPEF microscopy," Opt. Express 17, 19763‒19777 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Deniset-Besseau, J. Duboisset, E. Benichou, F. Hache, P.-F. Brevet, and M. C. Schanne-Klein, "Measurement of the second order hyperpolarizability of the collagen triple helix and determination of its physical origin," J. Phys. Chem. B 113, 13445 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, S. I. C. O. Santos, I. Amat-Roldan, A. K. N. Thayil, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, "In vivo, pixel-resolution mapping of thick filaments’ orientation in nonfibrilar muscle using polarization-sensitive second harmonic generation microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 014001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Nadiarnykh, R. LaComb, M. Brewer, and P. J. Campagnola, "Second harmonic generation imaging microscopy of ovarian cancer," Biophys. J. 96, (3), 296a (2009).
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A. Gasecka, T.-J. Han, C. Favard, B. R. Cho, and S. Brasselet, "Quantitative imaging of molecular order in lipid membranes using two-photon fluorescence polarimetry," Biophys. J. 97, 2854‒2862 (2009).
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D. Akimov, S. Chatzipapadopoulos, T. Meyer, N. Tarcea, B. Dietzek, M. Schmitt, and J. Popp, "Different contrast information obtained from CARS and nonresonant FWM images," J. Raman Spectrosc. 40, 941‒947 (2009).
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R. K. P. Benninger, B. Vanherberghen, S. Young, S. B. Taner, F. J. Culley, T. Schnyder, M. A. A. Neil, D. Wüstner, P. M. W. French, D. M. Davis, and B. Önfelt, "Live cell linear dichroism imaging reveals extensive membrane ruffling within the docking structure of natural killer cell immune synapses," Biophys. J. 96, L13‒L15 (2009).
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B. Huang, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, "Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy," Annu. Rev. Biochem. 78, 993‒1016 (2009).
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F. Munhoz, S. Brustlein, D. Gachet, F. Billard, S. Brasselet, and H. Rigneault, "Raman depolarization ratio of liquids probed by linear polarization coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy," J. Raman Spectrosc. 40, 775‒780 (2009).
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N. J. Begue, A. J. Moad, and G. J. Simpson, "Nonlinear optical Stokes ellipsometry 1: Theoretical framework," J. Phys. Chem. C 113, (23), 10158‒10165 (2009).
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N. J. Begue, R. M. Everly, V. J. Hall, L. Haupert, and G. J. Simpson, "Nonlinear optical Stokes ellipsometry 2: Experimental demonstration," J. Phys. Chem. C 113, (23), 10166‒10175 (2009).
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2008 (11)

E. J. Gualtieri, L. M. Haupert, and G. J. Simpson, "Interpreting nonlinear optics of biopolymers: finding a hook," Chem. Phys. Lett. 465, (4–6), 167‒174 (2008).
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C. K. Haluska, A. P. Schröder, P. Didier, D. Heissler, G. Duportail, Y. Mély, and C. M. Marques, "Combining fluorescence lifetime and polarization microscopy to discriminate phase separated domains in giant unilamellar vesicles," Biophys. J. 95, 5737‒5747 (2008).
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R. P. Davis, A. J. Moad, G. S. Goeken, R. D. Wampler, and G. J. Simpson, "Selection rules and symmetry relations for four-wave mixing measurements of uniaxial assemblies," J. Phys. Chem. B 112, (18), 5834‒5848 (2008).
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R. LaComb, O. Nadiarnykh, and P. J. Campagnola, "Quantitative second harmonic generation imaging of the diseased state osteogenesis imperfecta: experiment and simulation," Biophys. J. 94, (11), 4504‒4515 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ralston, B. Swaim, M. Czapiga, W. L. Hwu, Y. H. Chien, M. G. Pittis, B. Bembi, O. Schwartz, P. Plotz, and N. Raben, "Detection and imaging of noncontractile inclusions and sarcomeric anomalies in skeletal muscle by second harmonic generation combined with two-photon excited fluorescence," J. Struct. Biol. 162, 500‒508 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Odin, Y. Le Grand, A. Renault, L. Gailhouste, and G. Baffet, "Orientation fields of nonlinear biological fibrils by second harmonic generation microscopy," J. Microsc. 229, 32‒38 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Strupler, M. Hernest, C. Fligny, J. L. Martin, P.-L. Tharaux, and M. C. Schanne-Klein, "Second harmonic microscopy to quantify renal interstitial fibrosis and arterial remodeling," J. Biomed. Optics 13, 054041 (2008).
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G. M. Lerman and U. Levy, "Effect of radial polarization and apodization on spot size under tight focusing conditions," Opt. Express 16, 4567‒4581 (2008).
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M. R. Foreman, C. M. Romero, and P. Török, "Determination of the three-dimensional orientation of single molecules," Opt. Lett. 33, 1020‒1022 (2008).
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A. V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, P. N. Prasad, and I. I. Smalyukh, "Realignment-enhanced coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and three-dimensional imaging in anisotropic fluids," Opt. Express 16, 10617‒10632 (2008).
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P. Schön, F. Munhoz, A. Gasecka, S. Brustlein, and S. Brasselet, "Polarization distortion effects in polarimetric two-photon microscopy," Opt. Express 16, 20891‒20901 (2008).
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2007 (9)

P. Lemaillet, F. Pellen, S. Rivet, B. Le Jeune, and J. Cariou, "Optimization of a dual-rotating-retarder polarimeter designed for hyper-Rayleigh scattering," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 609‒614 (2007).
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K. Yoshiki, K. Ryosuke, M. Hashimoto, N. Hashimoto, and T. Araki, "Second-harmonic-generation microscope using eight-segment polarization-mode converter to observe three-dimensional molecular orientation," Opt. Lett. 32, 1680‒1682 (2007).
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F. Tiaho, G. Recher, and D. Rouède, "Estimation of helical angles of myosin and collagen by second harmonic generation imaging microscopy," Opt. Express 15, 12286‒12295 (2007).
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N. Sandeau, L. Le Xuan, D. Chauvat, C. Zhou, J. F. Roch, and S. Brasselet, "Defocused imaging of second harmonic generation from a single nanocrystal," Opt. Express 15, 16051‒16060 (2007).
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H. M. Kim, H.-J. Choo, S.-Y. Jung, Y.-G. Ko, W.-H. Park, S.-J. Jeon, C. H. Kim, T. Joo, and B. R. Cho, "A two-photon fluorescent probe for lipid raft imaging: C-laurdan," ChemBioChem 8, 553‒559 (2007).
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T. Baumgart, G. Hunt, E. R. Farkas, W. W. Webb, and G. W. Feigenson, "Fluorescence probe partitioning between Lo/Ld phases in lipid membranes," Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1768, 2182‒2194 (2007).
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S. Brasselet and J. Zyss, "Nonlinear polarimetry of molecular crystals down to the nanoscale," C. R. Phys. 8, 165‒179 (2007).
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T. E. Schaus, E. W. Taylor, and G. G. Borisy, "Self-organization of actin filament orientation in the dendritic-nucleation/array-treadmilling model," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 7086‒7091 (2007).
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E. Y. S. Yew and C. J. R. Sheppard, "Second harmonic generation polarization microscopy with tightly focused linearly and radially polarized beams," Opt. Commun. 275, 453‒457 (2007).
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2006 (13)

B. Corry, D. Jayatilaka, B. Martinac, and P. Rigby, "Determination of the orientational distribution and orientation factor for transfer between membrane-bound fluorophores using a confocal microscope," Biophys. J. 91, 1032‒1045 (2006).
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A. M. Vrabioiu and T. J. Mitchison, "Structural insights into yeast septin organization from polarized fluorescence microscopy," Nature 443, 466‒468 (2006).
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D. R. Fooksman, G. K. Grönvall, Q. Tang, and M. Edidin, "Clustering class I MHC modulates sensitivity of T cell recognition," J. Immunol. 176, 6673‒6680 (2006).
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D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A.-M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, "Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy," Nat. Methods 3, 47‒53 (2006).
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Y. Sun, W.-L. Chen, S.-J. Lin, S. H. Jee, Y.-F. Chen, L.-C. Lin, P. T. C. So, and C.-Y. Dong, "Investigating mechanisms of collagen thermal denaturation by high resolution second-harmonic generation imaging," Biophys. J. 91, 2620‒2625 (2006).
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A. M. Pena, T. Boulesteix, T. Dartigalongue, M. Strupler, E. Beaurepaire, and M. C. Schanne-Klein, "Chiroptical effects in the second harmonic generation from collagens I and IV: applications in nonlinear microscopy," Nonlinear Opt. Quantum Opt. 35, 1‒3 (2006).

S.-W. Teng, H.-Y. Tan, J.-L. Peng, H.-H. Lin, K. H. Kim, W. Lo, Y. Sun, W.-C. Lin, S.-J. Lin, S.-H. Jee, P. T. C. So, and C.-Y. Dong, "Multiphoton autofluorescence and second-harmonic generation (SHG) imaging of ex-vivo porcine eye," Invest. Ophthalm. Vis. Sci. 47, 1216‒1224 (2006).
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E. Y. S. Yew and C. R. J. Sheppard, "Effects of axial field components on second harmonic generation microscopy," Opt. Express 14, 1167‒1174 (2006).
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L. Polachek, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, "Full control of the spectral polarization of ultrashort pulses," Opt. Lett. 31, 631‒633 (2006).
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D. Lara and C. Dainty, "Axially resolved complete Mueller matrix confocal microscopy," Appl. Opt. 45, 1917‒1930 (2006).
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M. R. Beversluis, L. Novotny, and S. J. Stranick, "Programmable vector point-spread function engineering," Opt. Express 14, 2650‒2656 (2006).
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2004 (4)

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2001 (7)

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1998 (2)

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Figures (18)

Figure 1
Figure 1

(a) Schematic drawing of a molecule excited by different frequencies ω. The radiation from the molecule originates either from an emission transition dipole moment ( μ em , fluorescence), or from a nonlinear induced dipole moment ( p 2 ω , a coherent second-order nonlinear optical process). (b) Energy diagram scheme of the different contrasts addressed in this tutorial: one- and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF), second-harmonic generation (SHG), FWM, THG, and CARS. (c) Images and spectra obtained from such contrasts in a molecular crystal that is active for second-order nonlinear effects (more generally sum frequency generation), TPEF and CARS. Incident wavelengths: 816.8, 888.7, 1064 nm [17].

Figure 2
Figure 2

Definition of the different frames, axes, and notation used in this tutorial: (a) ( x , y , z ) , molecular frame; ( 1 , 2 , 3 ) , microscopic frame, which is either the crystal unit-cell or molecular distribution frame; (b) ( X , Y , Z ) , macroscopic frame; Ω = ( θ , ϕ , ψ ) , Euler set of angles defining the orientation of the molecule in the microscopic frame; Ω 0 = ( θ 0 , ϕ 0 , ψ 0 ) , Euler set of angles defining the orientation of the microscopic frame in the macroscopic frame. (c) Geometry of microscopy in the EPI epi- and forward-detection schemes.

Figure 3
Figure 3

(a) Polarization dependence of the one-photon and two-photon fluorescence processes for one single molecule oriented in the sample plane ( X , Y ) . The polar plots are representations of the fluorescent intensity as functions of the angle of rotation α of the incident polarization E ω . (b) Case of a wide molecular distribution along a cone, oriented along 3 0 and of aperture Ψ = 3 0 . (c) Case of an isotropic distribution.

Figure 4
Figure 4

(a) Radiation from a dipole excited in the excitation volume. (b) Map of the Z and X amplitude components of the excitation field in the focal plane when the incident light is polarized along X, using a NA = 1.2 objective.

Figure 5
Figure 5

SHG and THG polarimetric responses I X ( α ) , I Y ( α ) of a molecular angular distribution within a cone of aperture Ψ (“filled cone” distribution), oriented in the sample plane with its main axis along X ( θ 0 = π / 2 , ϕ 0 = 0 , ψ 0 = 0 ). (a) Ψ = 4 0 , (b) Ψ = 7 0 , (c) Ψ = 9 0 (isotropic distribution). The SHG polarimetric responses are also represented for a molecular distribution lying along a cones of the same apertures (“cone surface” distribution).

Figure 6
Figure 6

Different distribution functions. (a) Filled cone and (b) Gaussian function in a lipid membrane. (c) Open cone in a biofilament. (d) Cone width in a disordered medium.

Figure 7
Figure 7

Spherical decomposition of cone and Gaussian aperture distribution functions. (a) Representation of the functions and their filtered decomposition. (b) Representation of the norm of the even-order spherical harmonics used for the decomposition. Only m = 0 is present in the decomposition, since the functions are of cylindrical symmetry around their principal axis of symmetry.

Figure 8
Figure 8

Fluorescence anisotropy imaging. (a) Experimental scheme: the I X and I Y analyzed intensities are recorded for an incident circular polarization. The sample is schematized as a spherical lipid membrane in which molecules are assembled within a cone aperture, normal to the membrane. (b) Theoretical dependence of the anisotropy factor A ( Ψ ) as a function of the cone aperture Ψ of a filled cone distribution, for several tilt angles ϕ 0 of the cone in the sample plane. (c) Anisotropy factor A measured for (left) a GUV made of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and (right) a mixture of DOPC, sphingomyelin and cholesterol (1:1:1) (see Section 4 for a more detailed description). The points of measurement M and N at the position ϕ 0 = 9 0 are represented on the theoretical A ( Ψ ) graph, leading to an estimation of the molecular order value at this position of the sample [40].

Figure 9
Figure 9

(a) Principle of Mueller matrix imaging (P1, P2, linear horizontal polarizers; QWP1, QWP2, rotating quarter-wave plates). (b) Four of the Mueller component images measured from a retina in a living human eye [50]. (c) Best image obtained from a reconstruction procedure using the different Mueller components in (b) [50].

Figure 10
Figure 10

(a) Principle of a polarimetric nonlinear microscopy setup. APD, avalanche photodiodes. (b) Nonlinear ellipsometry setup. Pol, polarizer; λ / 2 , λ / 4 : half- and quarter-wave plates; PMT, photomultiplier [65]. (c) Nonlinear pulse shaping for second-harmonic generation. The wide spectral band of the incident pulse is separated into two crossed polarized components, giving access to six nonlinear macroscopic tensorial coefficients in the sample plane [63].

Figure 11
Figure 11

Effect of polarization state distortion at the focal spot [Fig. 4(b)]. Left: polarimetric SHG calculated from a cone distribution (schematic representation of a collagen fiber) of aperture angle Ψ = 50 ° oriented along X in the sample plane, for two different objective NAs. Right: polarimetric TPEF calculated for a one-dimensional crystal (schematic representation of a molecular crystal) for two different NAs, and a different off-plane orientation θ 0 of the crystal.

Figure 12
Figure 12

Effect of the polarization distortions from the reflective dichroic mirror on polarimetry. (a) Ellipticity distortion on an α = 4 5 incident linear polarization for different δ phase shifts imposed by the dichroic mirror. (b) Effect of the δ parameter on TPEF polarimetry in a model tilted one-dimensional fluorescent molecular crystal (only I X is represented in the calculated responses). Both experimental polarimetric data and the fluorescent image are represented for a situation in which the dichroic mirror is not imposing large distortions. (c) Effect of both δ and γ parameters on TPEF polarimetry in an isotropic depolarized solution. The polarimetric I X TPEF response measured in a Rhodamine solution is also represented for a highly distorting dichroic mirror.

Figure 13
Figure 13

Polarimetric TPEF in lipid membranes labeled with di-8-ANEPPQ (imaging conditions: incident wavelength 780 nm, detection wavelength 500 nm, NA = 1.2). (a) GUVs made of Ld and Lo phases from a DOPC:sphingomyelin:cholesterol (1:1:1) mixture. (b) The fit (continuous line) of the TPEF polarimetric data (markers) for marked points on the GUV contour is performed by using a filled cone model of orientation ϕ 0 in the sample plane and aperture Ψ. Two populations could be found in the GUV fluorescent image (left image), characteristics of ordered and disordered phases (right image). (c) The same methodology applied to doped cell membranes shows high aperture angles, characteristics of membrane folding at the subwavelength scale [40]. The schematic membrane surface image is taken from [105].

Figure 14
Figure 14

Polarimetric SHG in collagen type I contained in tissues. (a), (b) Collagen type I extracted from rat tail tendon. (a) The SHG radiation is measured in the forward direction through the tissue. The incident polarization is kept fixed (colored arrow) and the analyzer is rotated in front of the detector [130]. Fits (continuous curves) are performed following a model similar to Eq. (57). (b) The SHG radiation is measured in the epi-direction at the surface of the tissue. The incident polarization is rotated (SHG polarimetry), and the analyzer is set along the horizontal direction (red markers) or vertical (green markers). The black curves represent fits using Eqs. (56) and (27), with ϕ 0 and Ψ as unknown parameters. (c) SHG polarimetry image analysis in the body wall muscles of Caenorhabditis elegans ventral quadrants [134].

Figure 15
Figure 15

SHG polarimetry in collagen type I fibers extracted from rat tail tendons, attached on a coverslip and immersed in 0.15M NaCl [59]. (a) SHG image (incident wavelength 800 nm, detected wavelength 400 nm, NA 0.6). (b) SHG polarimetric data recorded for a position on the collagen fiber, for two different depths in the tissue. The fit (continuous line) accounts for birefringence parameters Δ n 0 . 003 . (c) Theoretical SHG polarimetry in a birefringent sample modeled by a cone of aperture Ψ = 50 ° , for an increasing birefringent phase shift ( Φ b ) and for two different orientations of the cone ϕ 0 = Θ b in the sample plane.

Figure 16
Figure 16

SHG polarimetry on collagen type I from a rat tail tendon, at large depth. Experimental polarimetry data represented as a magnitude map for (a) I X SHG ( α ) and (b) I Y SHG ( α ) . (c) and (d) show, respectively, the fit (continuous line) of I X and I Y at the tendon surface including scattering cross talk, diattenuation, and birefringence (blue line) and without accounting for these parameters (red line). These results are taken from [145].

Figure 17
Figure 17

Polarization-sensitive THG imaging. THG imaging of a cornea with (a) linear and (b) circular incident polarization revealing anisotropic structures. Scale bar 100 µm. (c) Principle of the experiment with polarization-resolved detection [60].

Figure 18
Figure 18

Polarimetric CARS. (a) Response to varying α p and α s angles simultaneously in a solution of toluene at the 787 cm 1 resonance ( ρ R = 0 ) [61]. (b) Polarimetry in collagen fibers from a rat tail tendon [155]. (c) Response to different polarimetric schemes in a H8Si8O12 crystal of known orientation ( E g O–Si–H bending mode at 932 cm 1 ). The rotating polarization scheme is indicated below the corresponding polarimetric responses. (d) I X polarimetric response of the α p = α s scheme at various spectral positions around the E g mode resonance. A strong variation of the response is observed that is due to the deviation from Kleinman conditions [28].

Equations (73)

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Ω ( τ ) i 1 , , i n = τ i 1 , , i n ( Ω ) = u 1 , , u n τ u 1 , , u n ( u 1 i 1 ) ( u n i n ) ( Ω ) ,
I n -ph P abs n -ph P em .
P abs 1 -ph = Im ( α ( ω ; ω ) ) ( E ω E ω ) = I J Im ( α I J ( ω ; ω ) ) E I ω E J ω ,
α I J ( ω ; ω ) = 1 ε 0 ħ n μ 0 n I μ n 0 J ( ω n 0 ω ) i Γ n 0 ,
P abs 1 -ph Im ( α I J ) E I ω E J ω I J μ 01 I μ 10 J E I ω E J ω = | μ 01 E ω | 2 .
P em , I I em , I | E em I | 2 ,
E em ( Ω , k ) k × ( k × μ em ( Ω ) ) = μ em ( Ω ) ,
| E em I | 2 | μ I em ( Ω ) | 2 = | μ em ( Ω ) I | 2 .
I I 1 -ph ( Ω ) | μ abs ( Ω ) E ω | 2 | μ em ( Ω ) I | 2 .
P abs 2 -ph Im ( γ ( ω ; ω , ω , ω ) ) ( E ω E ω E ω E ω ) Im ( γ I J K L ( ω ; ω , ω , ω ) ) E I ω E J ω E K ω E L ω .
γ I J K L ( ω ; ω , ω , ω ) = 1 6 ε 0 ħ 3 n , m , ν P I J , K L [ μ 0 n I μ n m L μ m ν K μ ν 0 J ] [ ( ω n 0 ω ) i Γ n 0 ] [ ( ω m 0 2 ω ) i Γ m 0 ] [ ( ω ν 0 ω ) i Γ ν 0 ] P I J , K L [ μ 0 n I μ n m J μ m ν L μ ν 0 K ] [ ( ω n 0 ω ) + i Γ n 0 ] [ ( ω m 0 ω ) i Γ m 0 ] [ ( ω ν 0 ω ) i Γ ν 0 ] ,
P abs 2 -ph n I J K L μ 0 n I μ n 1 J μ 1 n K μ n 0 L E I ω E J ω E K ω E L ω ,
P abs 2 -ph | μ abs E ω | 4 .
I I 2 -ph | μ abs ( Ω ) E ω | 4 | μ em ( Ω ) I | 2 .
I I n -ph ( Ω ) I 1 I 2 n μ I 1 . . . μ I 2 n ( Ω ) E I 1 . . . E I 2 n ( μ I μ I ( Ω ) ) I 1 . . . I 2 n τ I 1 . . . I 2 n I I ( Ω ) E I 1 . . . E I 2 n ,
I I 1 -ph ( Ω ) J K α J K ( Ω ) α I I ( Ω ) E J E K ( α α ) J K I I ( Ω ) E J E K I I 2 -ph ( Ω ) J K L M γ J K L M ( Ω ) α I I ( Ω ) E J E K E L E M ( γ α ) J K L M I I ( Ω ) E J E K E L E M ,
I I 2 -ph = N NA V Ω | μ abs ( Ω , r ) E ( r ) | 4 | E em ( Ω , r , k ) I | 2 f ( Ω ) d Ω d r d k
I I 2 -ph = N Ω | μ ( Ω ) E | 4 | μ em ( Ω ) I | 2 f ( Ω ) d Ω = N Ω ( γ α ) J K L M I I ( Ω ) E J E K E L E M f ( Ω ) d Ω ,
μ ( Ω , Ω 0 ) = Ω 0 ( μ ( Ω ) ) = cos ϕ 0 cos θ 0 sin ϕ 0 cos ϕ 0 sin θ 0 sin ϕ 0 cos θ 0 cos ϕ 0 sin ϕ 0 sin θ 0 sin θ 0 0 cos θ 0 sin θ cos ϕ sin θ sin ϕ cos θ .
τ u 1 . . . . u n τ i 1 . . . i n ( Ω ) = Ω ( τ ) = u 1 . . . . u n τ u 1 . . . . u n ( u 1 i 1 ) ( u n i n ) ( Ω ) , τ i 1 . . . i n ( Ω ) T i 1 . . . i n = N Ω τ i 1 . . . i n ( Ω ) f ( Ω ) d Ω , T i 1 . . . i n T I 1 . . . I n ( Ω 0 ) = Ω 0 ( T ) I 1 . . . I n = i 1 . . . i n T i 1 . . . i n ( i 1 I 1 ) ( i n I n ) ( Ω 0 ) ,
I I 2 -ph = J K L M T J K L M I I E J E K E L E M ,
I I 2 -ph ( α ) J K L M T J K L M I I E J E K E L E M ( α ) , T J K L M I I = N Ω γ J K L M ( Ω ) α I I ( Ω ) f ( Ω ) d Ω ,
p I SHG ( Ω ) = J K β I J K ( Ω ) E J ω E K ω
β u v w β i j k ( Ω ) = Ω ( β ) β I J K ( Ω , Ω 0 ) = Ω 0 ( β ( Ω ) ) .
β I J K ( 2 ω ; ω , ω ) = 1 2 ε 0 ħ 2 m n P J K [ μ 0 n I μ n m J μ m 0 K ] [ ( ω m 0 ω ) i Γ m 0 ] [ ( ω n 0 2 ω ) i Γ n 0 ] + P J K [ μ 0 n J μ n m I μ m 0 K ] [ ( ω n 0 + ω ) + i Γ n 0 ] [ ( ω m n 2 ω ) i Γ m n ] + P J K [ μ 0 n J μ n m I μ m 0 K ] [ ( ω n 0 ω ) i Γ n 0 ] [ ( ω m n + 2 ω ) + i Γ m n ] + P J K [ μ 0 n J μ n m K μ m 0 I ] [ ( ω n 0 + ω ) + i Γ n 0 ] [ ( ω m 0 + 2 ω ) + i Γ m 0 ] .