Abstract

We provide an in-depth treatment of the various mechanisms by which an incident light beam can produce an intensity- or flux-dependent change in the refractive index and absorption coefficient of different materials. Whenever possible, the mechanisms are initially traced to single-atom and -molecule effects in order to provide physical understanding. Representative values are given for the various mechanisms. Nine different mechanisms are discussed, starting with the Kerr effect due to atoms and/or molecules with discrete states, including organic materials such as molecules and conjugated polymers. Simplified two and/or three-level models provide useful information, and these are summarized. The nonlinear optics of semiconductors is reviewed for both bulk and quantum-confined semiconductors, focusing on the most common types II–VI and III–V. Also discussed in some detail are the different nonlinear mechanisms that occur in liquid crystals and photorefractive media. Additional nonlinear material systems and mechanisms such as glasses, molecular reorientation of single molecules, the electrostrictive effect, the nuclear effect (vibrational contributions), cascading, and the ever-present thermal effects are quantified, and representative tables of values are given.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2009 (1)

I. C. Khoo, “Nonlinear optics of liquid crystalline materials,” Phys. Rep. 471, 221–267 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (6)

I. C. Khoo, J. H. Park, J. D. Liou, “Theory and experimental studies of all-optical transmission switching in a twist-alignment dye-doped nematic liquid crystal,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1931–1937 (2008).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, G. Zou, Y. Deng, Q. Zhang, “Synthesis and nonlinear optical properties of nanometer-size silver-coated polydiacetylene composite vesicles,” Nanotechnology 19, 195703 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ohira, I. Rudra, K. Schmidt, S. Barlow, S. J. Chung, Q. Zhang, J. Matichuk, S. R. Marder, J.-L. Bredas, “Electronic and vibronic contributions to two-photon absorption in donor-acceptor-donor squaraine chromophores,” Chem.-Eur. J. 14, 11082–11091 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Hales, S. Zheng, S. Barlow, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, “Bisdioxaborine polymethines with large third-order nonlinearities for all-optical signal processing,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 11362–11363 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. Dubikovskiy, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Large nonlinear refraction in InSb at 10 μm and the effects of Auger recombination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 223–235 (2008). Note: a range of values is given, since here Boltzmann statistics do not hold and the cross section becomes density dependent.
[Crossref]

M. Balu, L. Padilha, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, S. Yao, K. Belfield, S. Zheng, S. Barlow, S. Marder, “Broadband Z-scan characterization using a high-spectral-irradiance, high-quality supercontinuum,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 159–165 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (7)

S. J. Wagner, J. Meier, A. S. Helmy, J. S. Aitchison, M. Sorel, D. C. Hutchings, “Polarization-dependent nonlinear refraction and two-photon absorption in GaAs∕AlAs superlattice waveguides below the half-bandgap,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1557–1563 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Liu, Y. Shu, G. Zhang, J. Sun, X. Xing, B. Pi, J. Yao, Z. Wang, J. Xu, “Study of nonlinear absorption in GaAs∕AlGaAs multiple quantum wells using the reflection Z-scan,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 39, 1207–1214 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. A. Padilha, J. Fu, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, C. L. Cesar, L. C. Barbosa, C. H. B. Cruz, D. Buso, A. Martucci, “Frequency degenerate and nondegenerate two-photon absorption spectra of semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 075325 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Gan, M. Xiao, D. Battaglia, N. Pradhan, X. Peng, “Size dependence of nonlinear optical absorption and refraction of Mn-doped ZnSe nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201103 (2007).
[Crossref]

Th. Cardinal, E. Fargin, J. J. Videau, L. Canioni, B. Busquet, V. Rodriguez, M. Couzi, P. Thomas, L. Petit, “Interaction laser dans les verres et processus optique non linéaires,” Verre (Paris) 13, 16–25 (2007).

G. Demeter, D. O. Krimer, “Light-induced dynamics in nematic liquid crystals—a fascinating world of complex nonlinear phenomena,” Phys. Rep. 448, 133–162 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. Mutter, F. D. J. Brunner, Zh. Yang, M. Jazbinšek, P. Günter, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of the organic crystal DSTMS,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 24, 2556–2561 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (10)

E. Brasselet, A. Lherbier, L. J. Dube, “Transverse nonlocal effects in optical reorientation of nematic liquid crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 36–44 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, Z. M. Wang, B. Liang, G. J. Salamo, C.-K. Shih, “Direct spectroscopic evidence for the formation of one-dimensional wetting wires during the growth of InGaAs∕GaAs quantum dot chains,” Nano Lett. 6, 1847–1851 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo, K. Chen, Y. Z. Williams, “Orientational photorefractive effect in undoped and CdSe nano-rods doped nematic liquid crystal—bulk and interface contributions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 443–450 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. C. Nguyen, K. Finsterbusch, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, “Dispersion in nonlinear figure of merit of As2Se3 chalcogenide fibre,” Electron. Lett. 42, 571–572 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. Dulkeith, Y. A. Vlasov, X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, “Self-phase-modulation in submicron silicon-on insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express 14, 5324–5334 (2006).
[Crossref]

Z. Yin, X. Tang, J. Zhao, S. Deny, “Effects of growth conditions on InAs quantum dot formation by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition using tertiarybutylarsine in pure N2 ambient,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 124306 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Tetsuya, M. Tomoyuki, K. Fumio, “Topological characteristics of InAs quantum dot with GaInAs cover using Sb surfactant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 183109 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Cornet, A. Schliwa, J. Even, F. Doré, C. Celebi, A. Létoublon, E. Macé, C. Paranthoën, A. Simon, P. M. Koenraad, N. Bertru, D. Bimberg, S. Loualiche, “Electronic and optical properties of InAs∕InP quantum dots on InP(100) and InP(311)B substrates: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 035312 (2006).
[Crossref]

S.-J. Chung, S. Zheng, T. Odani, L. Beverina, J. Fu, L. A. Padilha, A. Biesso, J. M. Hales, X. Zhan, K. Schmidt, A. Ye, E. Zojer, S. Barlow, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, Y. Yi, Z. Shuai, G. A. Pagani, J.-L. Bredas, J. W. Perry, S. R. Marder, “Extended squaraine dyes with large two-photon absorption cross-sections,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 14444–14445 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reviewed in A. Bahtiar, K. Koynov, A. Kibrom, T. Ahn, Chr. Bubeck, “Multiphoton spectroscopy of polymers for all-optical switching,” Proc. SPIE 6330, 63300C (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

T. V. Truong, L. Xu, Y. R. Shen, “Dynamics of the guest–host orientational interaction in dye-doped liquid-crystalline materials,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 051709 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (8)

Y. L. Yu, T. Ikeda, “Alignment modulation of azobenzene-containing liquid crystal systems by photochemical reactions,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. C 5, 247–265 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, “Observation of optical spatial solitons in a highly nonlocal medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Lucchetti, M. Di Fabrizio, O. Francescangeli, F. Simoni, “Colossal optical nolinearity in dye-doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 233, 417–424 (2004).
[Crossref]

G. F. Calvo, F. Agulló-López, M. Carrascosa, “Transition from local to nonlocal photorefractive nonlinearity on increasing spatial dimensionality,” Opt. Commun. 233, 439–444 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Polyakov, F. Yoshino, M. Liu, G. Stegeman, “Nonlinear refraction and multiphoton absorption in polydiacetylenes from 1200 to 2200 nm,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 115421 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Santran, L. Canioni, L. Sarge, Th. Cardinal, E. Fargin, “Precise and absolute measurements of the complex third-order optical susceptibility,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 2180–2190 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. D. Bauer, D. Schuh, E. Uccelli, R. Schulz, A. Kress, F. Hofbauer, J. J. Finley, G. Abstreiter, “Long-range ordered self-assembled InAs quantum dots epitaxially grown on (110) GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4750–4752 (2004).
[Crossref]

For example, C. Y. Liu, S. Yuan, “InGaAs∕GaAs quantum well circular ring lasers fabricated by laser direct writing and pulsed anodic oxidation,” J. Cryst. Growth 268, 364–368 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (7)

L. Brzozowskia, E. H. Sargent, A. Spring Thorpe, M. Extavour, “Direct measurements of large near-band edge nonlinear index change from 1.48 to 1.55 μm in InGaAs∕InAlGaAs multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4429–4431 (2003).
[Crossref]

X. Peng, “Mechanisms of shape control and evolution of nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. 15, 459–463 (2003).
[Crossref]

W. W. Yu, Y. A. Wang, X. Peng, “Formation and stability of size-, shape-, and structure-controlled CdTe nanocrystals: ligand effects on monomers and nanocrystals,” Chem. Mater.4300–4308 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Jack Li, Y. A. Wang, W. Guo, J. C. Keay, T. D. Mishima, M. B. Johnson, X. Peng, “Large-scale synthesis of nearly monodisperse CdSe∕CdS core/shell nanocrystals using air-stable reagents via successive ion layer adsorption and reaction,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 12567–12575 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, L. Qu, J. Zhang, X. Peng, M. Xiao, “Surface-related emission in highly luminescent CdSe quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 3, 1103–1106 (2003).
[Crossref]

Reviewed by J. Mørk, M. L. Nielsen, T. W. Berg, “The dynamics of semiconductor optical amplifier: modeling and applications,” Opt. Photonics News 14(7), 42–48 (July 2003).
[Crossref]

L. De Boni, L. S. Corrêa, D. T. Balogh, R. M. Faria, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti, C. R. Mendonça, “MEH-PPV chloroform solution degenerated two photon absorption spectrum,” proceedings of Encontro Nacional de Física da Matéria Condensada XXVI (ENFMC XXVI), Ann. Opt. 5, 1–3 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (5)

R. Lepkowicz, A. Kobyakov, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Picosecond optical limiting in reverse saturable absorbers: a theoretical and experimental study,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 94–1012002.
[Crossref]

J. M. Harbold, F. Ömer Ilday, F. W. Wise, B. G. Aitken, “Highly nonlinear Ge–As–Se and Ge–As–S–Se glasses for all-optical switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 822–824 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. D. Yoffe, “Low-dimensional systems: quantum size effects and electronic properties of semiconductor microcrystallites (zero-dimensional systems) and some quasi-two-dimensional systems,” Adv. Phys. 51, 799–890 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Kaczmarek, M. Y. Shih, R. S. Cudney, I. C. Khoo, “Electrically tunable, optically induced dynamic and permanent gratings in dye-doped liquid crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 451–457 (2002).
[Crossref]

K. R. Parameswaran, J. R. Kurtz, R. V. Roussev, M. M. Fejer, “Observation of 99% pump depletion in single-pass second-harmonic generation in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 27, 43–45 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (7)

I. C. Khoo, P. H. Chen, M. Y. Shih, A. Shishido, S. Slussarenko, “Supra optical nonlinearities (SON) of methyl-red and azobenzene liquid crystal-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 358, 1–13 (2001).
[Crossref]

P. Ballet, J. B. Smathers, H. Yang, C. L. Workman, G. J. Salamo, “Control of size and density of InAs∕(Al,Ga)As self-organized islands,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 481–487 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, W. Ji, “Optical nonlinearities and photo-excited carrier lifetime in CdS at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 190, 351–356 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. C. Lee, L. R. Dawson, K. J. Malloy, S. R. Brueck, “Molecular-beam epitaxial growth of one-dimensional rows of InAs quantum dots on nanoscale-patterned GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2630–2632 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. Ma, A. K.-Y. Jen, “Functional dendrimers for nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1201–1205 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. K. Bhowmik, M. Thakur, “Self-phase modulation in polydiacetylene single crystal measured at 720–1064 nm,” Opt. Lett. 26, 902–904 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. J. Heeger, “Nobel Lecture: Semiconducting and metallic polymers: the fourth generation of polymeric materials,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 73, 681–700 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (10)

M. G. Kuzyk, “Fundamental limits on third-order molecular susceptibilities,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1183–1185 (2000).
[Crossref]

G. I. Stegeman, A. Galvan-Gonzales, M. Canva, R. Twieg, T. C. Kowalczyk, X. Q. Zhang, H. S. Lackritz, S. Marder, S. Thayumanavan, K. P. Chan, A. K.-Y. Jen, X. Wu, “Photodegradation of various electro-optic polymer families,” Nonlinear Opt. 25, 57–66 (2000).

O. Varnavski, A. Leanov, L. Liu, J. Takacs, T. Goodson, “Large nonlinear refraction and higher order nonlinear optical effects in a novel organic dendrimer,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 179–188 (2000).
[Crossref]

K. D. Belfield, K. J. Schafer, W. Mourad, B. A. Reinhardt, “Synthesis of new two-photon absorbing fluorene derivatives via Cu-mediated Ullmann condensations,” J. Org. Chem. 65, 4475–4481 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Samoc, A. Samoc, B. Luther-Davies, “Two-photon and one-photon resonant third-order nonlinear optical properties of π-conjugated polymers,” Synth. Met. 109, 79–83 (2000).
[Crossref]

For example, H. M. Ng, C. Gmachl, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Molecular beam epitaxy of GaN∕AlxGa1−xN superlattices for 1.52–4.2 μm intersubband transitions,” J. Cryst. Growth 220, 432–438 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. E. Aber, M. C. Newstein, B. A. Garetz, “Femtosecond optical Kerr effect measurements in silicate glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 120–127 (2000).
[Crossref]

G. Lenz, J. Zimmermann, T. Katsufuji, M. E. Lines, H. Y. Hwang, S. Spalter, R. E. Slusher, S. W. Cheong, J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, “Large Kerr effect in bulk Se-based chalcogenide glasses,” Opt. Lett. 25, 254–256 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Requejo-Isidro, A. K. Mairaj, V. Pruneri, D. W. Hewak, M. C. Netti, J. J. Baumberg, “Self refractive non-linearities in chalcogenide based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 317, 241–246 (2000).
[Crossref]

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, V. Couderc, A. Barthelemy, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses measured by Z-scan,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 274, 232–237 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (14)

B. Jeansannetas, S. Blanchandin, P. Thomas, P. Marchet, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, T. Merle-MeHjean, B. Frit, V. Nazabal, E. Fargin, G. Le Flem, M. O. Martin, B. Bousquet, L. Canioni, S. Le Boiteux, P. Segonds, L. Sarger, “Glass structure and optical nonlinearities in thallium(I) tellurium(IV) oxide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 146, 329–335 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Higashiwaki, S. Shimomura, S. Hiyamizu, S. Ikawa, “Self-organized GaAs quantum-wire lasers grown on B-oriented GaAs substrates by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 780–782 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Yamashita, S. Kikuma, Y. Yamaoka, H. Murakami, R. Morita, H. Shigekawa, “Nonresonant femtosecond second hyperpolarizabilities of intramolecular charge-transfer molecules with great excited- and ground-state dipole-moment differences,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 28–30 (1999).
[Crossref]

See, for example, R. M. de Ridder, A. Driessen, E. Rikkers, P. V. Lambeck, M. B. J. Diemeer, “Design and fabrication of electro-optic polymer modulators and switches,” Opt. Mater. 12, 205–214 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. J. Chung, K. S. Kim, T. C. Lin, G. S. He, J. Swiatkiewicz, P. N. Prasad, “Cooperative enhancement of two-photon absorption in multi-branched structures,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 10741–10745 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. H. Lim, O. V. Przhonska, S. Khodja, S. Yang, T. S. Ross, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, M. V. Bondar, Y. L. Slominsky, “Polymethine and squarylium molecules with large excited-state absorption,” Chem. Phys. 245, 79–97 (1999).
[Crossref]

R. Quintero-Torres, M. Thakur, “Measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of polydiacetylene using Michelson interferometry and z-scan,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 401–403 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. A. DeAro, U. Lemmer, D. Moses, S. K. Buratto, “Nanoscale optical microscopy of conjugated polymer films,” Synth. Met. 101, 300–301 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. H. Lee, J. Y. Park, Y. W. Park, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, T. Noguchid, T. Ohnishid, “Polarization dependence of the photoconductivity of stretch-oriented poly(p-phenylenevinylene) films,” Synth. Met. 101, 444–445 (1999).
[Crossref]

P. Ballet, J. B. Smathers, G. J. Salamo, “In-situ observation of InAs self-organized islands on AlAs surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 337–339 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. Smolorz, F. Wise, N. F. Borrelli, “Measurement of the nonlinear optical response of optical fiber materials by use of spectrally resolved two-beam coupling,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1103–1105 (1999).
[Crossref]

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shih, M. V. Wood, B. T. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, L. Lucchetti, “Dye-doped photorefractive liquid crystals for dynamic and storage holographic grating formation and spatial light modulation,” Proc. IEEE 87, 1987–1911 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. I. Kovsh, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Numerical modeling of thermal refraction in liquids in the transient regime,” Opt. Express 4, 315–327 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. I. Kovsh, S. Yang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear optical beam propagation for optical limiting,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5168–5180 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (10)

I. C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B. D. Guenther, W. V. Wood, “Optically induced space charge fields, dc voltage, and extraordinarily large nonlinearity in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 23, 253–255 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. Montant, A. Le Calvez, E. Freysz, A. Ducasse, “Time-domain separation of nuclear and electronic contributions to the third-order nonlinearity in glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2802–2807 (1998).
[Crossref]

E. DelRe, B. Crosignani, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, M. Mitchell, E. Refaeli, A. J. Agranat, “One-dimensional steady-state photorefractive spatial solitons in centrosymmetric paraelectric potassium lithium tantalate niobate,” Opt. Lett. 23, 421–423 (1998).
[Crossref]

I. Jánossy, L. Szabados, “Optical reorientation of nematic liquid crystals in the presence of photoisomerization,” Phys. Rev. E4598–4604 (1998).
[Crossref]

O. V. Przhonska, J. Lim, D. Hagan, E. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear light absorption of polymethine dyes in liquid and solid media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 802–809 (1998).
[Crossref]

R. Rangel-Rojo, S. Yamada, H. Matsuda, H. Kasai, H. Nakanishi, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, “Spectrally resolved third-order nonlinearities in polydiacetylene microcrystals: influence of particle size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2937–2945 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. S. Mathis, M. G. Kuzyk, C. W. Dirk, A. Tan, S. Martinez, G. Gampos, “Mechanisms of the nonlinear optical properties of squaraine dyes in poly(methyl methacrylate) polymer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 871–883 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Samoc, A. Samoc, B. Luther-Davies, Z. Bao, L. Yu, B. Hsieh, U. Scherf, “Femtosecond Z-scan and degenerate four-wave mixing measurements of real and imaginary parts of the third-order nonlinearity of soluble conjugated polymers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 817–825 (1998).
[Crossref]

G. P. Banfi, V. Degiorgio, D. Ricard, “Nonlinear optical properties of semiconductor nanocrystals,” Adv. Phys. 47, 447–510 (1998).
[Crossref]

Reviewed by A. Othonos, “Probing ultrafast carrier and phonon dynamics in semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 1789–1830 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (11)

X. J. Zhang, W. Ji, S. H. Tang, “Determination of optical nonlinearities and carrier lifetime in ZnO,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1951–1955 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Asobe, “Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glass fibers and their application to all-optical switching,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3, 142–148 (1997).
[Crossref]

T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, G. Le Flem, S. Leboiteux, “Correlations between structural properties of Nb2–O5–NaPO3–Na2B407 glasses and non-linear optical activities,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 222, 228–234 (1997).

J. C. Sabadel, P. Armand, D. Cachau-Herreillat, P. Baldeck, O. Doclot, A. Ibanez, E. Philippot, “Structural and nonlinear optical characterizations of tellurium oxide-based glasses: TeO2–BaO–TiO2,” J. Solid State Chem. 132, 411–419 (1997).
[Crossref]

Reviewed in R. J. Manning, A. D. Ellis, A. J. Poustie, K. J. Blow, “Semiconductor laser amplifiers for ultrafast all-optical signal processing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3204–3216 (1997).
[Crossref]

T. Xia, D. Hagan, A. Dogariu, A. Said, E. Van Stryland, “Optimization of optical limiting devices based on excited-state absorption,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4110–4122 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. K. Meyer, R. E. Benner, Z. V. Vardeny, M. Liess, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, Y. Ding, T. Barton, “Two photon absorption spectra of luminescent conducting polymers,” Synth. Met. 84, 549–550 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Segev, A. J. Agranat, “Spatial solitons in centrosymmetric photorefractive media,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1299–1301 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. T. Shishido, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, N. Tamai, “Rapid optical switching by means of photoinduced change in refractive index of azobenzene liquid crystals detected by reflection-mode analysis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 7791–7796 (1997), and references therein.
[Crossref]

E. L. Buckland, R. W. Boyd, “Measurement of the frequency response of the electrostrictive nonlinearity in optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22, 676–678 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Fellega, A. Melloni, M. Martinelli, “Measurement of the frequency response induced by electrostriction in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1615–1617 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (12)

Reviewed in G. I. Stegeman, D. J. Hagan, L. Torner, “χ(2) cascading phenomena and their applications to all-optical signal processing, mode-locking, pulse compression and solitons,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1691–1740 (1996).
[Crossref]

A. Kobyakov, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, “Vectorial type-II interaction in cascaded quadratic nonlinearities—an analytical approach,” Opt. Commun. 124, 184–94 (1996).
[Crossref]

I. C. Khoo, “Orientational photorefractive effects in nematic liquid crystal film,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 525–534 (1996).
[Crossref]

I. Kang, S. Smolorz, T. Krauss, F. Wise, B. G. Aitken, N. F. Borrelli, “Time-domain observation of nuclear contributions to the optical nonlinearities of glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 54, R12641–R12644 (1996).
[Crossref]

E. L. Buckland, R. W. Boyd, “Electrostrictive contribution to the intensity-dependent refractive index of optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1117–1119 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Segev, M. Shih, G. C. Valley, “Photorefractive screening solitons of high and low intensity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706–718 (1996).
[Crossref]

D. Mukhopadhyay, Z. G. Soos, “Nonlinear optical and electroabsorption spectra of polydiacetylene crystals and films,” J. Chem. Phys. 104, 1600–1610 (1996).
[Crossref]

R. DeSalvo, A. Said, D. Hagan, E. Van Stryland, “Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption and n2 in wide bandgap solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1324–1333 (1996).
[Crossref]

W. E. Torruellas, B. L. Lawrence, G. I. Stegeman, G. Baker, “Two-photon saturation in the bandgap of a molecular quantum wire,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1777–1779 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Samoc, A. Samoc, B. Luther-Davies, M. Woodruff, “The concept of guiding light with light and negative third-order optical nonlinearities of organics,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 681–687 (1996).
[Crossref]

D. W. Garvey, Q. Li, M. G. Kuzyk, C. W. Dirk, S. Martinez, “Sagnac interferometric intensity-dependent refractive-index measurements of polymer optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 21, 104–106 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mørk, A. Mecozzi, “Theory of the ultrafast optical response of active semiconductor waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1803–1815 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (7)

M. D. Dvorak, B. L. Justus, A. D. Berry, “Pump/probe Z-scan studies of GaAs nanocrystals grown in porous glass,” Opt. Commun. 116, 149–152 (1995).
[Crossref]

M. Samoc, A. Samoc, B. Luther-Davies, J. Swiatkiewicz, C. Q. Jin, J. W. White, “Real and imaginary components of the third-order nonlinearity of polyaniline dodecylbenzenesulfonic salt,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2478–2480 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Samoc, M. Samoc, M. Woodruff, B. Luther-Davies, “Tuning the properties of poly(p-phenylenevinylene) for use in all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1241–3 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. N. Christodoulides, M. I. Carvalho, “Bright, dark, and gray spatial soliton states in photorefractive media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628–1633 (1995).
[Crossref]

M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, “Observation of dark photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095–3100 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, M. R. Wasielewski, “High photorefractive gain in nematic liquid crystals doped with electron-donor and acceptor molecules,” Science 270, 1794–1797 (1995).
[Crossref]

A. Kobyakov, U. Peschel, R. Muschall, G. Assanto, V. P. Torchigin, F. Lederer, “Analytical approach to all-optical modulation by cascading,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1686–1688 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (16)

E. V. Rudenko, A. V. Sukhov, “Optically induced spatial charge separation in a nematic and the resultant orientational nonlinearity,” JETP 78, 875–882 (1994).

I. C. Khoo, H. Li, Y. Liang, “Observation of orientational photorefractive effects in nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1723–1725 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Li, Y. Liang, I. C. Khoo, “Transient laser induced orthogonal director axis reorientation in dye-doped liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 251, 85–92 (1994).
[Crossref]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. Bashaw, “Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457–R4460 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Zozulya, M. Saffman, D. Z. Anderson, “Propagation of light beams in photorefractive media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 818–821 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. V. Lyubomudrov, V. V. Shkunov, “Self-bending specklons in photorefractive crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1403–1408 (1994).
[Crossref]

D. N. Christodoulides, M. I. Carvalho, “Compression, self-bending, and collapse of Gaussian beams in photorefractive crystals,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1714–1716 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. D. Porto, A. Yariv, “Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external applied field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211–3214 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. L. Lawrence, M. Cha, W. E. Torruellas, G. I. Stegeman, S. Etemad, G. Baker, “Measurement of the nonlinear refractive index and two photon absorption coefficient of PTS at 1064 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2773–2775 (1994).
[Crossref]

P. A. Gass, I. Abram, R. Raj, M. Schott, “The nonlinear optical spectrum of polydiacetylene in the near infrared,” J. Chem. Phys. 100, 88–97 (1994).
[Crossref]

B. Lawrence, W. Torruellas, M. Cha, G. I. Stegeman, J. Meth, S. Etemad, G. Baker, “Identification and role of two-photon excited states in a π-conjugated polymer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 597–600 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Time-resolved Z-scan measurements of optical nonlinearities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1009–1017 (1994).
[Crossref]

D. Lu, G. Chen, J. W. Perry, W. A. Goddard, “Valence-bond charge-transfer model for nonlinear optical properties of charge-transfer organic molecules,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 10679–10685 (1994).
[Crossref]

H. Kanbara, H. Kobayashi, T. Kaino, “Highly efficient ultrafast optical Kerr shutters with the use of organic nonlinear materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2216–2223 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. Sheik-Bahae, E. W. Van Stryland, “Ultrafast nonlinearities in semiconductor laser amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 171–178 (1994).
[Crossref]

G. I. Stegeman, A. Villeneuve, J. Kang, J. S. Aitchison, C. N. Ironside, K. Al-hemyari, C. C. Yang, C.-H. Lin, H.-H. Lin, G. T. Kennedy, R. S. Grant, W. Sibbett, “AlGaAs below half bandgap: the silicon of nonlinear optical materials,” Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 3, 347–371 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (10)

A. L. Efros, A. V. Rodina, “Band-edge absorption and luminescence of nonspherical nanometer-size crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 10005–10007 (1993).
[Crossref]

M. Ghanassi, M. C. Schanne-Klein, F. Hache, A. I. Ekimov, D. Ricard, Chr. Flytzanis, “Time-resolved measurements of carrier recombination in experimental semiconductor-doped glasses: confirmation of the role of Auger recombination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 78–80 (1993).
[Crossref]

A. I. Ekimov, F. Hache, M. C. Schanne-Klein, D. Ricard, Chr. Flytzanis, I. A. Kudryavtsev, T. V. Yazeva, A. V. Rodina, Al. L. Efros, “Absorption and intensity-dependent photoluminescence measurements on CdSe quantum dots: assignment of the first electronic transitions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 100–107 (1993).
[Crossref]

E. W. Van Stryland, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, “Characterization of nonlinear optical absorption and refraction,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater. 27, 279–311 (1993).
[Crossref]

For example, S. R. Marder, S. W. Perry, G. Bourhill, C. B. Gorman, B. G. Tiemann, K. Mansour, “Relation between bond-length alternation and second electronic hyperpolarizability of conjugated organic molecules,” Science 261, 186–189 (1993);Chr. B. Gorman, S. R. Marder “An investigation of the interrelationships between linear and nonlinear polarizabilities and bond-length alternation in conjugated organic molecules,” 90, 11297–11301 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yoshizawa, Y. Hattori, T. Kobayashi, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of epitaxially grown polydiacetylene measured by femtosecond time-resolved spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 3882–3889 (1993).
[Crossref]

I. C. Khoo, H. Li, Y. Liang, “Optically induced extraordinarily large negative orientational nonlinearity in dye-doped-liquid crystal,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1444–1447 (1993).
[Crossref]

G. I. Stegeman, M. Sheik-Bahae, E. W. Van Stryland, G. Assanto, “Large nonlinear phase shifts in second-order nonlinear-optical processes,” Opt. Lett. 18, 13–15 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. L. Sundheimer, Ch. Bosshard, E. W. VanStryland, G. I. Stegeman, J. D. Bierlein, “Large nonlinear phase modulation in quasi-phase-matched KTP waveguides due to cascaded second-order processes,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1397–9 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. I. Stegeman, “Material figures of merit and implications to all-optical switching,” Proc. SPIE, 1852, 75–89 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (8)

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, B. Fischer, “Spatial solitons in photorefractive media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923–926 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Agranat, R. Hofmeister, A. Yariv, “Characterization of a new photorefractive material: K1−yLyT1−xNx,” Opt. Lett. 17, 713–715 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, E. W. Van Stryland, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405–414 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Bolger, T. G. Harvey, W. Ji, A. K. Kar, S. Molyneux, B. S. Wherrett, D. Bloor, P. Norman, “Near-resonant third-order optical nonlinearities in p-toluene sulfonate polydiacetylene,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1552–1557 (1992).
[Crossref]

Reviewed in T. Kobayashi, “Ultrafast relaxation in conjugated polymers with large optical nonlinearity,” Synth. Met. 49–50, 565–581 (1992).
[Crossref]

T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, M. J. Sence, E. W. Van Stryland, J. W. Perry, D. R. Coulter, “Direct measurements of nonlinear absorption and refraction in solutions of phthalocyanines,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 46–51 (1992).
[Crossref]

D. C. Hutchings, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Kramers–Krönig relations in nonlinear optics,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 1–30 (1992).
[Crossref]

D. C. Hutchings, E. W. Van Stryland, “Nondegenerate two-photon absorption in zinc-blende semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 2065–2074 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (12)

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-27, 1296–1309 (1991).
[Crossref]

P. LiKamWa, A. Miller, J. S. Roberts, P. N. Robson, “130 ps recovery of all-optical switching in a GaAs multiquantum well directional coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2055–2057 (1991).
[Crossref]

M. B. Marques, G. Assanto, G. I. Stegeman, G. R. Mohlmann, E. W. P. Erdhuisen, W. H. G. Horsthuis, “Intensity dependent refractive index of novel polymer materials: measurements by nonlinear grating coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2613–2615 (1991).
[Crossref]

K. Rochford, R. Zanoni, G. I. Stegeman, W. Krug, E. Miao, M. W. Beranek, “Measurement of nonlinear refractive index and transmission in polydiacetylene waveguides at 1.319 pm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 13–15 (1991).
[Crossref]

M. G. Kuzyk, U. C. Paek, C. W. Dirk, “Guest-host polymer fibers for nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 902–904 (1991).
[Crossref]

P. C. M. McWilliams, G. W. Hayden, Z. G. Soos, “Theory of even-parity state and two-photon spectra of conjugated polymers,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 9777–9791 (1991).
[Crossref]

W. E. Torruellas, K. B. Rochford, R. Zanoni, S. Aramaki, G. I. Stegeman, “The cubic susceptibility dispersion of poly(4-BCMU) thin films: third harmonic generation and two-photon-absorption measurements,” Opt. Commun. 82, 94–100 (1991).
[Crossref]

I. C. Khoo, R. G. Lindquist, R. R. Michael, R. J. Mansfield, P. Lopresti, “Dynamics of picosecond laser induced density, temperature and flow-reorientation effects in the mesophases of liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3853–3859 (1991).
[Crossref]

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S.-T. Sun, B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature 351, 49–50 (1991).
[Crossref]

H. J. Eichler, R. Macdonald, “Flow alignment and inertial effects in picosecond laser-induced reorientation phenomena of nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2666–2669 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, M. Sheik-Bahae, G. Stegeman, H. Vanherzeele, E. W. Van Stryland, “Self-focusing and defocusing by cascaded second order effects in KTP,” Opt. Lett. 17, 28–30 (1991).
[Crossref]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, M. J. Soileau, E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear refraction and optical limiting in thick media,” Opt. Eng 30, 1228–1235 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (5)

I. C. Khoo, J. Y. Hou, G. L. Din, Y. L. He, D. F. Shi, “Laser induced thermal, orientational and density nonlinear optical effects in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 1001–1004 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Segev, Y. Ophir, B. Fischer, “Nonlinear multi two wave mixing and the fanning process in photorefractive media,” Opt. Commun. 77, 265–274 (1990).
[Crossref]

Z. G. Soos, P. C. M. McWilliams, G. W. Hayden, “Coulomb correlations and two-photon spectra of conjugated polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 171, 14–18 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. A. Newhouse, D. L. Weidman, D. W. Hall, “Enhanced-nonlinearity single-mode lead silicate optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 15, 1185–1187 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Horan, W. Blau, “Photodarkening effect and the optical nonlinearity in a quantum-confined, semiconductor-doped glass,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 304–308 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (9)

N. Finlayson, W. C. Banyai, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, M. O’Neill, T. J. Cullen, C. N. Ironside, “Optical nonlinearities in CdSxSe1−x-doped glass waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 675–684 (1989).
[Crossref]

A. L. Efros, A. V. Rodina, “Confined excitons, trions and biexcitons in semiconductor microcrystals,” Solid State Commun. 72, 645–649 (1989).
[Crossref]

For example, reviewed in S. Schmitt-Rink, D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of semiconductor quantum wells,” Adv. Phys. 38, 89–188 (1989).
[Crossref]

W. Krug, E. Miao, M. Derstine, J. Valera, “Optical absorption and scattering losses of PTS and poly(4-BCMU) thin-film waveguides in the near infrared,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 726–732 (1989).
[Crossref]

W.-S. Fann, S. Benson, J. M. J. Madey, S. Etemad, G. L. Baker, A. J. Heeger, “Spectrum of χ(3)(−3ω;ω,ω,ω) in polyacetylene: an application of free-electron laser in nonlinear optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1492–1495 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borrelli, W. H. Dumbaugh, D. L. Weidman, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of high-index glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1293–1295 (1989).
[Crossref]

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, R. A. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337–3350 (1989).
[Crossref]

G. Picoli, P. Gravey, C. Ozkul, V. Vieux, “Theory of two-wave mixing gain enhancement in photorefractive InP:Fe: a new mechanism of resonance,” J. Appl. Phys. 663798–3813 (1989).
[Crossref]

A. Agranat, V. Leyva, A. Yariv, “Voltage-controlled photorefractive effect in paraelectric KTa1−xNbxO3:Cu,V,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1017–1019 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (6)

J. Feinberg, “Photorefractive nonlinear optics,” Phys. Today 41(10), 46–52 (1988).
[Crossref]

D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, G. A. Kenney-Wallace, “Femtosecond optical Kerr studies on the origin of the nonlinear response in simple liquids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 443–454 (1988).
[Crossref]

M. Sinclair, D. Moses, K. Agaki, A. J. Heeger, “Anisotropy of the third-order nonlinear-optical susceptibility in a degenerate-ground-state conjugated polymer: trans-(CH)x,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 10724–10733 (1988).
[Crossref]

M. J. Goodwin, C. Edge, C. Trundle, I. Bennion, “Intensity-dependent birefringence in nonlinear organic polymer waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 419–424 (1988).
[Crossref]

S. H. Park, J. F. Morhange, A. D. Jefferey, R. A. Morgan, A. Chavez-Pirson, H. M. Gibbs, S. W. Koch, N. Peyghamberian, M. Derstine, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, W. Weigmann, “Measurements of room-temperature, band-gap-resonant optical nonlinearities of GaAs∕AlGaAs multiple quantum wells and bulk GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1201–1203 (1988).
[Crossref]

E. M. Wright, S. W. Koch, J. E. Ehrlich, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, “Semiconductor figure of merit for nonlinear directional couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2127–2129 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (9)

N. F. Borrelli, D. W. Hall, H. J. Holland, D. W. Smith, “Quantum confinement effects of semiconductor crystallites in glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 5399–5409 (1987).
[Crossref]

G. R. Olbright, N. Peyghambarian, S. W. Koch, L. Banyai, “Optical nonlinearities of glasses doped with semiconductor microcrystallites,” Opt. Lett. 12, 413–415 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, S. A. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive-index measurements of glasses using three-wave frequency mixing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 875–881 (1987).
[Crossref]

S. R. Friberg, P. W. Smith, “Nonlinear optical glasses for ultrafast optical switches,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 2089–2094 (1987).
[Crossref]

E.g., Z. Iqbalt, N. S. Murthyt, Y. P. Khannat, J. S. Szobotai, R. A. Dalterio, F. J. Owens, “The mechanism of the solid-state phase transitions in the polydiacetylene, poly-4BCMU: thermal, x-ray diffraction and Raman scattering studies,” J. Phys. C 204283–4295 (1987).
[Crossref]

I. C. Khoo, T. H. Liu, P. Y. Yan, “Nonlocal radial dependence of laser-induced molecular reorientation in a nematic liquid crystal: theory and experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 115–120 (1987).
[Crossref]

I. C. Khoo, J. Y. Hou, T. H. Liu, P. Y. Yan, R. R. Michael, G. M. Finn, “Transverse self-phase modulation and bistability in the transmission of a laser beam through a nonlinear thin film,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 886–891 (1987).
[Crossref]

I. C. Khoo, R. R. Michael, P. Y. Yan, “Theory and experiment on optically induced nematics axis reorientation and nonlinear effects in the nanosecond regime,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 267–272 (1987).
[Crossref]

Series of articles published by multiple authors under the general title “Research on nonlinear optical materials: an assessment,” Appl. Opt. 26, 211–234 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (5)

I. C. Khoo, G. Finn, R. R. Michael, T. H. Liu, “Passive optical self-limiter using laser induced axially symmetric and asymmetric transverse self-phase modulations in a liquid crystal film,” Opt. Lett. 11, 227–229 (1986).
[Crossref]

G. C. Valley, “Simultaneous electron/hole transport in photorefractive materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3363–3366 (1986).
[Crossref]

W. Blau, H. Byrne, W. M. Dennis, J. M. Kelly, “Reverse saturable absorption in tetraphenylporphyrins,” Opt. Commun. 56, 25–29 (1986).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Lee, A. Chavez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. Morhange, A. Jeffery, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Room-temperature optical nonlinearities in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446–2449 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Banyai, S. W. Koch, “A simple theory for the effects of plasma screening on the optical spectra of highly excited semiconductors,” Z. Phys. B 63, 283–291 (1986).
[Crossref]

1985 (3)

S. S. Yao, C. Karaguleff, A. Gabel, R. Fortenberry, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, “Ultrafast carrier and nonlinear grating lifetimes of optical filter glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 801–802 (1985).
[Crossref]

G. M. Carter, Y. J. Chen, S. K. Tripathy, “Intensity dependent index of refraction in organic materials,” Opt. Eng. 24, 609–612 (1985).

I. C. Khoo, R. Normandin, “The mechanism and dynamics of transient thermal grating diffraction in nematic liquid crystal films,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 329–335 (1985).
[Crossref]

1984 (4)

I. C. Khoo, R. Normandin, “Nanosecond laser-induced transient and erasable permanent grating diffractions and ultrasonic waves in a nematic film,” Appl. Phys. 55, 1416–1418 (1984).
[Crossref]

R. C. Eckardt, J. Reintjes, “Phase matching limitations of high efficiency second harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20, 1178–1187 (1984).
[Crossref]

B. S. Wherrett, “Scaling rules for multiphoton interband absorption in semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 67–72 (1984).
[Crossref]

T. Boggess, S. Moss, I. Boyd, A. Smirl, “Nonlinear-optical energy regulation by nonlinear refraction and absorption in silicon,” Opt. Lett. 9, 291–293 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1983 (2)

R. K. Jain, R. C. Lind, “Degenerate four-wave mixing in semiconductor-doped glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 647–653 (1983).
[Crossref]

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, “Optimal properties of photorefractive materials for optical data processing,” Opt. Eng. 22, 704–711 (1983).
[Crossref]

1982 (3)

See, for example, P. Sheng, “Boundary-layer phase transition in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 1610–1617 (1982).
[Crossref]

R. J. D. Miller, R. Casalegno, K. A. Nelson, M. D. Fayer, “Laser-induced ultrasonics: a dynamic holographic approach to the measurement of weak absorptions, optoelastic constants and acoustic attenuation,” Chem. Phys. 72, 371–9 (1982).
[Crossref]

G. R. Meredith, “Second-order cascading in third-order nonlinear optical processes,” J. Chem. Phys. 77, 5863–5871 (1982).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

D. A. B. Miller, C. T. Seaton, M. E. Prise, S. D. Smith, “Band-gap resonant nonlinear refraction in III–V semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 197–200 (1981).
[Crossref]

1980 (3)

T. S. Moss, “Theory of intensity dependence of refractive index,” Phys. Status Solidi B 101, 555–561 (1980).
[Crossref]

J. Feinberg, D. Heiman, A. R. Tanguay, R. W. Hellwarth, “Photorefractive effects and light-induced charge migration in barium titanate,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 1297–1305 (1980).
[Crossref]

D. Fekete, J. Au Yeung, A. Yariv, “Phase conjugate reflection by degenerate four wave mixing in a nematic crystal in the isotropic phase,” Opt. Lett. 5, 51–53 (1980).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

N. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, V. L. Vinetskii, “Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. I. Steady state,” Ferroelectrics 22, 949–960 (1979).
[Crossref]

1978 (3)

N. L. Boling, A. J. Glass, A. Owyoung, “Emperical relations for predicting nonlinear refractive index changes in optical solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 601–608 (1978).
[Crossref]

D. H. Auston, S. McAffee, C. V. Shank, E. P. Ippen, O. Teschke, “Picosecond spectroscopy of semiconductors,” Solid-State Electron. 21, 147–150 (1978).
[Crossref]

R. R. Chance, G. N. Patel, “Solid-state polymerization of a diacetylene crystal: thermal, ultraviolet, and γ-ray polymerization of 2,4-hexadiyne-1,6-diol bis-(p-toluene sulfonate),” J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 16, 859–881 (1978).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

C. Sauteret, J. P. Hermann, R. Frey, F. Pradere, J. Ducuing, R. H. Baughman, R. R. Chance, “Optical nonlinearities in one-dimensional-conjugated polymer crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 956 (1976).
[Crossref]

1975 (2)

R. Hellwarth, J. Cherlow, T.-T. Yang, “Origin and frequency dependence of nonlinear optical susceptibilities of glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 1, 964–967 (1975).
[Crossref]

V. O. Vinetskii, N. V. Kukhtarev, “Theory of the conductivity induced by recording holographic gratings in nonmetallic crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 16, 2414–2415 (1975).

1974 (2)

G. K. L. Wong, Y. R. Shen, “Study of pretransitional behavior of laser-field-induced molecular alignment in isotropic nematic substances,” Phys. Rev. A 10, 1277–1284 (1974).
[Crossref]

R. Dingle, W. Wiegmann, C. H. Henry, “Quantum states of confined carriers in very thin AlxGa1−xAs–GaAs–AlxGa1−xAs heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 827–830 (1974).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

B. J. Orr, J. F. Ward, “Perturbation theory of the non-linear optical polarization of an isolated system,” Mol. Phys. 20, 513–526 (1971).
[Crossref]

1969 (3)

M. A. Duguay, J. W. Hansen, “An ultrafast light gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 192–194 (1969).
[Crossref]

W. Helfrich, “Conduction-induced alignment of nematic liquid crystals: basic model and stability consideration,” J. Chem. Phys. 51, 4092–4105 (1969).
[Crossref]

M. E. Mack, “Stimulated thermal light scattering in the picosecond regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 13–15 (1969).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

A. G. Aronov, D. E. Pikus, D. Shekhter, “Quantum theory of free-electron dielectric constant in semiconductors,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 10, 645–647 (1968).

1967 (2)

C. Giuliano, L. Hess, “Nonlinear absorption of light: optical saturation of electronic transitions in organic molecules with high intensity laser radiation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 3, 358–367 (1967).
[Crossref]

L. A. Ostrovskii, “Self-action of light in crystals,” JETP Lett. 5, 272–275 (1967).

1966 (1)

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, J. J. Levinstein, K. Nassau, “Optically-induced refractive index inhomogeneities in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72–74 (1966).
[Crossref]

1959 (1)

J. W. Kurnick, J. M. Powell, “Optical absorption in pure single crystal InSb at 298° and 78°K,” Phys. Rev. 116, 597–604 (1959).
[Crossref]

Aber, J. E.

Abram, I.

P. A. Gass, I. Abram, R. Raj, M. Schott, “The nonlinear optical spectrum of polydiacetylene in the near infrared,” J. Chem. Phys. 100, 88–97 (1994).
[Crossref]

Abstreiter, G.

J. D. Bauer, D. Schuh, E. Uccelli, R. Schulz, A. Kress, F. Hofbauer, J. J. Finley, G. Abstreiter, “Long-range ordered self-assembled InAs quantum dots epitaxially grown on (110) GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4750–4752 (2004).
[Crossref]

Adair, R.

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, R. A. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337–3350 (1989).
[Crossref]

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, S. A. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive-index measurements of glasses using three-wave frequency mixing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 875–881 (1987).
[Crossref]

Agaki, K.

M. Sinclair, D. Moses, K. Agaki, A. J. Heeger, “Anisotropy of the third-order nonlinear-optical susceptibility in a degenerate-ground-state conjugated polymer: trans-(CH)x,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 10724–10733 (1988).
[Crossref]

Aggarwal, I. D.

Agranat, A.

Agranat, A. J.

Agrawal, G. P.

Discussed in G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed., Optics and Photonics Series, P. L. Kelley, I. P. Kaminow, and G. P. Agrawal, eds. (Academic, 2001).

Agulló-López, F.

G. F. Calvo, F. Agulló-López, M. Carrascosa, “Transition from local to nonlocal photorefractive nonlinearity on increasing spatial dimensionality,” Opt. Commun. 233, 439–444 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ahn, T.

Reviewed in A. Bahtiar, K. Koynov, A. Kibrom, T. Ahn, Chr. Bubeck, “Multiphoton spectroscopy of polymers for all-optical switching,” Proc. SPIE 6330, 63300C (2006).
[Crossref]

Aitchison, J. S.

S. J. Wagner, J. Meier, A. S. Helmy, J. S. Aitchison, M. Sorel, D. C. Hutchings, “Polarization-dependent nonlinear refraction and two-photon absorption in GaAs∕AlAs superlattice waveguides below the half-bandgap,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1557–1563 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. I. Stegeman, A. Villeneuve, J. Kang, J. S. Aitchison, C. N. Ironside, K. Al-hemyari, C. C. Yang, C.-H. Lin, H.-H. Lin, G. T. Kennedy, R. S. Grant, W. Sibbett, “AlGaAs below half bandgap: the silicon of nonlinear optical materials,” Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 3, 347–371 (1994).
[Crossref]

Aitken, B. G.

J. M. Harbold, F. Ömer Ilday, F. W. Wise, B. G. Aitken, “Highly nonlinear Ge–As–Se and Ge–As–S–Se glasses for all-optical switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 822–824 (2002).
[Crossref]

I. Kang, S. Smolorz, T. Krauss, F. Wise, B. G. Aitken, N. F. Borrelli, “Time-domain observation of nuclear contributions to the optical nonlinearities of glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 54, R12641–R12644 (1996).
[Crossref]

Al-hemyari, K.

G. I. Stegeman, A. Villeneuve, J. Kang, J. S. Aitchison, C. N. Ironside, K. Al-hemyari, C. C. Yang, C.-H. Lin, H.-H. Lin, G. T. Kennedy, R. S. Grant, W. Sibbett, “AlGaAs below half bandgap: the silicon of nonlinear optical materials,” Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 3, 347–371 (1994).
[Crossref]

Anderson, D. Z.

A. A. Zozulya, M. Saffman, D. Z. Anderson, “Propagation of light beams in photorefractive media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 818–821 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aramaki, S.

W. E. Torruellas, K. B. Rochford, R. Zanoni, S. Aramaki, G. I. Stegeman, “The cubic susceptibility dispersion of poly(4-BCMU) thin films: third harmonic generation and two-photon-absorption measurements,” Opt. Commun. 82, 94–100 (1991).
[Crossref]

Armand, P.

J. C. Sabadel, P. Armand, D. Cachau-Herreillat, P. Baldeck, O. Doclot, A. Ibanez, E. Philippot, “Structural and nonlinear optical characterizations of tellurium oxide-based glasses: TeO2–BaO–TiO2,” J. Solid State Chem. 132, 411–419 (1997).
[Crossref]

Aronov, A. G.

A. G. Aronov, D. E. Pikus, D. Shekhter, “Quantum theory of free-electron dielectric constant in semiconductors,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 10, 645–647 (1968).

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, J. J. Levinstein, K. Nassau, “Optically-induced refractive index inhomogeneities in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72–74 (1966).
[Crossref]

Asobe, M.

M. Asobe, “Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glass fibers and their application to all-optical switching,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3, 142–148 (1997).
[Crossref]

Assanto, G.

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, “Observation of optical spatial solitons in a highly nonlocal medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113902 (2004).
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A. Kobyakov, U. Peschel, R. Muschall, G. Assanto, V. P. Torchigin, F. Lederer, “Analytical approach to all-optical modulation by cascading,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1686–1688 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. I. Stegeman, M. Sheik-Bahae, E. W. Van Stryland, G. Assanto, “Large nonlinear phase shifts in second-order nonlinear-optical processes,” Opt. Lett. 18, 13–15 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. B. Marques, G. Assanto, G. I. Stegeman, G. R. Mohlmann, E. W. P. Erdhuisen, W. H. G. Horsthuis, “Intensity dependent refractive index of novel polymer materials: measurements by nonlinear grating coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2613–2615 (1991).
[Crossref]

Au Yeung, J.

Auld, B. A.

B. A. Auld, Acoustic Fields and Waves in Solids (Wiley, 1973).

Auston, D. H.

D. H. Auston, S. McAffee, C. V. Shank, E. P. Ippen, O. Teschke, “Picosecond spectroscopy of semiconductors,” Solid-State Electron. 21, 147–150 (1978).
[Crossref]

Bahtiar, A.

Reviewed in A. Bahtiar, K. Koynov, A. Kibrom, T. Ahn, Chr. Bubeck, “Multiphoton spectroscopy of polymers for all-optical switching,” Proc. SPIE 6330, 63300C (2006).
[Crossref]

Baker, G.

W. E. Torruellas, B. L. Lawrence, G. I. Stegeman, G. Baker, “Two-photon saturation in the bandgap of a molecular quantum wire,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1777–1779 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. L. Lawrence, M. Cha, W. E. Torruellas, G. I. Stegeman, S. Etemad, G. Baker, “Measurement of the nonlinear refractive index and two photon absorption coefficient of PTS at 1064 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2773–2775 (1994).
[Crossref]

B. Lawrence, W. Torruellas, M. Cha, G. I. Stegeman, J. Meth, S. Etemad, G. Baker, “Identification and role of two-photon excited states in a π-conjugated polymer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 597–600 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baker, G. L.

W.-S. Fann, S. Benson, J. M. J. Madey, S. Etemad, G. L. Baker, A. J. Heeger, “Spectrum of χ(3)(−3ω;ω,ω,ω) in polyacetylene: an application of free-electron laser in nonlinear optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1492–1495 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baldeck, P.

J. C. Sabadel, P. Armand, D. Cachau-Herreillat, P. Baldeck, O. Doclot, A. Ibanez, E. Philippot, “Structural and nonlinear optical characterizations of tellurium oxide-based glasses: TeO2–BaO–TiO2,” J. Solid State Chem. 132, 411–419 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ballet, P.

P. Ballet, J. B. Smathers, H. Yang, C. L. Workman, G. J. Salamo, “Control of size and density of InAs∕(Al,Ga)As self-organized islands,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 481–487 (2001).
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P. Ballet, J. B. Smathers, G. J. Salamo, “In-situ observation of InAs self-organized islands on AlAs surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 337–339 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ballman, A. A.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, J. J. Levinstein, K. Nassau, “Optically-induced refractive index inhomogeneities in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72–74 (1966).
[Crossref]

Balogh, D. T.

L. De Boni, L. S. Corrêa, D. T. Balogh, R. M. Faria, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti, C. R. Mendonça, “MEH-PPV chloroform solution degenerated two photon absorption spectrum,” proceedings of Encontro Nacional de Física da Matéria Condensada XXVI (ENFMC XXVI), Ann. Opt. 5, 1–3 (2003).
[Crossref]

Balu, M.

Banfi, G. P.

G. P. Banfi, V. Degiorgio, D. Ricard, “Nonlinear optical properties of semiconductor nanocrystals,” Adv. Phys. 47, 447–510 (1998).
[Crossref]

Banyai, L.

G. R. Olbright, N. Peyghambarian, S. W. Koch, L. Banyai, “Optical nonlinearities of glasses doped with semiconductor microcrystallites,” Opt. Lett. 12, 413–415 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Lee, A. Chavez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. Morhange, A. Jeffery, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Room-temperature optical nonlinearities in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446–2449 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Banyai, S. W. Koch, “A simple theory for the effects of plasma screening on the optical spectra of highly excited semiconductors,” Z. Phys. B 63, 283–291 (1986).
[Crossref]

Banyai, W. C.

N. Finlayson, W. C. Banyai, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, M. O’Neill, T. J. Cullen, C. N. Ironside, “Optical nonlinearities in CdSxSe1−x-doped glass waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 675–684 (1989).
[Crossref]

Bao, Z.

M. Samoc, A. Samoc, B. Luther-Davies, Z. Bao, L. Yu, B. Hsieh, U. Scherf, “Femtosecond Z-scan and degenerate four-wave mixing measurements of real and imaginary parts of the third-order nonlinearity of soluble conjugated polymers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 817–825 (1998).
[Crossref]

Barbosa, L. C.

L. A. Padilha, J. Fu, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, C. L. Cesar, L. C. Barbosa, C. H. B. Cruz, D. Buso, A. Martucci, “Frequency degenerate and nondegenerate two-photon absorption spectra of semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 075325 (2007).
[Crossref]

Barlow, S.

S. Ohira, I. Rudra, K. Schmidt, S. Barlow, S. J. Chung, Q. Zhang, J. Matichuk, S. R. Marder, J.-L. Bredas, “Electronic and vibronic contributions to two-photon absorption in donor-acceptor-donor squaraine chromophores,” Chem.-Eur. J. 14, 11082–11091 (2008).
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J. M. Hales, S. Zheng, S. Barlow, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, “Bisdioxaborine polymethines with large third-order nonlinearities for all-optical signal processing,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 11362–11363 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Balu, L. Padilha, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, S. Yao, K. Belfield, S. Zheng, S. Barlow, S. Marder, “Broadband Z-scan characterization using a high-spectral-irradiance, high-quality supercontinuum,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 159–165 (2008).
[Crossref]

S.-J. Chung, S. Zheng, T. Odani, L. Beverina, J. Fu, L. A. Padilha, A. Biesso, J. M. Hales, X. Zhan, K. Schmidt, A. Ye, E. Zojer, S. Barlow, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, Y. Yi, Z. Shuai, G. A. Pagani, J.-L. Bredas, J. W. Perry, S. R. Marder, “Extended squaraine dyes with large two-photon absorption cross-sections,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 14444–14445 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reviewed in S. Barlow, S. R. Marder, “Nonlinear optical properties of organic materials,” in Functional Organic Materials: Syntheses, Strategies and Applications, T. J. J. Muller and U. H. F. Bunz, eds. (Wiley, 2007), Chap. 11.

Barthelemy, A.

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, V. Couderc, A. Barthelemy, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses measured by Z-scan,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 274, 232–237 (2000).
[Crossref]

Barton, T.

R. K. Meyer, R. E. Benner, Z. V. Vardeny, M. Liess, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, Y. Ding, T. Barton, “Two photon absorption spectra of luminescent conducting polymers,” Synth. Met. 84, 549–550 (1997).
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Bashaw, M.

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. Bashaw, “Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457–R4460 (1994).
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Bashaw, M. C.

M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, “Observation of dark photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095–3100 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Battaglia, D.

C. Gan, M. Xiao, D. Battaglia, N. Pradhan, X. Peng, “Size dependence of nonlinear optical absorption and refraction of Mn-doped ZnSe nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201103 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bauer, J. D.

J. D. Bauer, D. Schuh, E. Uccelli, R. Schulz, A. Kress, F. Hofbauer, J. J. Finley, G. Abstreiter, “Long-range ordered self-assembled InAs quantum dots epitaxially grown on (110) GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4750–4752 (2004).
[Crossref]

Baughman, R. H.

C. Sauteret, J. P. Hermann, R. Frey, F. Pradere, J. Ducuing, R. H. Baughman, R. R. Chance, “Optical nonlinearities in one-dimensional-conjugated polymer crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 956 (1976).
[Crossref]

Baumberg, J. J.

J. Requejo-Isidro, A. K. Mairaj, V. Pruneri, D. W. Hewak, M. C. Netti, J. J. Baumberg, “Self refractive non-linearities in chalcogenide based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 317, 241–246 (2000).
[Crossref]

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L. De Boni, L. S. Corrêa, D. T. Balogh, R. M. Faria, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti, C. R. Mendonça, “MEH-PPV chloroform solution degenerated two photon absorption spectrum,” proceedings of Encontro Nacional de Física da Matéria Condensada XXVI (ENFMC XXVI), Ann. Opt. 5, 1–3 (2003).
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IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (5)

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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

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J. M. Hales, S. Zheng, S. Barlow, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, “Bisdioxaborine polymethines with large third-order nonlinearities for all-optical signal processing,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 11362–11363 (2008).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. (1)

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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (19)

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