Abstract

We provide a review of recent advances in 3D surface imaging technologies. We focus particularly on noncontact 3D surface measurement techniques based on structured illumination. The high-speed and high-resolution pattern projection capability offered by the digital light projection technology, together with the recent advances in imaging sensor technologies, may enable new generation systems for 3D surface measurement applications that will provide much better functionality and performance than existing ones in terms of speed, accuracy, resolution, modularization, and ease of use. Performance indexes of 3D imaging system are discussed, and various 3D surface imaging schemes are categorized, illustrated, and compared. Calibration techniques are also discussed, since they play critical roles in achieving the required precision. Numerous applications of 3D surface imaging technologies are discussed with several examples.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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  36. J. Le Moigne and A. M. Waxman, "Multi-resolution grid patterns for building range maps," Vision ’85, Applied Machine Vision Conference (ASME), 1985, Society of Manufacturing Engineers, pp. 22‒39.
  37. H. Morita, K. Yajima, and S. Sakata, "Reconstruction of surfaces of 3-D objects by M-array pattern projection method," Second International Conference on Computer Vision, 1988, IEEE Computer Society, pp. 468‒473.
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    [CrossRef]
  39. P. Payeur and D. Desjardins, "Structured light stereoscopic imaging with dynamic pseudo-random patterns," Image Analysis and Recognition, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 5627/2009, Springer, 2009, pp. 687‒696.
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  41. P. M. Grin, L. S. Narasimhan, and S. R. Yee, "Generation of uniquely encoded light patterns for range data acquisition," Pattern Recog. 25, (6), 609‒616 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  42. E. M. Petriu, Z. Sakr, H. J. W. Spoelder, and A. Moica, "Object recognition using pseudo-random color encoded structured light," Proceedings of the 17th IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, 2000. IMTC 2000, Vol. 3, 2000, IEEE, pp. 1237‒1241.
  43. J. Pagès, J. Salvi, and C. Matabosch, "Robust segmentation and decoding of a grid pattern for structured light," Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 2652/2003, Springer, 2003, pp. 689‒696.
  44. A. Osman Ulusoy, F. Calakli, and G. Taubin, "Robust one-shot 3D scanning using loopy belief propagation," 2010 IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Workshops (CVPRW), 2010, IEEE Computer Society, pp. 15‒22.
  45. P. Payeur and D. Desjardins, "Structured light stereoscopic imaging with dynamic pseudo-random patterns," Image Analysis and Recognition, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 5627/2009, Springer, 2009, pp. 687‒696.
  46. D. Desjardins and P. Payeur, "Dense stereo range sensing with marching pseudo-random patterns," Fourth Canadian Conference on Computer and Robot Vision (CRV ’07), 2007, IEEE Computer Society, pp. 216‒226.
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    [CrossRef]
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2010

S. Siva Gorthi and P. Rastogi, "Fringe projection techniques: whither we are?," Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, (2), 133‒140 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Heike, K. Upson, E. Stuhaug, and S. M. Weinberg, "3D digital stereophotogrammetry: a practical guide to facial image acquisition," Head Face Med. 6, (1), 18 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

1999

E. Horn and N. Kiryati, "Toward optimal structured light patterns," Image Vision Comput. 17, (2), 87‒97 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

R. J. Valkenburg and A. M. McIvor, "Accurate 3D measurement using a structured light system," Image Vision Comput. 16, (2), 99‒110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

Z. J. Geng, "Rainbow three-dimensional camera: new concept of high-speed three-dimensional vision systems," Opt. Eng. 35, (2), 376‒383 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993

M. Maruyama and S. Abe, "Range sensing by projecting multiple slits with random cuts," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 15, (6), 647‒651 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

P. M. Grin, L. S. Narasimhan, and S. R. Yee, "Generation of uniquely encoded light patterns for range data acquisition," Pattern Recog. 25, (6), 609‒616 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989

H. Hügli and G. Maïtre, "Generation and use of color pseudo-random sequences for coding structured light in active ranging," Proc. SPIE 1010, 75‒82 (1989).

1988

J. Le Moigne and A. M. Waxman, "Structured light patterns for robot mobility," IEEE J. Robot. Automat. 4, (5), 541‒548 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

R. Y. Tsai, "A versatile camera calibration technique for high accuracy 3D machine vision metrology using off-the-shelf TV cameras and lenses," IEEE J. Robotics Automat. 3, (4), 323‒344 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Boyer and A. C. Kak, "Color-encoded structured light for rapid active ranging," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 9, (1), 14‒28 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1982

H. Fredricksen, "A survey of full length nonlinear shift register cycle algorithms," Soc. Industr. Appl. Math. Rev. 24, (2), 195‒221 (1982).

J. L. Posdamer and M. D. Altschuler, "Surface measurement by space-encoded projected beam systems," Comput. Graph. Image Processing 18, (1), 1‒17 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980

R. Woodham, "Photometric method for determining surface orientation from multiple images," Opt. Eng. 19, (1), 134‒140 (1980).

1976

F. J. MacWilliams and N. J. A. Sloane, "Pseudorandom sequences and arrays," Proc. IEEE 64, (12), 1715‒1729 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Abe, S.

M. Maruyama and S. Abe, "Range sensing by projecting multiple slits with random cuts," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 15, (6), 647‒651 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Altschuler, M. D.

J. L. Posdamer and M. D. Altschuler, "Surface measurement by space-encoded projected beam systems," Comput. Graph. Image Processing 18, (1), 1‒17 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Basri, R.

R. Basri and D. Jacobs, "Photometric stereo with general, unknown lighting," 2001 IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR 2001), 2001, IEEE Computer Society, pp. 374‒381.

Boyer, K. L.

K. L. Boyer and A. C. Kak, "Color-encoded structured light for rapid active ranging," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 9, (1), 14‒28 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Calakli, F.

A. Osman Ulusoy, F. Calakli, and G. Taubin, "One-shot scanning using De Bruijn spaced grids," 2009 IEEE 12th International Conference on Computer Vision Workshops (ICCV Workshops), 2009, IEEE, pp. 1786‒1792.

A. Osman Ulusoy, F. Calakli, and G. Taubin, "Robust one-shot 3D scanning using loopy belief propagation," 2010 IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Workshops (CVPRW), 2010, IEEE Computer Society, pp. 15‒22.

Carter, J.

T. Monks and J. Carter, "Improved stripe matching for colour encoded structured light," Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns, 1993, Springer, pp. 476‒485.

Caspi, D.

D. Caspi, N. Kiryati, and J. Shamir, "Range imaging with adaptive color structured light," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 20, (5), 470‒480 (May 1998).
[CrossRef]

Curless, B.

L. Zhang, B. Curless, and S. M. Seitz, "Rapid shape acquisition using color structured light and multi-pass dynamic programming," First International Symposium on 3D Data Processing Visualization and Transmission, 2002. Proceedings, 2002, IEEE, pp. 24‒36.

Desjardins, D.

D. Desjardins and P. Payeur, "Dense stereo range sensing with marching pseudo-random patterns," Fourth Canadian Conference on Computer and Robot Vision (CRV ’07), 2007, IEEE Computer Society, pp. 216‒226.

P. Payeur and D. Desjardins, "Structured light stereoscopic imaging with dynamic pseudo-random patterns," Image Analysis and Recognition, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 5627/2009, Springer, 2009, pp. 687‒696.

P. Payeur and D. Desjardins, "Structured light stereoscopic imaging with dynamic pseudo-random patterns," Image Analysis and Recognition, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 5627/2009, Springer, 2009, pp. 687‒696.

Doi, K.

I. Ishii, K. Yamamoto, K. Doi, and T. Tsuji, "High-speed 3D image acquisition using coded structured light projection," IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2007. IROS 2007, 2007, IEEE, pp. 925‒930.

Durdle, N. G.

N. G. Durdle, J. Thayyoor, and V. J. Raso, "An improved structured light technique for surface reconstruction of the human trunk," IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, 1998, Vol. 2, 1998, IEEE, pp. 874‒877.

Duwe, H. P.

W. Krattenthaler, K. J. Mayer, and H. P. Duwe, "3D-surface measurement with coded light approach," Proceedings of the 17th Meeting of the Austrian Association for Pattern Recognition on Image Analysis and Synthesis, Vol. 12, 1993, R. Oldenbourg Verlag, pp. 103‒114.

Fernandez, S.

S. Fernandez, J. Salvi, and T. Pribanic, "Absolute phase mapping for one-shot dense pattern projection," 2010 IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Workshops (CVPRW), June 3–18, 2010, San Francisco, Calif..

Fredricksen, H.

H. Fredricksen, "A survey of full length nonlinear shift register cycle algorithms," Soc. Industr. Appl. Math. Rev. 24, (2), 195‒221 (1982).

Geng, J.

J. Geng, "Method and apparatus for 3D imaging using light pattern having multiple sub-patterns," U.S. patent 6,700,669; 2 March 2004.

J. Geng, "High speed three dimensional imaging method," U.S. patent 6,147,760; 14 Nov. 2000.

J. Geng, "3D surface profile imaging method and apparatus using single spectral light condition," U.S. patent 6,556,706; 29 Apr. 2003.

J. Geng, "High speed laser three-dimensional imager," U.S. patent 6,660,168; 29 July 2003.

J. Geng, "Color ranging method for high speed low-cost 3D surface profile measurement," U.S. patent 5,675,407; 7 Oct. 1997.

J. Geng, "High speed three dimensional imaging method," U.S. patent 6,028,672; 22 Feb. 2000.

J. Geng, "Three-dimensional dental imaging method and apparatus having a reflective member," U.S. patent 6,594,539; 15 July 2003.

Geng, Z. J.

Z. J. Geng, "Rainbow three-dimensional camera: new concept of high-speed three-dimensional vision systems," Opt. Eng. 35, (2), 376‒383 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Grin, P. M.

P. M. Grin, L. S. Narasimhan, and S. R. Yee, "Generation of uniquely encoded light patterns for range data acquisition," Pattern Recog. 25, (6), 609‒616 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Heike, C. L.

C. L. Heike, K. Upson, E. Stuhaug, and S. M. Weinberg, "3D digital stereophotogrammetry: a practical guide to facial image acquisition," Head Face Med. 6, (1), 18 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heikkil, J.

J. Heikkil and O. Silven, "A four-step camera calibration procedure with implicit image correction," 1997 IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 1997. Proceedings, 1997, IEEE Computer Society, pp. 1106‒1112.

Hertzmann, A.

A. Treuille, A. Hertzmann, and S. M. Seitz, "Example-based stereo with general BRDFs," Computer Vision—ECCV 2004: 8th European Conference on Computer Vision, Part II, 2004, Springer, pp. 457‒469.

Higo, T.

T. Higo, Y. Matsushita, N. Joshi, and K. Ikeuchi, "A hand-held photometric stereo camera for 3-D modeling," 2009 IEEE 12th International Conference on Computer Vision, Sept. 2009, pp. 1234‒1241.

Horn, E.

E. Horn and N. Kiryati, "Toward optimal structured light patterns," Image Vision Comput. 17, (2), 87‒97 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, P. S.

Hügli, H.

H. Hügli and G. Maïtre, "Generation and use of color pseudo-random sequences for coding structured light in active ranging," Proc. SPIE 1010, 75‒82 (1989).

Ikeuchi, K.

T. Higo, Y. Matsushita, N. Joshi, and K. Ikeuchi, "A hand-held photometric stereo camera for 3-D modeling," 2009 IEEE 12th International Conference on Computer Vision, Sept. 2009, pp. 1234‒1241.

Inokuchi, S.

K. Sato and S. Inokuchi, "Range-imaging system utilizing nematic liquid crystal mask," Proceedings of International Conference on Computer Vision, 1987, IEEE Computer Society Press, pp. 657‒661.

S. Inokuchi, K. Sato, and F. Matsuda, "Range-imaging for 3-D object recognition," International Conference on Pattern Recognition, 1984, International Association for Pattern Recognition, pp. 806‒808.

Ishii, I.

I. Ishii, K. Yamamoto, K. Doi, and T. Tsuji, "High-speed 3D image acquisition using coded structured light projection," IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2007. IROS 2007, 2007, IEEE, pp. 925‒930.

Jacobs, D.

R. Basri and D. Jacobs, "Photometric stereo with general, unknown lighting," 2001 IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR 2001), 2001, IEEE Computer Society, pp. 374‒381.

Joshi, N.

T. Higo, Y. Matsushita, N. Joshi, and K. Ikeuchi, "A hand-held photometric stereo camera for 3-D modeling," 2009 IEEE 12th International Conference on Computer Vision, Sept. 2009, pp. 1234‒1241.

Kak, A. C.

K. L. Boyer and A. C. Kak, "Color-encoded structured light for rapid active ranging," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 9, (1), 14‒28 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kiryati, N.

D. Caspi, N. Kiryati, and J. Shamir, "Range imaging with adaptive color structured light," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 20, (5), 470‒480 (May 1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Horn and N. Kiryati, "Toward optimal structured light patterns," Image Vision Comput. 17, (2), 87‒97 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Krattenthaler, W.

W. Krattenthaler, K. J. Mayer, and H. P. Duwe, "3D-surface measurement with coded light approach," Proceedings of the 17th Meeting of the Austrian Association for Pattern Recognition on Image Analysis and Synthesis, Vol. 12, 1993, R. Oldenbourg Verlag, pp. 103‒114.

Le Moigne, J.

J. Le Moigne and A. M. Waxman, "Structured light patterns for robot mobility," IEEE J. Robot. Automat. 4, (5), 541‒548 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Le Moigne and A. M. Waxman, "Multi-resolution grid patterns for building range maps," Vision ’85, Applied Machine Vision Conference (ASME), 1985, Society of Manufacturing Engineers, pp. 22‒39.

MacWilliams, F. J.

F. J. MacWilliams and N. J. A. Sloane, "Pseudorandom sequences and arrays," Proc. IEEE 64, (12), 1715‒1729 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Maïtre, G.

H. Hügli and G. Maïtre, "Generation and use of color pseudo-random sequences for coding structured light in active ranging," Proc. SPIE 1010, 75‒82 (1989).

Maruyama, M.

M. Maruyama and S. Abe, "Range sensing by projecting multiple slits with random cuts," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 15, (6), 647‒651 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Matabosch, C.

J. Pagès, J. Salvi, and C. Matabosch, "Robust segmentation and decoding of a grid pattern for structured light," Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 2652/2003, Springer, 2003, pp. 689‒696.

Matsuda, F.

S. Inokuchi, K. Sato, and F. Matsuda, "Range-imaging for 3-D object recognition," International Conference on Pattern Recognition, 1984, International Association for Pattern Recognition, pp. 806‒808.

Matsushita, Y.

T. Higo, Y. Matsushita, N. Joshi, and K. Ikeuchi, "A hand-held photometric stereo camera for 3-D modeling," 2009 IEEE 12th International Conference on Computer Vision, Sept. 2009, pp. 1234‒1241.

Mayer, K. J.

W. Krattenthaler, K. J. Mayer, and H. P. Duwe, "3D-surface measurement with coded light approach," Proceedings of the 17th Meeting of the Austrian Association for Pattern Recognition on Image Analysis and Synthesis, Vol. 12, 1993, R. Oldenbourg Verlag, pp. 103‒114.

McIvor, A. M.

R. J. Valkenburg and A. M. McIvor, "Accurate 3D measurement using a structured light system," Image Vision Comput. 16, (2), 99‒110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moica, A.

E. M. Petriu, Z. Sakr, H. J. W. Spoelder, and A. Moica, "Object recognition using pseudo-random color encoded structured light," Proceedings of the 17th IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, 2000. IMTC 2000, Vol. 3, 2000, IEEE, pp. 1237‒1241.

Monks, T.

T. Monks and J. Carter, "Improved stripe matching for colour encoded structured light," Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns, 1993, Springer, pp. 476‒485.

Morita, H.

H. Morita, K. Yajima, and S. Sakata, "Reconstruction of surfaces of 3-D objects by M-array pattern projection method," Second International Conference on Computer Vision, 1988, IEEE Computer Society, pp. 468‒473.

Narasimhan, L. S.

P. M. Grin, L. S. Narasimhan, and S. R. Yee, "Generation of uniquely encoded light patterns for range data acquisition," Pattern Recog. 25, (6), 609‒616 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Osman Ulusoy, A.

A. Osman Ulusoy, F. Calakli, and G. Taubin, "One-shot scanning using De Bruijn spaced grids," 2009 IEEE 12th International Conference on Computer Vision Workshops (ICCV Workshops), 2009, IEEE, pp. 1786‒1792.

A. Osman Ulusoy, F. Calakli, and G. Taubin, "Robust one-shot 3D scanning using loopy belief propagation," 2010 IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Workshops (CVPRW), 2010, IEEE Computer Society, pp. 15‒22.

Pagès, J.

J. Pagès, J. Salvi, and C. Matabosch, "Robust segmentation and decoding of a grid pattern for structured light," Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 2652/2003, Springer, 2003, pp. 689‒696.

Pajdla, T.

T. Pajdla, "Bcrf—binary-coded illumination range finder reimplementation," Technical Report KUL/ESAT/MI2/9502, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 1995.

Payeur, P.

P. Payeur and D. Desjardins, "Structured light stereoscopic imaging with dynamic pseudo-random patterns," Image Analysis and Recognition, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 5627/2009, Springer, 2009, pp. 687‒696.

P. Payeur and D. Desjardins, "Structured light stereoscopic imaging with dynamic pseudo-random patterns," Image Analysis and Recognition, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 5627/2009, Springer, 2009, pp. 687‒696.

D. Desjardins and P. Payeur, "Dense stereo range sensing with marching pseudo-random patterns," Fourth Canadian Conference on Computer and Robot Vision (CRV ’07), 2007, IEEE Computer Society, pp. 216‒226.

Petriu, E. M.

E. M. Petriu, Z. Sakr, H. J. W. Spoelder, and A. Moica, "Object recognition using pseudo-random color encoded structured light," Proceedings of the 17th IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, 2000. IMTC 2000, Vol. 3, 2000, IEEE, pp. 1237‒1241.

Posdamer, J. L.

J. L. Posdamer and M. D. Altschuler, "Surface measurement by space-encoded projected beam systems," Comput. Graph. Image Processing 18, (1), 1‒17 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Pribanic, T.

S. Fernandez, J. Salvi, and T. Pribanic, "Absolute phase mapping for one-shot dense pattern projection," 2010 IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Workshops (CVPRW), June 3–18, 2010, San Francisco, Calif..

Raso, V. J.

N. G. Durdle, J. Thayyoor, and V. J. Raso, "An improved structured light technique for surface reconstruction of the human trunk," IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, 1998, Vol. 2, 1998, IEEE, pp. 874‒877.

Rastogi, P.

S. Siva Gorthi and P. Rastogi, "Fringe projection techniques: whither we are?," Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, (2), 133‒140 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sagan, H.

H. Sagan, Space Filling Curves, Springer, 1994.

Sakata, S.

H. Morita, K. Yajima, and S. Sakata, "Reconstruction of surfaces of 3-D objects by M-array pattern projection method," Second International Conference on Computer Vision, 1988, IEEE Computer Society, pp. 468‒473.

Sakr, Z.

E. M. Petriu, Z. Sakr, H. J. W. Spoelder, and A. Moica, "Object recognition using pseudo-random color encoded structured light," Proceedings of the 17th IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, 2000. IMTC 2000, Vol. 3, 2000, IEEE, pp. 1237‒1241.

Salvi, J.

S. Fernandez, J. Salvi, and T. Pribanic, "Absolute phase mapping for one-shot dense pattern projection," 2010 IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Workshops (CVPRW), June 3–18, 2010, San Francisco, Calif..

J. Pagès, J. Salvi, and C. Matabosch, "Robust segmentation and decoding of a grid pattern for structured light," Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 2652/2003, Springer, 2003, pp. 689‒696.

Sato, K.

S. Inokuchi, K. Sato, and F. Matsuda, "Range-imaging for 3-D object recognition," International Conference on Pattern Recognition, 1984, International Association for Pattern Recognition, pp. 806‒808.

K. Sato and S. Inokuchi, "Range-imaging system utilizing nematic liquid crystal mask," Proceedings of International Conference on Computer Vision, 1987, IEEE Computer Society Press, pp. 657‒661.

Seitz, S. M.

L. Zhang, B. Curless, and S. M. Seitz, "Rapid shape acquisition using color structured light and multi-pass dynamic programming," First International Symposium on 3D Data Processing Visualization and Transmission, 2002. Proceedings, 2002, IEEE, pp. 24‒36.

A. Treuille, A. Hertzmann, and S. M. Seitz, "Example-based stereo with general BRDFs," Computer Vision—ECCV 2004: 8th European Conference on Computer Vision, Part II, 2004, Springer, pp. 457‒469.

Shamir, J.

D. Caspi, N. Kiryati, and J. Shamir, "Range imaging with adaptive color structured light," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 20, (5), 470‒480 (May 1998).
[CrossRef]

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J. Heikkil and O. Silven, "A four-step camera calibration procedure with implicit image correction," 1997 IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 1997. Proceedings, 1997, IEEE Computer Society, pp. 1106‒1112.

Siva Gorthi, S.

S. Siva Gorthi and P. Rastogi, "Fringe projection techniques: whither we are?," Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, (2), 133‒140 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sloane, N. J. A.

F. J. MacWilliams and N. J. A. Sloane, "Pseudorandom sequences and arrays," Proc. IEEE 64, (12), 1715‒1729 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Spoelder, H. J. W.

E. M. Petriu, Z. Sakr, H. J. W. Spoelder, and A. Moica, "Object recognition using pseudo-random color encoded structured light," Proceedings of the 17th IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, 2000. IMTC 2000, Vol. 3, 2000, IEEE, pp. 1237‒1241.

Stuhaug, E.

C. L. Heike, K. Upson, E. Stuhaug, and S. M. Weinberg, "3D digital stereophotogrammetry: a practical guide to facial image acquisition," Head Face Med. 6, (1), 18 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taubin, G.

A. Osman Ulusoy, F. Calakli, and G. Taubin, "Robust one-shot 3D scanning using loopy belief propagation," 2010 IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Workshops (CVPRW), 2010, IEEE Computer Society, pp. 15‒22.

A. Osman Ulusoy, F. Calakli, and G. Taubin, "One-shot scanning using De Bruijn spaced grids," 2009 IEEE 12th International Conference on Computer Vision Workshops (ICCV Workshops), 2009, IEEE, pp. 1786‒1792.

Thayyoor, J.

N. G. Durdle, J. Thayyoor, and V. J. Raso, "An improved structured light technique for surface reconstruction of the human trunk," IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, 1998, Vol. 2, 1998, IEEE, pp. 874‒877.

Treuille, A.

A. Treuille, A. Hertzmann, and S. M. Seitz, "Example-based stereo with general BRDFs," Computer Vision—ECCV 2004: 8th European Conference on Computer Vision, Part II, 2004, Springer, pp. 457‒469.

Tsai, R. Y.

R. Y. Tsai, "A versatile camera calibration technique for high accuracy 3D machine vision metrology using off-the-shelf TV cameras and lenses," IEEE J. Robotics Automat. 3, (4), 323‒344 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tsuji, T.

I. Ishii, K. Yamamoto, K. Doi, and T. Tsuji, "High-speed 3D image acquisition using coded structured light projection," IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2007. IROS 2007, 2007, IEEE, pp. 925‒930.

Upson, K.

C. L. Heike, K. Upson, E. Stuhaug, and S. M. Weinberg, "3D digital stereophotogrammetry: a practical guide to facial image acquisition," Head Face Med. 6, (1), 18 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valkenburg, R. J.

R. J. Valkenburg and A. M. McIvor, "Accurate 3D measurement using a structured light system," Image Vision Comput. 16, (2), 99‒110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Waxman, A. M.

J. Le Moigne and A. M. Waxman, "Structured light patterns for robot mobility," IEEE J. Robot. Automat. 4, (5), 541‒548 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Le Moigne and A. M. Waxman, "Multi-resolution grid patterns for building range maps," Vision ’85, Applied Machine Vision Conference (ASME), 1985, Society of Manufacturing Engineers, pp. 22‒39.

Weinberg, S. M.

C. L. Heike, K. Upson, E. Stuhaug, and S. M. Weinberg, "3D digital stereophotogrammetry: a practical guide to facial image acquisition," Head Face Med. 6, (1), 18 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woodham, R.

R. Woodham, "Photometric method for determining surface orientation from multiple images," Opt. Eng. 19, (1), 134‒140 (1980).

Yajima, K.

H. Morita, K. Yajima, and S. Sakata, "Reconstruction of surfaces of 3-D objects by M-array pattern projection method," Second International Conference on Computer Vision, 1988, IEEE Computer Society, pp. 468‒473.

Yamamoto, K.

I. Ishii, K. Yamamoto, K. Doi, and T. Tsuji, "High-speed 3D image acquisition using coded structured light projection," IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2007. IROS 2007, 2007, IEEE, pp. 925‒930.

Yau, S. T.

Yee, S. R.

P. M. Grin, L. S. Narasimhan, and S. R. Yee, "Generation of uniquely encoded light patterns for range data acquisition," Pattern Recog. 25, (6), 609‒616 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, B. Curless, and S. M. Seitz, "Rapid shape acquisition using color structured light and multi-pass dynamic programming," First International Symposium on 3D Data Processing Visualization and Transmission, 2002. Proceedings, 2002, IEEE, pp. 24‒36.

Zhang, S.

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, "Flexible camera calibration by viewing a plane from unknown orientations," Seventh International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV’99), Vol. 1, 1999, IEEE Computer Society, p. 666.

Appl. Opt.

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C. L. Heike, K. Upson, E. Stuhaug, and S. M. Weinberg, "3D digital stereophotogrammetry: a practical guide to facial image acquisition," Head Face Med. 6, (1), 18 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Robot. Automat.

J. Le Moigne and A. M. Waxman, "Structured light patterns for robot mobility," IEEE J. Robot. Automat. 4, (5), 541‒548 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Robotics Automat.

R. Y. Tsai, "A versatile camera calibration technique for high accuracy 3D machine vision metrology using off-the-shelf TV cameras and lenses," IEEE J. Robotics Automat. 3, (4), 323‒344 (1987).
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Image Vision Comput.

E. Horn and N. Kiryati, "Toward optimal structured light patterns," Image Vision Comput. 17, (2), 87‒97 (1999).
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R. J. Valkenburg and A. M. McIvor, "Accurate 3D measurement using a structured light system," Image Vision Comput. 16, (2), 99‒110 (1998).
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R. Woodham, "Photometric method for determining surface orientation from multiple images," Opt. Eng. 19, (1), 134‒140 (1980).

Z. J. Geng, "Rainbow three-dimensional camera: new concept of high-speed three-dimensional vision systems," Opt. Eng. 35, (2), 376‒383 (1996).
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Opt. Express

Opt. Lasers Eng.

S. Siva Gorthi and P. Rastogi, "Fringe projection techniques: whither we are?," Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, (2), 133‒140 (2010).
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Pattern Recog.

P. M. Grin, L. S. Narasimhan, and S. R. Yee, "Generation of uniquely encoded light patterns for range data acquisition," Pattern Recog. 25, (6), 609‒616 (1992).
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Proc. IEEE

F. J. MacWilliams and N. J. A. Sloane, "Pseudorandom sequences and arrays," Proc. IEEE 64, (12), 1715‒1729 (1976).
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P. Payeur and D. Desjardins, "Structured light stereoscopic imaging with dynamic pseudo-random patterns," Image Analysis and Recognition, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 5627/2009, Springer, 2009, pp. 687‒696.

A. Osman Ulusoy, F. Calakli, and G. Taubin, "One-shot scanning using De Bruijn spaced grids," 2009 IEEE 12th International Conference on Computer Vision Workshops (ICCV Workshops), 2009, IEEE, pp. 1786‒1792.

T. Monks and J. Carter, "Improved stripe matching for colour encoded structured light," Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns, 1993, Springer, pp. 476‒485.

T. Pajdla, "Bcrf—binary-coded illumination range finder reimplementation," Technical Report KUL/ESAT/MI2/9502, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 1995.

L. Zhang, B. Curless, and S. M. Seitz, "Rapid shape acquisition using color structured light and multi-pass dynamic programming," First International Symposium on 3D Data Processing Visualization and Transmission, 2002. Proceedings, 2002, IEEE, pp. 24‒36.

J. Le Moigne and A. M. Waxman, "Multi-resolution grid patterns for building range maps," Vision ’85, Applied Machine Vision Conference (ASME), 1985, Society of Manufacturing Engineers, pp. 22‒39.

H. Morita, K. Yajima, and S. Sakata, "Reconstruction of surfaces of 3-D objects by M-array pattern projection method," Second International Conference on Computer Vision, 1988, IEEE Computer Society, pp. 468‒473.

E. M. Petriu, Z. Sakr, H. J. W. Spoelder, and A. Moica, "Object recognition using pseudo-random color encoded structured light," Proceedings of the 17th IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, 2000. IMTC 2000, Vol. 3, 2000, IEEE, pp. 1237‒1241.

J. Pagès, J. Salvi, and C. Matabosch, "Robust segmentation and decoding of a grid pattern for structured light," Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 2652/2003, Springer, 2003, pp. 689‒696.

A. Osman Ulusoy, F. Calakli, and G. Taubin, "Robust one-shot 3D scanning using loopy belief propagation," 2010 IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Workshops (CVPRW), 2010, IEEE Computer Society, pp. 15‒22.

P. Payeur and D. Desjardins, "Structured light stereoscopic imaging with dynamic pseudo-random patterns," Image Analysis and Recognition, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 5627/2009, Springer, 2009, pp. 687‒696.

D. Desjardins and P. Payeur, "Dense stereo range sensing with marching pseudo-random patterns," Fourth Canadian Conference on Computer and Robot Vision (CRV ’07), 2007, IEEE Computer Society, pp. 216‒226.

Z. Zhang, "Flexible camera calibration by viewing a plane from unknown orientations," Seventh International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV’99), Vol. 1, 1999, IEEE Computer Society, p. 666.

J. Heikkil and O. Silven, "A four-step camera calibration procedure with implicit image correction," 1997 IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 1997. Proceedings, 1997, IEEE Computer Society, pp. 1106‒1112.

I. Ishii, K. Yamamoto, K. Doi, and T. Tsuji, "High-speed 3D image acquisition using coded structured light projection," IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2007. IROS 2007, 2007, IEEE, pp. 925‒930.

K. Sato and S. Inokuchi, "Range-imaging system utilizing nematic liquid crystal mask," Proceedings of International Conference on Computer Vision, 1987, IEEE Computer Society Press, pp. 657‒661.

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A. Treuille, A. Hertzmann, and S. M. Seitz, "Example-based stereo with general BRDFs," Computer Vision—ECCV 2004: 8th European Conference on Computer Vision, Part II, 2004, Springer, pp. 457‒469.

T. Higo, Y. Matsushita, N. Joshi, and K. Ikeuchi, "A hand-held photometric stereo camera for 3-D modeling," 2009 IEEE 12th International Conference on Computer Vision, Sept. 2009, pp. 1234‒1241.

N. G. Durdle, J. Thayyoor, and V. J. Raso, "An improved structured light technique for surface reconstruction of the human trunk," IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, 1998, Vol. 2, 1998, IEEE, pp. 874‒877.

S. Fernandez, J. Salvi, and T. Pribanic, "Absolute phase mapping for one-shot dense pattern projection," 2010 IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Workshops (CVPRW), June 3–18, 2010, San Francisco, Calif..

S. Inokuchi, K. Sato, and F. Matsuda, "Range-imaging for 3-D object recognition," International Conference on Pattern Recognition, 1984, International Association for Pattern Recognition, pp. 806‒808.

H. Sagan, Space Filling Curves, Springer, 1994.

W. Krattenthaler, K. J. Mayer, and H. P. Duwe, "3D-surface measurement with coded light approach," Proceedings of the 17th Meeting of the Austrian Association for Pattern Recognition on Image Analysis and Synthesis, Vol. 12, 1993, R. Oldenbourg Verlag, pp. 103‒114.

Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (34)

Figure 1
Figure 1

Illustration of structured light.

Figure 2
Figure 2

A computer animation (Media 1) of a structured-light 3D imaging system to demonstrate its working principle.

Figure 3
Figure 3

Classification framework of structured-light surface 3D imaging techniques.

Figure 4
Figure 4

Sequential binary-coded pattern projections for 3D imaging.

Figure 5
Figure 5

Top, gray-level coding for 3D imaging: N = 3 , M = 3 . Bottom, optimized gray-level coding patterns [7].

Figure 6
Figure 6

Phase shift with three projection patterns and an example of a fringe image.

Figure 7
Figure 7

Illustration of the phase unwrapping process.

Figure 8
Figure 8

Calculate Z depth based on phase value.

Figure 9
Figure 9

Combining gray code with phase shift. Reproduced from C. Brenner, J. Boehm, and J. Guehring, "Photogrammetric calibration and accuracy evaluation of a cross-pattern stripe projector," Proc. SPIE 3641, 164-162 (1998).

Figure 10
Figure 10

Photometric stereo scheme where eight images of the same object are taken under illumination from eight different locations.

Figure 11
Figure 11

Rainbow 3D camera [17].

Figure 12
Figure 12

A continuously varying color coding scheme: three patterns of additive primary color sawtooth.

Figure 13
Figure 13

Stripe indexing using colors.

Figure 14
Figure 14

Stripe indexing using segment pattern [28].

Figure 15
Figure 15

Stripe indexing using repeated gray-scale pattern.

Figure 16
Figure 16

Simple example of De Bruijn sequence.

Figure 17
Figure 17

Example of color stripe indexing based on De Bruijn sequence ( k = 5 , n = 3 )  [35].

Figure 18
Figure 18

A 31 × 33 PRBA with primitive polynomial of degree 10 and subwindow size 5 × 2  [38].

Figure 19
Figure 19

Using mini-patterns as code words for grid indexing [41].

Figure 20
Figure 20

An example of color-coded grids.

Figure 21
Figure 21

Example of 2D array of color-coded dots.

Figure 22
Figure 22

Example of combination of two 1D stripe codes into a 2D grid indexed pattern.

Figure 23
Figure 23

Primary performance space of 3D surface imaging systems.

Figure 24
Figure 24

Examples of calibration pattern’s images acquired from different angles and distances.

Figure 25
Figure 25

Intensity calibration of the projector. The blue curve is a plot of the fitted function. The green curve is the inverse function. The red curve is rectified intensity, which ought to be a straight line.

Figure 26
Figure 26

Dot array calibration pattern used in projector calibration.

Figure 27
Figure 27

Example of 3D facial images acquired by a 3D camera developed by the author.

Figure 28
Figure 28

Examples of 3D dental images acquired by a 3D camera developed by the author.

Figure 29
Figure 29

Using 3D images for performing surgical planning for plastic surgeries. 3D images were acquired by a 3D camera developed by the author.

Figure 30
Figure 30

Example of 3D images of an ear impression acquired by a 3D camera developed by the author.

Figure 31
Figure 31

Example of 3D CAD file of a mouse design digitized using a 3D camera developed by the author.

Figure 32
Figure 32

High-speed 3D imaging system for airbag dynamic modeling: 3D image sequence acquired during airbag explosion.

Figure 33
Figure 33

High-accuracy 3D imaging system for vehicle crashworthiness study.

Figure 34
Figure 34

3D imaging technology for accident scene investigation.

Equations (16)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R = B sin ( θ ) sin ( α + θ ) .
I 1 ( x , y ) = I 0 ( x , y ) + I m o d ( x , y ) cos ( ϕ ( x , y ) θ ) ,
I 2 ( x , y ) = I 0 ( x , y ) + I m o d ( x , y ) cos ( ϕ ( x , y ) ) ,
I 3 ( x , y ) = I 0 ( x , y ) + I m o d ( x , y ) cos ( ϕ ( x , y ) + θ ) ,
ϕ = arctan 3 I 1 ( x , y ) I 3 ( x , y ) 2 I 2 ( x , y ) I 1 ( x , y ) I 3 ( x , y ) .
ϕ ( x , y ) = ϕ ( x , y ) + 2 k π ,
Z L Z = d B , or Z = L Z B d .
Z L B d L B ( ϕ ϕ 0 ) .
BWGWBGWGBGWBGBWBGW .
m K [ r 1 , r 2 , r 3 , R t ] [ X , Y , 0 , 1 ] T ,
m H [ X , Y , 1 ] T ,
h 1 T ( K K T ) 1 h 2 T = 0 , h 1 T ( K K T ) 1 h 1 T = h 2 T ( K K T ) 1 h 2 T .
A K T K 1 = A 1 A 2 A 4 A 2 A 3 A 5 A 4 A 5 A 6 ,
a = [ A 1 , A 2 , A 3 , A 4 , A 5 , A 6 ] .
h i T A h j = v i j a ,
i = 1 n j = 1 m m i j m ( K , R , t , M j ) 2 .

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