Abstract

Holography has numerous applications because of its capability of arbitrary wavefront modulation. Computer-generated holograms (CGHs) take it a big step forward. Conventional holography engineers the wavefront via phase accumulation, suffering from large size, low resolution, and small viewing angle. Metasurfaces, ultrathin two-dimensional metamaterials with subwavelength features, can manipulate the amplitude, phase, and polarization of the light, solving the above issues. In this review, advances of holography, CGH algorithms, and the principles of various metasurfaces are presented. Metasurface holography, realized by encoding the hologram in the metasurface, is investigated. Information multiplexing methods of metasurface holograms, including wavelength-multiplexed, polarization-multiplexed, complex amplitude modulated, nonlinear, and dynamic metasurfaces, are presented. The challenges and outlook of metasurface holograms are discussed.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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2019 (10)

Z. Huang, D. L. Marks, and D. R. Smith, “Out-of-plane computer-generated multicolor waveguide holography,” Optica 6, 119–124 (2019).
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S. Li, X. Li, G. Wang, S. Liu, L. Zhang, C. Zeng, L. Wang, Q. Sun, W. Zhao, and W. Zhang, “Multidimensional manipulation of photonic spin Hall effect with a single-layer dielectric metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7, 1801365 (2019).
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J. Burch and A. Di Falco, “Holography using curved metasurfaces,” Photonics 6, 8 (2019).
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Q. Jiang, Z. He, G. Jin, and L. Cao, “Complex amplitude modulation metasurface with dual resonance in transmission mode,” Proc. SPIE 10944, 109440A (2019).
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T. Cui, B. Bai, and H.-B. Sun, “Tunable metasurfaces based on active materials,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 29, 1806692 (2019).
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F. Dong, H. Feng, L. Xu, B. Wang, Z. Song, X. Zhang, L. Yan, X. Li, Y. Tian, W. Wang, L. Sun, Y. Li, and W. Chu, “Information encoding with optical dielectric metasurface via independent multichannels,” ACS Photon. 6, 230–237 (2019).
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G.-Y. Lee, J. Sung, and B. Lee, “Recent advances in metasurface hologram technologies,” ETRI J. 41, 10–22 (2019).
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S. Lan, X. Zhang, M. Taghinejad, S. Rodrigues, K.-T. Lee, Z. Liu, and W. Cai, “Metasurfaces for near-eye augmented reality,” ACS Photon. 6, 864–870 (2019).
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J. Guo, T. Wang, H. Zhao, X. Wang, S. Feng, P. Han, W. Sun, J. Ye, G. Situ, H.-T. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Reconfigurable terahertz metasurface pure phase holograms,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7, 1801696 (2019).
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Q. Zhang, C. Liu, X. Wan, L. Zhang, S. Liu, Y. Yang, and T. J. Cui, “Machine-learning designs of anisotropic digital coding metasurfaces,” Adv. Theory Simul. 2, 1800132 (2019).
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2018 (43)

Z. Liu, D. Zhu, S. P. Rodrigues, K.-T. Lee, and W. Cai, “Generative model for the inverse design of metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 18, 6570–6576 (2018).
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L. Jin, Z. Dong, S. Mei, Y. F. Yu, Z. Wei, Z. Pan, S. D. Rezaei, X. Li, A. I. Kuznetsov, Y. S. Kivshar, J. K. W. Yang, and C.-W. Qiu, “Noninterleaved metasurface for (26-1) spin- and wavelength-encoded holograms,” Nano Lett. 18, 8016–8024 (2018).
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W. Ma, F. Cheng, and Y. Liu, “Deep-learning-enabled on-demand design of chiral metamaterials,” ACS Nano 12, 6326–6334 (2018).
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I. Malkiel, M. Mrejen, A. Nagler, U. Arieli, L. Wolf, and H. Suchowski, “Plasmonic nanostructure design and characterization via deep learning,” Light Sci. Appl. 7, 60 (2018).
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X. G. Zhang, W. X. Tang, W. X. Jiang, G. D. Bai, J. Tang, L. Bai, C.-W. Qiu, and T. J. Cui, “Light-controllable digital coding metasurfaces,” Adv. Sci. 5, 1801028 (2018).
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J. Li, S. Kamin, G. Zheng, F. Neubrech, S. Zhang, and N. Liu, “Addressable metasurfaces for dynamic holography and optical information encryption,” Sci. Adv. 4, eaar6768 (2018).
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Y. Zhao, Y. Zhang, Q. Shi, S. Liang, W. Huang, W. Kou, and Z. Yang, “Dynamic photoinduced controlling of the large phase shift of terahertz waves via vanadium dioxide coupling nanostructures,” ACS Photon. 5, 3040–3050 (2018).
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Y. Lee, S.-J. Kim, J.-G. Yun, C. Kim, S.-Y. Lee, and B. Lee, “Electrically tunable multifunctional metasurface for integrating phase and amplitude modulation based on hyperbolic metamaterial substrate,” Opt. Express 26, 32063–32073 (2018).
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E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, M. Faraji-Dana, and A. Faraon, “MEMS-tunable dielectric metasurface lens,” Nat. Commun. 9, 812 (2018).
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S. Kruk, F. Ferreira, N. Mac Suibhne, C. Tsekrekos, I. Kravchenko, A. Ellis, D. Neshev, S. Turitsyn, and Y. Kivshar, “Transparent dielectric metasurfaces for spatial mode multiplexing,” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1800031 (2018).
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M. T. Nouman, J. Hwang, M. Faiyaz, G. Lee, D.-Y. Noh, and J.-H. Jang, “Dynamic-metasurface-based cavity structures for enhanced absorption and phase modulation,” ACS Photon. 6, 374–381 (2018).
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W. Yao, L. Tang, J. Wang, C. Ji, X. Wei, and Y. Jiang, “Spectrally and spatially tunable terahertz metasurface lens based on graphene surface plasmons,” IEEE Photon. J. 10, 4800909 (2018).
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J. Chen, K. Wang, H. Long, X. Han, H. Hu, W. Liu, B. Wang, and P. Lu, “Tungsten disulfide-gold nanohole hybrid metasurfaces for nonlinear metalenses in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 18, 1344–1350 (2018).
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G. Kafaie Shirmanesh, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, and H. A. Atwater, “Dual-gated active metasurface at 1550  nm with wide (>300°) phase tunability,” Nano Lett. 18, 2957–2963 (2018).
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A. Howes, W. Wang, I. Kravchenko, and J. Valentine, “Dynamic transmission control based on all-dielectric Huygens metasurfaces,” Optica 5, 787–792 (2018).
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A. V. Pogrebnyakov, J. A. Bossard, J. P. Turpin, J. D. Musgraves, H. J. Shin, C. Rivero-Baleine, N. Podraza, K. A. Richardson, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, “Reconfigurable near-IR metasurface based on Ge2Sb2Te5 phase-change material,” Opt. Mater. Express 8, 2264–2275 (2018).
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L. Wang, W. Hong, L. Deng, S. Li, C. Zhang, J. Zhu, and H. Wang, “Reconfigurable multifunctional metasurface hybridized with vanadium dioxide at terahertz frequencies,” Materials 11, 2040 (2018).
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G. Y. Lee, G. Yoon, S. Y. Lee, H. Yun, J. Cho, K. Lee, H. Kim, J. Rho, and B. Lee, “Complete amplitude and phase control of light using broadband holographic metasurfaces,” Nanoscale 10, 4237–4245 (2018).
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X. Song, L. Huang, C. Tang, J. Li, X. Li, J. Liu, Y. Wang, and T. Zentgraf, “Selective diffraction with complex amplitude modulation by dielectric metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701181 (2018).
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F. F. Qin, Z. Z. Liu, Z. Zhang, Q. Zhang, and J. J. Xiao, “Broadband full-color multichannel hologram with geometric metasurface,” Opt. Express 26, 11577–11586 (2018).
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S. Sun, W. Yang, C. Zhang, J. Jing, Y. Gao, X. Yu, Q. Song, and S. Xiao, “Real-time tunable colors from microfluidic reconfigurable all-dielectric metasurfaces,” ACS Nano 12, 2151–2159 (2018).
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W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, V. Sanjeev, M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, E. Lee, and F. Capasso, “A broadband achromatic metalens for focusing and imaging in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13, 220–226 (2018).
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S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V.-C. Su, Y.-C. Lai, M.-K. Chen, H. Y. Kuo, B. H. Chen, Y. H. Chen, T.-T. Huang, J.-H. Wang, R.-M. Lin, C.-H. Kuan, T. Li, Z. Wang, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “A broadband achromatic metalens in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13, 227–232 (2018).
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G.-Y. Lee, J.-Y. Hong, S. Hwang, S. Moon, H. Kang, S. Jeon, H. Kim, J.-H. Jeong, and B. Lee, “Metasurface eyepiece for augmented reality,” Nat. Commun. 9, 4562 (2018).
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Y. Zhang, W. Liu, J. Gao, and X. Yang, “Generating focused 3D perfect vortex beams by plasmonic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701228 (2018).
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M. Faraji-Dana, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, H. Kwon, and A. Faraon, “Compact folded metasurface spectrometer,” Nat. Commun. 9, 4196(2018).
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M. Jang, Y. Horie, A. Shibukawa, J. Brake, Y. Liu, S. M. Kamali, A. Arbabi, H. Ruan, A. Faraon, and C. Yang, “Wavefront shaping with disorder-engineered metasurfaces,” Nat. Photonics 12, 84–90 (2018).
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S. Liu, P. P. Vabishchevich, A. Vaskin, J. L. Reno, G. A. Keeler, M. B. Sinclair, I. Staude, and I. Brener, “An all-dielectric metasurface as a broadband optical frequency mixer,” Nat. Commun. 9, 2507 (2018).
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E. Arbabi, J. Li, R. J. Hutchins, S. M. Kamali, A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, P. Van Dorpe, V. Gradinaru, D. A. Wagenaar, and A. Faraon, “Two-photon microscopy with a double-wavelength metasurface objective lens,” Nano Lett. 18, 4943–4948 (2018).
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C. Huang, J. Yang, X. Wu, J. Song, M. Pu, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Reconfigurable metasurface cloak for dynamical electromagnetic illusions,” ACS Photon. 5, 1718–1725 (2018).
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H. Chu, Q. Li, B. Liu, J. Luo, S. Sun, Z. H. Hang, L. Zhou, and Y. Lai, “A hybrid invisibility cloak based on integration of transparent metasurfaces and zero-index materials,” Light Sci. Appl. 7, 50 (2018).
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Q. He, S. Sun, S. Xiao, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency metasurfaces: principles, realizations, and applications,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1800415 (2018).
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H. Yang, G. Li, G. Cao, F. Yu, Z. Zhao, K. Ou, X. Chen, and W. Lu, “High efficiency dual-wavelength achromatic metalens via cascaded dielectric metasurfaces,” Opt. Mater. Express 8, 1940–1950 (2018).
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Y. Liang, H. Liu, F. Wang, H. Meng, J. Guo, J. Li, and Z. Wei, “High-efficiency, near-diffraction limited, dielectric metasurface lenses based on crystalline titanium dioxide at visible wavelengths,” Nanomaterials (Basel) 8, 288(2018).
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L. Wang, S. Kruk, K. Koshelev, I. Kravchenko, B. Luther-Davies, and Y. Kivshar, “Nonlinear wavefront control with all-dielectric metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 18, 3978–3984 (2018).
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A. Krasnok, M. Tymchenko, and A. Alù, “Nonlinear metasurfaces: a paradigm shift in nonlinear optics,” Mater. Today 21(1), 8–21 (2018).
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S. Keren-Zur, L. Michaeli, H. Suchowski, and T. Ellenbogen, “Shaping light with nonlinear metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 10, 309–353 (2018).
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L. Huang, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Metasurface holography: from fundamentals to applications,” Nanophotonics 7, 1169–1190 (2018).
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A. Martins, J. Li, A. F. da Mota, Y. Wang, L. G. Neto, J. P. do Carmo, F. L. Teixeira, E. R. Martins, and B. V. Borges, “Highly efficient holograms based on c-Si metasurfaces in the visible range,” Opt. Express 26, 9573–9583 (2018).
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X. Zhang, X. Li, J. Jin, M. Pu, X. Ma, J. Luo, Y. Guo, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Polarization-independent broadband meta-holograms via polarization-dependent nanoholes,” Nanoscale 10, 9304–9310 (2018).
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A. V. Zea, J. F. Barrera Ramirez, and R. Torroba, “Optimized random phase only holograms,” Opt. Lett. 43, 731–734 (2018).
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P. Sun, S. Chang, S. Liu, X. Tao, C. Wang, and Z. Zheng, “Holographic near-eye display system based on double-convergence light Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm,” Opt. Express 26, 10140–10151 (2018).
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Y.-P. Zhang, F. Wang, T.-C. Poon, S. Fan, and W. Xu, “Fast generation of full analytical polygon-based computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Express 26, 19206–19224 (2018).
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2017 (31)

S. Jiao, Z. Zhuang, and W. Zou, “Fast computer generated hologram calculation with a mini look-up table incorporated with radial symmetric interpolation,” Opt. Express 25, 112–123 (2017).
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G. Yoon, D. Lee, K. T. Nam, and J. Rho, “Pragmatic metasurface hologram at visible wavelength: the balance between diffraction efficiency and fabrication compatibility,” ACS Photon. 5, 1643–1647 (2017).
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G. Li, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Nonlinear photonic metasurfaces,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 2, 17010 (2017).
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W. Luo, S. Sun, H.-X. Xu, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “Transmissive ultrathin Pancharatnam-Berry metasurfaces with nearly 100% efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7, 044033 (2017).
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C. Wang, Z. Li, M.-H. Kim, X. Xiong, X.-F. Ren, G.-C. Guo, N. Yu, and M. Lončar, “Metasurface-assisted phase-matching-free second harmonic generation in lithium niobate waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 8, 2098 (2017).
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L. Liu, X. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Pu, P. Gao, Y. Luo, J. Jin, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Batch fabrication of metasurface holograms enabled by plasmonic cavity lithography,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1700429 (2017).
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H.-H. Hsiao, C. H. Chu, and D. P. Tsai, “Fundamentals and applications of metasurfaces,” Small Methods 1, 1600064 (2017).
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Z.-L. Deng and G. Li, “Metasurface optical holography,” Mater. Today Phys. 3 (December 2017), 16–32 (2017).
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W. Wan, J. Gao, and X. Yang, “Metasurface holograms for holographic imaging,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1700541 (2017).
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A. Y. Zhu, W.-T. Chen, M. Khorasaninejad, J. Oh, A. Zaidi, I. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-compact visible chiral spectrometer with meta-lenses,” APL Photon. 2, 036103 (2017).
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S.-Y. Lee, Y.-H. Kim, S.-M. Cho, G. H. Kim, T.-Y. Kim, H. Ryu, H. N. Kim, H. B. Kang, C.-Y. Hwang, and C.-S. Hwang, “Holographic image generation with a thin-film resonance caused by chalcogenide phase-change material,” Sci. Rep. 7, 41152 (2017).
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K. Li, Y. Guo, M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “Dispersion controlling meta-lens at visible frequency,” Opt. Express 25, 21419–21427 (2017).
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J. P. Balthasar Mueller, N. A. Rubin, R. C. Devlin, B. Groever, and F. Capasso, “Metasurface polarization optics: independent phase control of arbitrary orthogonal states of polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 113901 (2017).
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C. Zhang, F. Yue, D. Wen, M. Chen, Z. Zhang, W. Wang, and X. Chen, “Multichannel metasurface for simultaneous control of holograms and twisted light beams,” ACS Photon. 4, 1906–1912 (2017).
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J. Burch, D. Wen, X. Chen, and A. Di Falco, “Conformable holographic metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 7, 4520 (2017).
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Q. Wei, L. Huang, X. Li, J. Liu, and Y. Wang, “Broadband multiplane holography based on plasmonic metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1700434 (2017).
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S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Faraji-Dana, and A. Faraon, “Angle-multiplexed metasurfaces: encoding independent wavefronts in a single metasurface under different illumination angles,” Phys. Rev. X 7, 041056 (2017).
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Z. Li, I. Kim, L. Zhang, M. Q. Mehmood, M. S. Anwar, M. Saleem, D. Lee, K. T. Nam, S. Zhang, B. Luk’yanchuk, Y. Wang, G. Zheng, J. Rho, and C.-W. Qiu, “Dielectric meta-holograms enabled with dual magnetic resonances in visible light,” ACS Nano 11, 9382–9389 (2017).
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K. Thyagarajan, R. Sokhoyan, L. Zornberg, and H. A. Atwater, “Millivolt modulation of plasmonic metasurface optical response via ionic conductance,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1701044 (2017).
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K. Dong, S. Hong, Y. Deng, H. Ma, J. Li, X. Wang, J. Yeo, L. Wang, S. Lou, K. B. Tom, K. Liu, Z. You, Y. Wei, C. P. Grigoropoulos, J. Yao, and J. Wu, “A lithography-free and field-programmable photonic metacanvas,” Adv. Mater. 30, 1703878 (2017).
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T. Lewi, H. A. Evans, N. A. Butakov, and J. A. Schuller, “Ultrawide thermo-optic tuning of PbTe meta-atoms,” Nano Lett. 17, 3940–3945 (2017).
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T. Cao, Y. Li, X. Zhang, and Y. Zou, “Theoretical study of tunable chirality from graphene integrated achiral metasurfaces,” Photon. Res. 5, 441–449 (2017).
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L. Li, T. Jun Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. Bo Li, M. Jiang, C. W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic reprogrammable coding-metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8, 197 (2017).
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K. Chen, Y. Feng, F. Monticone, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, T. Jiang, L. Zhang, Y. Kim, X. Ding, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C.-W. Qiu, “A reconfigurable active Huygens’ metalens,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1606422 (2017).
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P. C. Wu, W. Zhu, Z. X. Shen, P. H. J. Chong, W. Ser, D. P. Tsai, and A.-Q. Liu, “Broadband wide-angle multifunctional polarization converter via liquid-metal-based metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1600938 (2017).
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Y. Li, X. Li, L. Chen, M. Pu, J. Jin, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Orbital angular momentum multiplexing and demultiplexing by a single metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1600502 (2017).
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S. C. Malek, H.-S. Ee, and R. Agarwal, “Strain multiplexed metasurface holograms on a stretchable substrate,” Nano Lett. 17, 3641–3645 (2017).
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H.-C. Liu, B. Yang, Q. Guo, J. Shi, C. Guan, G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Single-pixel computational ghost imaging with helicity-dependent metasurface hologram,” Sci. Adv. 3, e1701477 (2017).
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R. Ahmed, A. K. Yetisen, S. H. Yun, and H. Butt, “Color-selective holographic retroreflector array for sensing applications,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16214 (2017).
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Y. Lee, S.-J. Kim, H. Park, and B. Lee, “Metamaterials and metasurfaces for sensor applications,” Sensors (Basel) 17, 1726 (2017).
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M. Papaioannou, E. Plum, and N. I. Zheludev, “All-optical pattern recognition and image processing on a metamaterial beam splitter,” ACS Photon. 4, 217–222 (2017).
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2016 (30)

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C. H. Chu, M. L. Tseng, J. Chen, P. C. Wu, Y.-H. Chen, H.-C. Wang, T.-Y. Chen, W. T. Hsieh, H. J. Wu, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Active dielectric metasurface based on phase-change medium,” Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 986–994 (2016).
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K. E. Chong, L. Wang, I. Staude, A. R. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, G. S. Subramania, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Efficient polarization-insensitive complex wavefront control using Huygens’ metasurfaces based on dielectric resonant meta-atoms,” ACS Photon. 3, 514–519 (2016).
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L. Wang, S. Kruk, H. Tang, T. Li, I. Kravchenko, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Grayscale transparent metasurface holograms,” Optica 3, 1504–1505(2016).
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B. Wang, F. Dong, Q.-T. Li, D. Yang, C. Sun, J. Chen, Z. Song, L. Xu, W. Chu, Y.-F. Xiao, Q. Gong, and Y. Li, “Visible-frequency dielectric metasurfaces for multiwavelength achromatic and highly dispersive holograms,” Nano Lett. 16, 5235–5240 (2016).
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W. Ye, F. Zeuner, X. Li, B. Reineke, S. He, C.-W. Qiu, J. Liu, Y. Wang, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Spin and wavelength multiplexed nonlinear metasurface holography,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11930 (2016).
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S. L. Jia, X. Wan, P. Su, Y. J. Zhao, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband metasurface for independent control of reflected amplitude and phase,” AIP Adv. 6, 045024 (2016).
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A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, S. Han, and A. Faraon, “Miniature optical planar camera based on a wide-angle metasurface doublet corrected for monochromatic aberrations,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13682 (2016).
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X. Li, L. Chen, Y. Li, X. Zhang, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, X. Ma, Y. Wang, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Multicolor 3D meta-holography by broadband plasmonic modulation,” Sci. Adv. 2, e1601102 (2016).
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