Abstract

Ultrafast optics has undergone a revolution in the past two decades, driven by new methods of pulse generation, amplification, manipulation, and measurement. We review the advances made in the latter field over this period, indicating the general principles involved, how these have been implemented in various experimental approaches, and how the most popular methods encode the temporal electric field of a short optical pulse in the measured signal and extract the field from the data.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009 (1)

2008 (25)

J. Möhring, T. Buckup, B. von Vacano, M. Motzkus, “Parametrically amplified ultrashort pulses from a shaped photonic crystal fiber supercontinuum,” Opt. Lett. 33, 186–188 (2008).
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J. Sung, B. Chen, S. Lim, “Single-beam homodyne SPIDER for multiphoton microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1404–1406 (2008).
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M. Lelek, F. Louradour, A. Barthélémy, C. Froehly, T. Mansourian, L. Kh. Mouradian, J.-P. Chambaret, G. Chériaux, B. Mercier, “Two-dimensional spectral shearing interferometry resolved in time for ultrashort optical pulse characterization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 17–24 (2008).
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T. Hirooka, M. Nakazawa, “All-optical 40-GHz time-domain Fourier transformation using XPM with a dark parabolic pulse,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1869–1871 (2008).
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R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, “Optical time lens based on four-wave mixing on a silicon chip,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1047–1049 (2008).
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M. A. Foster, R. Salem, D. F. Geraghty, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, “Silicon-chip-based ultrafast optical oscilloscope,” Nature 456, 81–85 (2008).
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J. R. Birge, F. X. Kärtner, “Analysis and mitigation of systematic errors in spectral shearing interferometry of pulses approaching the single-cycle limit,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, A111–A119 (2008).
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A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, “Supercontinuum generation and solition timing jitter in SF6 soft glass photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 16, 5942–5953 (2008).
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D. Lee, Z. Wang, X. Gu, R. Trebino, “Effect—and removal—of an ultrashort pulse's spatial profile on the single-shot measurement of its temporal profile,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, A93–A100 (2008).
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K. T. Vu, A. Malinovski, M. A. F. Roelens, M. Ibsen, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, “Full characterization of low-power picosecond pulses from a gain-switched diode laser using electrooptic modulation-based linear FROG,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 505–507 (2008).
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R. Maher, P. M. Anandarajah, A. D. Ellis, D. Reid, L. P. Barry, “Optimization of a 42.7 Gb∕s wavelength tunable RZ transmitter using a linear spectrogram technique,” Opt. Express 16, 11281–11288 (2008).
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M. A. F. Roelens, J. A. Bolger, D. Williams, B. J. Eggleton, “Multi-wavelength synchronous pulse burst generation with a wavelength selective switch,” Opt. Express 16, 10152–10157 (2008).
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C. Dorrer, I. Kang, “Linear self-referencing techniques for short-optical-pulse characterization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, A1–A12 (2008).
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T. T. Ng, F. Parmigiani, M. Ibsen, Z. Zhang, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, “Compensation of linear distortions by using XPM with parabolic pulses as a time lens,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1097–1099 (2008).
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C. Dorrer, J. Bromage, J. D. Zuegel, “High-dynamic-range single-shot cross-correlator based on an optical pulse replicator,” Opt. Express 16, 13534–13544 (2008).
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D. J. Kane, ‘‘Principal components generalized projections: a review,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, A120–A132 (2008).
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B. Yellampalle, K. Kim, A. J. Taylor, “Amplitude ambiguities in second-harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating: erratum,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2854 (2008).
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L. Xu, E. Zeek, R. Trebino, “Simulations of frequency-resolved optical gating for measuring very complex pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, A70–A80 (2008).
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H. Miao, S.-D. Yang, C. Langrock, R. V. Roussev, M. M. Fejer, A. M. Weiner, “Ultralow-power second-harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating using aperiodically poled lithium niobate waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25A41–A53 (2008).
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S. Akturk, C. D’Amico, A. Mysyrowicz, “Measuring ultrashort pulses in the single-cycle regime using frequency-resolved optical gating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, A63–A69 (2008).
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E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakoklev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
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P. Bowlan, U. Fuchs, R. Trebino, D. Uwe, “Measuring the spatiotemporal electric field of tightly focused ultrashort pulses with sub-micron spatial resolution,” Opt. Express 16, 13663–13675 (2008).
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J. Valdmanis, G. Mourou, “Subpicosecond electrooptic sampling: principles and applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 69–78 (2008).
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Y. Kawada, T. Yasuda, H. Takahashi, S. Aoshima, “Real-time measurement of temporal waveforms of a terahertz pulse using a probe pulse with a tilted pulse front,” Opt. Lett. 33, 180–182 (2008).
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2007 (14)

K. Y. Kim, B. Yellampalle, A. J. Taylor, G. Rodriguez, J. H. Glownia, “Single-shot terahertz pulse characterization via two-dimensional electro-optic imaging with dual echelons,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1968–1970 (2007).
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E. Castro-Camus, L. Lloyd-Hughes, L. Fu, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, M. B. Johnston, “An ion-implanted InP receiver for polarization resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 15, 7047–7057 (2007).
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K. Osvay, M. Görbe, C. Grebing, G. Steinmeyer, “Bandwidth-independent linear method for detection of the carrier-envelope offset phase,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3095–3097 (2007).
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P. Bowlan, P. Gabolde, R. Trebino, “Directly measuring the spatio-temporal electric field of focusing ultrashort pulses,” Opt. Express 15, 10219–10230 (2007).
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C. Rouyer, N. Blanchot, J. Néauport, C. Sauteret, “Delay interferometric single shot measurement of a petawatt-class laser longitudinal chromatism corrector,” Opt. Express 15, 2019–2032 (2007).
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J. Néauport, N. Blanchot, C. Rouyer, C. Sauteret, “Chromatism compensation of the PETAL multipetawatt high-energy laser,” Appl. Opt. 46, 1568–1574 (2007).
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I. Kang, C. Dorrer, “Method of optical pulse characterization using sinusoidal optical phase modulations,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2538–2540 (2007).
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B. Yellampalle, K. Kim, A. J. Taylor, “Amplitude ambiguities in second-harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3558 (2007).
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K. H. Hong, Y. S. Lee, C. H. Nam, “Electric-field reconstruction of femtosecond laser pulses from interferometric autocorrelation using an evolutionary algorithm,” Opt. Commun. 271, 169–177 (2007).
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C. Finot, B. Barviau, G. Millot, A. Guryanov, A. Sysoliatin, S. Wabnitz, “Parabolic pulse generation with active or passive dispersion decreasing optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15, 15824–15835 (2007).
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D. Reid, J. D. Harvey, “Linear spectrograms using electrooptic modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 535–537 (2007).
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J. Bethge, C. Grebing, G. Steinmeyer, “A fast Gabor wavelet transform for high-precision phase retrieval in spectral interferometry,” Opt. Express 15, 14313–14321 (2007).
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A. Radunsky, I. A. Walmsley, S.-P. Gorza, P. Wasylczyk, “Compact spectral shearing intterferometer for ultrashort pulse characterization,” Opt. Lett. 32, 181–183 (2007).
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2006 (20)

A. S. Wyatt, I. A. Walmsley, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, “Sub-10 fs pulse characterization using spatially encoded arrangement for spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1914–1916 (2006).
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A. Radunsky, E. M. Kosik, I. A. Walmsley, P. Wasylczyk, W. Wasilewski, A. U’Ren, M. E. Anderson, “Simplified SPIDER apparatus using a thick nonlinear crystal,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1–3 (2006).
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J. Bromage, C. Dorrer, I. A. Begishev, N. G. Usechak, J. D. Zuegel, “Highly sensitive, single-shot characterization for pulse widths from 0.4to85 ps using electro-optic shearing interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3523–3525 (2006).
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Y. Ozeki, S. Takasaka, M. Sakano, “Electrooptic spectral shearing interferometry using a Mach–Zehnder modulator with a bias voltage sweeper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 911–913 (2006).
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J. Wemans, G. Figueira, N. Lopes, L. Cardoso, “Self-referencing spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction with chirped pulses,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2217–2219 (2006).
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G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, “Optimizing spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 073105-1–073105-9 (2006).
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C. Ventalon, J. M. Frasaer, J.-P. Likforman, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, M. Joffre, “Generation and complete characterization of intense mid-infrared ultrashort pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 332–340 (2006).
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M. Lelek, F. Louradour, A. Barthélémy, C. Froehly, “Time resolved spectral interferometry for single shot femtosecond characterization,” Opt. Commun. 261, 124–129 (2006).
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J. R. Birge, R. Ell, F. X. Kärtner, “Two-dimensional spectral shearing interferometry for few-cycle pulse characterization,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2063–2065 (2006).
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F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen, D. J. Richardson, “Pulse retiming based on XPM using parabolic pulses formed in a fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 829–831 (2006).
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J. van Howe, C. Xu, “Ultrafast optical signal processing based upon space–time dualities,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2649–2662 (2006).
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C. Dorrer, “Single-shot measurement of the electric field of optical waveforms by use of time magnification and heterodyning,” Opt. Lett. 31, 540–542 (2006).
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B. Xu, J. M. Gunn, J. M. Dela Cruz, V. V. Lozovoy, M. Dantus, “Quantitative investigation of the multiphoton intrapulse interference phase scan method for simultaneous phase measurement and compensation of femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 750–759 (2006).
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G. Stibenz, N. Zhavoronkov, G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression of millijoule pulses to 7.8 fs duration in a white-light filament,” Opt. Lett. 31, 274–276 (2006).
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C. Dorrer, “High-speed measurements for optical telecommunication systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 843–858 (2006).
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G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, “Structures of interferometric frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 286–296 (2006).
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G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
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P. Gabolde, R. Trebino, “Single-shot measurement of the full spatio-temporal field of ultrashort pulses with multi-spectral digital holography,” Opt. Express 14, 11460–11467 (2006).
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W. Amir, T. A. Planchon, C. G. Durfee, J. A. Squier, P. Gabolde, R. Trebino, M. Müller, “Simultaneous visualization of spatial and chromatic aberrations by two-dimensional Fourier transform spectral interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2927–2929 (2006).
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2005 (15)

S. T. Cundiff, J. Ye, “Phase stabilization of mode-locked lasers,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 201–219 (2005).
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E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, “Complete characterization of attosecond pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 361–378 (2005).
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F. Quéré, Y. Mairesse, J. Itatani, “Temporal characterization of attosecond XUV fields,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 339–360 (2005).
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E. M. Kosik, A. Radunsky, I. A. Walmsley, C. Dorrer, “Interferometric technique for measuring broadband ultrashort pulses at the sampling limit,” Opt. Lett. 30, 326–328 (2005).
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Y. Mairesse, F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 011401 (2005).
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E. Cormier, L. Corner, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, I. A. Walmsley, “Spectral phase interferometry for complete reconstruction of attosecond pulses,” Laser Phys. 15, 909–915 (2005).

Y. Mairesse, O. Gobert, P. Breger, H. Merdji, P. Meynadier, P. Monchicourt, M. Perdrix, P. Salières, B. Carré, “High harmonic XUV spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 173903 (2005).
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E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, L. Corner, L. F. DiMauro, “Self-referencing, spectrally or spatially encoded spectral interferometry for the complete characterization of attosecond electromagnetic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033905 (2005).
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D. Oron, Y. Silberberg, “Spatiotemporal coherent control using shaped, temporally focused pulses,” Opt. Express 13, 9903–9908 (2005).
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G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, “Interferometric frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Express 13, 2617–2626 (2005).
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Y. Ozeki, Y. Takushima, H. Yoshimi, K. Kikuchi, H. Yamauchi, H. Taga, “Complete characterization of picosecond optical pulses in long-haul dispersion-managed transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 648–650 (2005).
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I. Kang, C. Dorrer, “Highly sensitive differential tomographic technique for real-time ultrashort pulse characterization,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1545–1547 (2005).
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C. Dorrer, “Characterization of nonlinear phase shifts by use of the temporal transport-of-intensity equation,” Opt. Lett. 30, 3237–3239 (2005).
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B. C. Thomsen, M. A. F. Roelens, R. T. Watts, D. J. Richardson, “Comparison between nonlinear and linear spectrographic techniques for the complete characterization of high bit-rate pulses used in optical telecommunications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1914–1916 (2005).
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C. Dorrer, “Complete characterization of periodic optical sources by use of sampled test-plus-reference interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2022–2024 (2005).
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2004 (22)

P. Kockaert, M. Haelterman, P. Emplit, C. Froehly, “Complete characterization of (ultra)short optical pulses using fast linear detectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 206–212 (2004).
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P. Kockaert, J. Azaña, L. R. Chen, S. LaRochelle, “Full characterization of uniform ultrahigh-speed trains of optical pulses using fiber Bragg gratings and linear detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1540–1542 (2004).
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C. Dorrer, “Chromatic dispersion characterization by direct instantaneous frequency measurement,” Opt. Lett. 29, 204–206 (2004).
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C. Dorrer, S. Ramachandran, “Self-refrencing dispersion characterization of multimode structures using direct instantaneous frequency measurement,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1700–1702 (2004).
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G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, “High dynamic range characterization of ultrabroadband white-light continuum pulses,” Opt. Express 12, 6319–6325 (2004).
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P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, E. Riedle, “Zero-additional-phase SPIDER: full characterization of visible and sub-20-fs ultraviolet pulses,” Opt. Lett. 29, 210–212 (2004).
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S. Akturk, M. Kimmel, P. O’Shea, R. Trebino, “Extremely simple device for measuring 20-fs pulses,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1025–1027 (2004).
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J. Azaña, N. K. Berger, B. Levit, B. Fischer, “Spectral Fraunhofer regime: time-to-frequency conversion by the action of a single time lens on an optical pulse,” Appl. Opt. 43, 483–490 (2004).
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R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427, 817–821 (2004).
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F. Ö. Ilday, J. R. Buckley, W. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, “Self-similar evolution of parabolic pulses in a laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213902 (2004).
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W. J. Lai, P. Shum, L. N. Binh, “Stability and transient analyses of temporal Talbot-effect-based repetition-rate multiplication mode-locked laser systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 439 (2004).
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C. Dorrer, “Temporal van Cittert–Zernike theorem and its application to the measurement of chromatic dispersion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1417–1423 (2004).
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D. T. Reid, J. Garduno-Meija, “General ultrafast pulse measurement using the cross-correlation single-shot sonogram technique,” Opt. Lett. 29, 644–646 (2004).
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B. Seifert, H. Stolz, M. Tasche, “Nontrivial ambiguities for blind frequency-resolved optical gating and the problem of uniqueness,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1089–1097 (2004).
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P. Winzer, C. Dorrer, R. J. Essiambre, I. Kang, “Chirped return-to-zero modulation by imbalanced pulse carver driving signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1379–1381 (2004).
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I. Amat-Roldán, I. G. Cormack, P. Loza-Alvarez, E. J. Gualda, D. Artigas, “Ultrashort pulse characterization with SHG collinear-FROG,” Opt. Express 12, 1169–1178 (2004).
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G. Ramos-Ortiz, M. Cha, S. Thayumanavan, J. Mendez, S. R. Marder, B. Kippelen, “Ultrafast-pulse diagnostic using third-order frequency-resolved optical gating in organic films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3348–3350 (2004).
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J. Y. Zhang, C.-K. Lee, J. Y. Huang, C.-L. Pan, “Sub femto-joule sensitive single-shot OPA-XFROG and its application in study of white-light supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 12, 574–581 (2004).
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C. Dorrer, I. Kang, “Real-time implementation of linear spectrograms for the characterization of high bit-rate optical pulse trains,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 858–860 (2004).
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E. J. Divall, I. N. Ross, “High dynamic range contrast measurements by use of an optical parametric amplifier correlator,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2273–2275 (2004).
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A. Matijosius, J. Trull, P. Di Trapani, A. Piskarskas, R. Dubietis, A. Varanavicius, A. Piskarskas, “Nonlinear space–time dynamics of ultrashort wave packets in water,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1123–1125 (2004).
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P. Gabolde, R. Trebino, “Self-referenced measurement of the complete electric field of ultrashort pulses,” Opt. Express 12, 4423–4429 (2004).
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2003 (22)

S. P. Jamison, J. Shen, A. M. MacLeod, W. A. Gillespie, D. A. Jaroszynski, “High-temporal-resolution, single-shot characterization of terahertz pulses,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1710–1712 (2003).
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H. Kumagai, S.-H. Cho, K. Ishikawa, K. Midorikawa, M. Fujimoto, S. Aoshima, Y. Tsuchiya, “Observation of the complex propagation of a femtosecond laser pulse in a dispersive transparent bulk material,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 597–602 (2003).
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J. Mauritsson, R. López-Martens, A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, “Ponderomotive shearing for spectral interferometry of extreme-ultraviolet pulses,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2393–2395 (2003).
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F. Quéré, J. Itatani, G. L. Yudin, P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond spectral shearing interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 073902 (2003).
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D. Goswami, “Optical pulse shaping approaches to coherent control,” Phys. Rep. 374, 385–481 (2003).
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J. Y. Zhang, A. P. Shreenath, M. Kimmel, E. Zeek, R. Trebino, “Measurement of the intensity and phase of attojoule femtosecond light pulses using optical-parametric-amplification cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Express 11, 601–609 (2003).
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D. Keusters, H.-S. Tan, P. O’Shea, E. Zeek, R. Trebino, W. S. Warren, “Relative-phase ambiguities in measurements of ultrashort pulses with well-separated multiple frequency components,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 2226–2237 (2003).
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Z. Wang, E. Zeek, R. Trebino, P. Kvam, “Determining error bars in measurements of ultrashort laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 2400–2405 (2003).
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L. A. Jiang, M. E. Grein, A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, H. Yokoyama, “Timing jitter eater for optical pulse trains,” Opt. Lett. 28, 78–80 (2003).
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C. Dorrer, I. Kang, “Complete temporal characterization of short optical pulses by simplified chronocyclic tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1481–1483 (2003).
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S. Atkins, B. Fischer, “All-optical pulse rate multiplication using fractional Talbot effect and field-to-intensity conversion with cross-gain modulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 132–134 (2003).
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T. Alieva, M. J. Bastiaans, L. Stankovic, “Signal reconstruction from two close fractional Fourier power spectra,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 51, 112–123 (2003).
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C. Finot, G. Millot, C. Billet, J. M. Dudley, “Experimental generation of parabolic pulses via Raman amplification in optical fiber,” Opt. Express 11, 1547–1552 (2003).
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S. Akturk, M. Kimmel, P. O’Shea, R. Trebino, “Measuring pulse-front tilt in ultrashort pulses using GRENOUILLE,” Opt. Express 11, 491–501 (2003).
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C. Dorrer, I. Kang, “Highly sensitive direct femtosecond pulse characterization using electro-optic spectral shearing interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 28, 477–479 (2003).
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I. Kang, C. Dorrer, F. Quochi, “A novel implementation of spectral shearing interferometry for ultrashort pulse characterization,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2264–2266 (2003).
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A. Monmayrant, M. Joffre, T. Oksenhendler, R. Herzog, D. Kaplan, P. Tournois, “Time-domain interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction by use of an acousto-optic programmable filter and a two-photon detector,” Opt. Lett. 28, 278–280 (2003).
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P. Londero, M. E. Anderson, C. Radzewicz, C. Iaconis, I. A. Walmsley, “Measuring ultrafast pulses in the near-ultraviolet using spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 179–184 (2003).
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V. Messager, F. Louradour, C. Froehly, A. Barthélémy, “Coherent measurement of short laser pulses based on spectral interferometry resolved in time,” Opt. Lett. 28, 743–745 (2003).
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F. K. Fatemi, T. F. Carruthers, J. W. Lou, “Characterisation of telecommunications pulse trains by Fourier-transform and dual-quadrature spectral interferometry,” Electron. Lett. 39, 921–922 (2003).
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W. Kornelis, J. Biegert, J. W. G. Tisch, M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, C. Vozzi, S. De Silvestri, U. Keller, “Single-shot kilohertz characterization of ultrashort pulses by spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction,” Opt. Lett. 28, 281–283 (2003).
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Y. Han, B. Jalali, “Photonic time-stretched analog-to-digital converter: fundamental concepts and practical considerations,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 3085–3103 (2003).
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2002 (14)

C. Dorrer, E. M. Kosik, I. A. Walmsley, “Direct space–time characterization of the electric field of ultrashort light pulses,” Opt. Lett. 27, 548–550 (2002).
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A. S. Bhushan, P. V. Kelkar, B. Jalali, O. Boyraz, M. Islam, “130-GSa∕s photonic analog-to-digital converter with time stretch preprocessor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 684–686 (2002).
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D. T. Reid, I. G. Cormack, “Single-shot sonogram: a real-time chirp monitor for ultrafast oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 27, 658–660 (2002).
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D. Panasenko, Y. Fainman, “Single-shot sonogram generation for femtosecond laser pulse diagnsotics by use of two-photon conductivity in a silicon CCD camera,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1475–1477 (2002).
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D. Panasenko, P. C. Sun, N. Alic, Y. Fainman, “Single-shot generation of a sonogram by time gating of a spectrally decomposed ultrashort laser pulse,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5185–5190 (2002).
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J. M. Dudley, X. Gu, L. Xu, M. Kimmel, E. Zeek, P. O’Shea, R. Trebino, S. Coen, R. S. Windeler, “Cross-correlation frequency resolved optical gating analysis of broadband continuum generation in photonic crystal fiber: simulations and experiments,” Opt. Express 10, 1215–1221 (2002).
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K. Ogawa, “Real-time intuitive spectrogram measurement of ultrashort optical pulses using two-photon absorption in a semiconductor,” Opt. Express 10, 262–267 (2002).
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P.-A. Lacourt, J. M. Dudley, J.-M. Merolla, H. Porte, J.-P. Goedgebuer, W. T. Rhodes, “Milliwatt-peak-power pulse characterization at 1.55 μm by wavelength-conversion frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 27, 863–865 (2002).
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X. Gu, L. Xu, M. Kimmel, E. Zeek, P. O’Shea, A. P. Shreenath, R. Trebino, R. S. Windeler, “Frequency-resolved optical gating and single-shot spectral measurements reveal fine structure in microstructure-fiber continuum,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1174–1176 (2002).
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L. P. Barry, S. Del Burgo, B. C. Thomsen, R. T. Watts, D. A. Reid, J. D. Harvey, “Optimization of optical data transmitters for 40-Gb∕s lightwave systems using frequency resolved optical gating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 971–973 (2002).
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C. Dorrer, I. Kang, “Simultaneous temporal characterization of telecommunication optical pulses and modulators using spectrograms,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1315–1317 (2002).
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H. G. Muller, “Reconstruction of attosecond harmonic beating by interference of two-photon transitions,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 17–21 (2002).
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C. Dorrer, I. A. Walmsley, “Simple linear technique for the measurement of space–time coupling in ultrashort optical pulses,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1947–1949 (2002).
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2001 (22)

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
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S. T. Cundiff, J. Ye, J. L. Hall, “Optical frequency synthesis based on mode-locked lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3749–3771 (2001).
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Z. Sacks, G. Mourou, R. Danielius, “Adjusting pulse-front tilt and pulse duration by use of a single-shot autocorrelator,” Opt. Lett. 26, 462–464 (2001).
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K. Taira, K. Kikuchi, “Optical sampling system at 1.55  micron for the measurement of pulse waveform and phase employing sonogram characterization,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 505–507 (2001).
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I. A. Walmsley, L. Waxer, C. Dorrer, “The role of dispersion in ultrafast optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1–29 (2001).
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J. Collier, C. Hernandez-Gomez, R. Allott, C. Danson, A. Hall, “A single-shot third-order autocorrelator for pulse contrast and pulse shape measurements,” Laser Part. Beams 19, 231–235 (2001).
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J. H. Chung, A. M. Weiner, “Ambiguity of ultrashort pulse shapes retrieved from the intensity autocorrelation and the power spectrum,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 656–666 (2001).
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P. O’Shea, M. Kimmel, X. Gu, R. Trebino, “Highly-simplified device for ultrashort pulse measurement,” Opt. Lett. 26, 932–934 (2001).
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J. J. Ferreiro, R. de la Fuente, E. Lopez-Lago, “Characterization of arbitrarily polarized ultrashort laser pulses by cross-phase modulation,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1025–1027 (2001).
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J. Azaña, M. A. Muriel, “Temporal self-imaging effects: theory and application for multiplying pulse repetition rates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 728–744 (2001).
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C. V. Bennett, B. H. Kolner, “Aberrations in temporal imaging,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 20–32 (2001).
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L. Gallmann, G. Steinmeyer, D. H. Sutter, T. Rupp, C. Iaconis, I. A. Walmsley, U. Keller, “Spatially resolved amplitude and phase characterization of femtosecond optical pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26, 96–98 (2001).
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M. Beck, C. Dorrer, I. A. Walmsley, “Joint quantum state measurement using unbalanced array detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 253601 (2001).
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M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. B. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
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M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, F. Krausz, “X-ray pulses approaching the attosecond frontier,” Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001).
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P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
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C. Dorrer, P. Londero, I. A. Walmsley, “Homodyne detection in spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1510–1512 (2001).
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C. Dorrer, I. A. Walmsley, “Accuracy criterion for ultrashort pulse characterization techniques: application to spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1019–1029 (2001).
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C. Dorrer, I. A. Walmsley, “Precision and consistency criteria in spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1030–1038 (2001).
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F. Huang, W. G. Yang, W. S. Warren, “Quadrature spectral interferometric detection and pulse shaping,” Opt. Lett. 26, 382–384 (2001).
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N. Belabas, J. P. Likforman, L. Canioni, B. Bousquet, M. Joffre, “Coherent broadband pulse shaping in the mid infrared,” Opt. Lett. 26, 743–745 (2001).
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A. Müller, M. Laubscher, “Spectral phase and amplitude interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1915–1917 (2001).
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2000 (28)

M. E. Anderson, L. E. E. de Araujo, E. M. Kosik, I. A. Walmsley, “The effects of noise on ultrashort-optical-pulse measurement using spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S85–S93 (2000).
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C. Dorrer, N. Belabas, J.-P. Likforman, M. Joffre, “Spectral resolution and sampling issues in Fourier-transform spectral interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1795–1802 (2000).
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S. Haacke, S. Schaer, B. Deveaud, V. Savona, “Interferometric analysis of resonant Rayleigh scattering from two-dimensional excitons,” Phys. Rev. B 61, R5109–R5112 (2000).
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L. Gallmann, D. H. Sutter, N. Matuschek, G. Steinmeyer, U. Keller, “Techniques for the characterization of sub-10-fs optical pulses: a comparison,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S67–S75 (2000).
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P. Kockaert, M. Peeters, S. Coen, P. Emplit, M. Haelterman, O. Deparis, “Simple amplitude and phase measuring technique for ultrahigh-repetition-rate lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 187–189 (2000).
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M. Kwakernaak, R. Schreieck, A. Neiger, “Spectral phase measurement of mode-locked diode laser pulses by beating sidebands generated by electrooptical mixing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1677–1679 (2000).
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C. V. Bennett, B. H. Kolner, “Principles of parametric temporal imaging—part I: system configurations,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 430–437 (2000).
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C. V. Bennett, B. H. Kolner, “Principles of parametric temporal imaging—part II: system performance,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 649–655 (2000).
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L. Kh. Mouradian, F. Louradour, V. Messager, A. Barthélémy, C. Froehly, “Spectro-temporal imaging of femtosecond events,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 795–801 (2000).
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J. Azaña, M. A. Muriel, “Real-time optical spectrum analysis based on the time-space duality in chirped fiber gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 517–526 (2000).
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N. K. Berger, B. Levit, S. Atkins, B. Fischer, “Time-lens-based spectral analysis of optical pulses by electrooptic phase modulation,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1644–1645 (2000).
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P. O’Shea, M. Kimmel, X. Gu, R. Trebino, “Increased-bandwidth in ultrashort-pulse measurement using an angle-dithered nonlinear-optical crystal,” Opt. Express 7, 342–349 (2000).
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L. Gallmann, G. Steinmeyer, D. H. Sutter, N. Matuschek, U. Keller, “Collinear type II second-harmonic-generation frequency-resolved optical gating for the characterization of sub-10-fs optical pulses,” Opt. Lett. 25, 269–271 (2000).
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K. Ogawa, M. D. Pelusi, “High-sensitivity pulse spectrogram measurement using two-photon absorption in a semiconductor at 1.5-μm wavelength,” Opt. Express 7, 135–140 (2000).
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D. T. Reid, P. Loza-Alvarez, C. T. A. Brown, T. Beddard, W. Sibbett, “Amplitude and phase measurement of mid-infrared femtosecond pulses by using cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1478–1480 (2000).
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C. Radzewicz, P. Wasylczyk, J. S. Krasinski, “A poor man’s FROG,” Opt. Commun. 186, 329–333 (2000).
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D. J. Kane, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, “Convergence test for inversion of frequency-resolved optical gating spectrograms,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1216–1218 (2000).
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D. T. Reid, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, J. D. Harvey, “Sonogram characterisation of picosecond pulses at 1.5  micron using waveguide two photon absorption,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1141–1142 (2000).
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J. W. Nicholson, M. Mero, J. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, “Unbalanced third-order correlations for full characterization of femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1801–1803 (2000).
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C. Dorrer, B. de Beauvoir, C. Le Blanc, J.-P. Rousseau, S. Ranc, P. Rousseau, J.-P. Chambaret, F. Salin, “Characterization of chirped-pulse amplification systems with spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S77–S84 (2000).
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R. G. M. P. Koumans, A. Yariv, “Time-resolved optical gating based on dispersive propagation: a new method to characterize optical pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 137–144 (2000).
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R. G. M. P. Koumans, A. Yariv, “Pulse characterization at 1.5  micron using time-resolved optical gating based on dispersive propagation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 666–668 (2000).
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A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929–1960 (2000).
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J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, A. Migus, P. Zeitoun, A. Klisnick, A. Carillon, S. Hubert, D. Ros, P. Nickles, M. Kalachnikov, “Pulse-front control of 15-TW pulses with a tilted compressor, and application to the subpicosecond traveling-wave pumping of a soft-x-ray laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 151–157 (2000).
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T. Brabec, F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545–591 (2000).
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Z. Jiang, X. C. Zhang, “Measurement of spatio-temporal terahertz field distribution by using chirped pulse technology,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1214–1222 (2000).
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J. Shan, A. S. Weling, E. Knoesel, L. Bartels, M. Bonn, A. Nahata, G. A. Reider, T. F. Heinz, “Single-shot measurement of terahertz electromagnetic pulses by use of electro-optic sampling,” Opt. Lett. 25, 426–428 (2000).
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P. Dietrich, F. Krausz, P. B. Corkum, “Determining the absolute carrier phase of a few-cycle laser pulse,” Opt. Lett. 25, 16–18 (2000).
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1999 (22)

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, X. C. Zhang, “Terahertz pulse measurement with an optical streak camera,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1245–1247 (1999).
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S.-G. Park, M. R. Melloch, A. M. Weiner, “Analysis of terahertz waveforms measured by photoconductive and electrooptic sampling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 810–819 (1999).
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J. Bromage, I. A. Walmsley, C. R. Stroud, “Dithered-edge sampling of THz pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2181–2183 (1999).
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J. Bromage, I. A. Walmsley, C. R. Stroud, “Direct measurement of a photoconductive receiver’s temporal response by dithered-edge sampling,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1771–1773 (1999).
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J. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, “Characterization of sub-10-fs pulse focusing with high-numerical aperture microscope objective,” Opt. Lett. 24, 777–779 (1999).
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Z. Cheng, A. Furbach, S. Sartania, M. Lenzner, C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, “Amplitude and chirp characterization of high-power laser pulses in the 5-fs regime,” Opt. Lett. 24, 247–249 (1999).
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C. Dorrer, B. de Beauvoir, C. Le Blanc, S. Ranc, J.-P. Rousseau, P. Rousseau, J.-P. Chambaret, “Single-shot real-time characterization of chirped-pulse amplification systems by spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1644–1646 (1999).
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L. Gallmann, D. H. Sutter, N. Matuschek, G. Steinmeyer, U. Keller, C. Iaconis, I. A. Walmsley, “Characterization of sub-6-fs optical pulses with spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1314–1316 (1999).
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D. H. Sutter, G. Steinmeyer, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, T. Tschudi, “Semiconductor saturable-absorber mirror-assisted Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser producing pulses in the two-cycle regime,” Opt. Lett. 24, 631–633 (1999).
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J. M. Dudley, S. F. Boussen, D. M. J. Cameron, J. D. Harvey, “Complete characterization of a self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser in the vicinity of zero group-delay dispersion by frequency-resolved optical gating,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3308–3315 (1999).
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J. W. Nicholson, J. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, “Full-field characterization of femtosecond pulses by spectrum and cross-correlation measurements,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1774–1776 (1999).
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D. T. Reid, “Algorithm for complete and rapid retrieval of ultrashort pulse amplitude and phase from a sonogram,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1584–1589 (1999).
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D. J. Kane, “Recent progress toward real-time measurement of ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 421–431 (1999).
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S. Linden, J. Kuhl, H. Giessen, “Amplitude and phase characterization of weak blue ultrashort pulses by downconversion,” Opt. Lett. 24, 569–571 (1999).
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D. N. Fittinghoff, A. C. Millard, J. A. Squier, M. Muller, “Frequency-resolved optical gating measurement of ultrashort pulses passing through a high numerical aperture objective,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 479–486 (1999).
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A. Baltuska, M. S. Pshenichnikov, D. A. Wiersma, “Second-harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating in the single-cycle regime,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 459–478 (1999).
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F. Coppinger, A. S. Bhushan, B. Jalali, “Photonic time stretch and its application to analog-to-digital conversion,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1309–1314 (1999).
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C. V. Bennett, B. H. Kolner, “Upconversion time microscope demonstrating 103× magnification of femtosecond waveforms,” Opt. Lett. 24, 783–785 (1999).
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C. Iaconis, I. A. Walmsley, “Self-referencing spectral interferometry for measuring ultrashort optical pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 501–509 (1999).
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C. Dorrer, “Influence of the calibration of the detector on spectral interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1160–1168 (1999).
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C. Dorrer, “Implementation of spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction with a simultaneously recorded reference interferogram,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1532–1534 (1999).
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T. M. Shuman, M. E. Anderson, J. Bromage, C. Iaconis, L. Waxer, I. A. Walmsley, “Real-time SPIDER: ultrashort pulse characterization at 20 Hz,” Opt. Express 5, 134–143 (1999).
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1998 (19)

D. Birkedal, J. Shah, “Femtosecond spectral interferometry of resonant secondary emission from quantum wells: resonance Rayleigh scattering in the nonergodic regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2372–2375 (1998).
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C. Dorrer, F. Salin, “Characterization of spectral phase modulation by classical and polarization spectral interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2331–2337 (1998).
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C. Iaconis, I. A. Walmsley, “Spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction of ultrashort optical pulses,” Opt. Lett. 23, 792–794 (1998).
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H. R. Lange, M. A. Franco, J.-F. Ripoche, B. S. Prade, P. Rousseau, A. Mysyrowicz, “Reconstruction of the time profile of femtosecond laser pulses through cross-phase modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 295–300 (1998).
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M. D. Thomson, J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, J. D. Harvey, “Complete pulse characterization at 1.5 μm by cross-phase modulation in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1582–1584 (1998).
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Z. Jiang, X. C. Zhang, “Electro-optic measurement of THz field pulses with a chirped optical beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1945–1947 (1998).
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L. P. Barry, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, J. D. Harvey, “Characterization of 1.55-μm pulses from a self-seeded gain-switched Fabry–Perot laser diode using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 935–937 (1998).
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A. Kwok, L. Jusinski, M. A. Krumbügel, J. N. Sweetser, D. N. Fittinghoff, R. Trebino, “Frequency-resolved optical gating using cascaded second-order nonlinearities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 271–277 (1998).
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A. Bresson, N. Stelmakh, J.-M. Lourtioz, A. Shen, C. Froehly, “Chirp measurement of multimode Q-switched laser diode pulses by use of a streak camera and a grating monochromator,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1022–1025 (1998).
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T. Feurer, S. Niedermeier, R. Sauerbrey, “Measuring the temporal intensity of ultrashort laser pulses by triple correlation,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 163–168 (1998).
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J. Peatross, A. Rundquist, “Temporal decorrelation of short laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 216–222 (1998).
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P. G. Bollond, L. P. Barry, J. M. Dudley, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, “Characterization of nonlinear switching in a figure-of-eight fiber laser using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 343–345 (1998).
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A. Kasper, K. J. Witte, “Contrast and phase of ultrashort laser pulses from Ti:sapphire ring and Fabry–Perot resonators based on chirped mirrors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2490–2495 (1998).
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A. Baltuska, M. S. Pshenichnikov, D. A. Wiersma, “Amplitude and phase characterization of 4.5-fs pulses by frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1474–1476 (1998).
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S. Backus, C. G. Durfee, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “High power ultrafast lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1207–1223 (1998).
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S. A. Diddams, H. K. Eaton, A. A. Zozulya, T. S. Clement, “Characterizing the nonlinear propagation of femtosecond pulses in bulk media,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 306–316 (1998).
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C. Iaconis, V. Wong, I. A. Walmsley, “Direct interferometric techniques for characterizing ultrashort optical pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 285–294 (1998).
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J. Debeau, B. Kowalski, R. Boittin, “Simple method for the complete characterization of an optical pulse,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1784–1786 (1998).
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Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, J. B. Stark, Q. Wu, X. C. Zhang, J. F. Federici, “Coherent terahertz radiation detection: direct comparison between free-space electro-optic sampling and antenna detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 444–446 (1998).
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1997 (14)

D. Meshulach, D. Yelin, Y. Silberberg, “Real-time spatial-spectral interference measurements of ultrashort optical pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2095–2098 (1997).
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I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the “single-cycle” regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251–1254 (1997).
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P. Antoine, D. B. Milosevic, A. L’Huillier, M. B. Gaarde, P. Salières, M. Lewenstein, “Generation of attosecond pulses in macroscopic media,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 4960–4969 (1997).
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V. Wong, I. A. Walmsley, “Ultrashort-pulse characterization from dynamic spectrograms by iterative phase retrieval,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 944–949 (1997).
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D. Meshulach, D. Yelin, Y. Silberberg, “Adaptive ultrashort pulse compression and shaping,” Opt. Commun. 138, 345–348 (1997).
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D. J. Kane, G. Rodriguez, A. J. Taylor, T. S. Clement, “Simultaneous measurement of two ultrashort laser pulses from a single spectrogram in a single shot,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 935–943 (1997).
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J. N. Sweetser, D. N. Fittinghoff, R. Trebino, “Transient-grating frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 22, 519–521 (1997).
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B. A. Richman, M. A. Krumbügel, R. Trebino, “Temporal characterization of mid-IR free-electron-laser pulses by frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 22, 721–723 (1997).
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R. Trebino, K. W. Delong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time–frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
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P. C. Sun, Y. T. Mazurenko, Y. Fainman, “Femtosecond pulse imaging: ultrafast optical oscilloscope,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1159–1170 (1997).
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M. A. Franco, H. R. Lange, J.-F. Ripoche, B. S. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, “Characterization of ultrashort pulses by cross-phase modulation,” Opt. Commun. 140, 331–340 (1997).
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B. H. Kolner, “The pinhole time camera,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 3349–3357 (1997).
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J.-P. Likforman, M. Joffre, V. ThierryMieg, “Measurement of photon echoes by use of femtosecond Fourier-transform spectral interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1104–1106 (1997).
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M. F. Emde, W. P. deBoeij, M. S. Pshenichnikov, D. A. Wiersma, “Spectral interferometry as an alternative to time-domain heterodyning,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1338–1340 (1997).
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1996 (19)

L. Lepetit, G. Cheriaux, M. Joffre, “Two-dimensional nonlinear optics spectroscopy: simulations and experimental demonstration,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 5, 465–476 (1996).
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K. C. Chu, J. P. Heritage, R. S. Grant, W. E. White, “Temporal interferometric measurement of femtosecond spectral phase,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1842–1844 (1996).
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S. Prein, S. A. Diddams, J.-C. Diels, “Complete characterization of femtosecond pulses using an all-electronic detector,” Opt. Commun. 123, 567–573 (1996).
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E. T. J. Nibbering, M. A. Franco, B. S. Prade, G. Grillon, J.-P. Chambaret, A. Mysyrowicz, “Spectral determination of the amplitude and the phase of intense ultrashort optical pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 317–329 (1996).
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Y. T. Mazurenko, S. E. Putilin, A. G. Spiro, A. G. Beliaev, V. E. Yashin, S. A. Chizhov, “Ultrafast time-to-space conversion of phase by the method of spectral nonlinear optics,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1753–1755 (1996).
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Y. T. Mazurenko, A. G. Spiro, S. E. Putilin, A. G. Beliaev, E. B. Verkhovskij, “Time-to-space conversion of fast signals by the method of spectral nonlinear optics,” Opt. Commun. 118, 594–600 (1996).
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L. P. Barry, J. M. Dudley, P. G. Bollond, J. D. Harvey, R. Leonhardt, “Complete characterisation of pulse propagation in optical fibres using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2339–2340 (1996).
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T. Tsang, M. A. Krumbügel, K. W. Delong, D. N. Fittinghoff, R. Trebino, “Frequency-resolved optical-gating measurements of ultrashort pulses using surface third-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1381–1383 (1996).
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D. N. Fittinghoff, J. L. Bowie, J. N. Sweetser, R. T. Jennings, M. A. Krumbügel, K. W. Delong, R. Trebino, I. A. Walmsley, “Measurement of the intensity and phase of ultraweak, ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 21, 884–886 (1996).
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J. Rhee, T. Sosnowski, A. C. Tien, T. Norris, “Real-time dispersion analyzer of femtosecond laser pulses with use of a spectrally and temporally resolved upconversion technique,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1780–1785 (1996).
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I. A. Walmsley, V. Wong, “Characterization of the electric field of ultrashort optical pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2453–2463 (1996).
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S. T. Cundiff, W. H. Knox, E. P. Ippen, H. A. Haus, “Frequency-dependent mode size in broadband Kerr-lens mode-locking,” Opt. Lett. 21, 662–664 (1996).
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C. Radzewicz, M. J. la Grone, J. S. Krasinski, “Interferometric measurement of femtosecond pulse distortion by lenses,” Opt. Commun. 126, 185–190 (1996).
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M. M. Wefers, K. A. Nelson, A. M. Weiner, “Multidimensional shaping of ultrafast optical waveforms,” Opt. Lett. 21, 746–748 (1996).
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M. M. Wefers, K. A. Nelson, “Space–time profiles of shaped ultrafast optical waveforms,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 161–172 (1996).
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Q. Wu, X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast electro-optic field sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1604–1606 (1996).
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Q. Wu, X. C. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523–3525 (1996).
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A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, T. F. Heinz, C. Wu, “Coherent detection of freely propagating terahertz radiation by electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 150–152 (1996).
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L. Xu, C. Spielmann, A. Poppe, T. Brabec, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, “Route to phase control of ultrashort light pulses,” Opt. Lett. 21, 2008–2010 (1996).
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1995 (9)

L. Lepetit, G. Chériaux, M. Joffre, “Linear techniques of phase measurement by femtosecond spectral interferometry for applications in spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2467–2474 (1995).
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B. Kohler, V. V. Yakovlev, K. R. Wilson, J. A. Squier, K. W. Delong, R. Trebino, “Phase and intensity characterization of femtosecond pulses from a chirped-pulse amplifier by frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 20, 483–485 (1995).
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G. Taft, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, K. W. Delong, R. Trebino, I. P. Christov, “Ultrashort optical waveform measurements using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 20, 743–745 (1995).
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T. S. Clement, A. J. Taylor, D. J. Kane, “Single-shot measurement of the amplitude and phase of ultrashort laser-pulses in the violet,” Opt. Lett. 20, 70–72 (1995).
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K. W. Delong, R. Trebino, B. White, “Simultaneous recovery of two ultrashort laser pulses from a single spectrogram,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2463–2466 (1995).
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D. N. Fittinghoff, K. W. Delong, R. Trebino, C. L. Ladera, “Noise sensitivity in frequency-resolved-optical-gating measurements of ultrashort optical pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1955–1967 (1995).
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V. Wong, I. A. Walmsley, “Phase retrieval in time-resolved spectral phase measurement,” Proc. SPIE 2377, 178–186 (1995).
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N. L. Markaryan, L. Kh. Mouradian, “Determination of the temporal profiles of ultrashort pulses by a fibre-optic compression technique,” Quantum Electron. 25, 668–670 (1995).
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K. C. Chu, J. P. Heritage, R. S. Grant, K. X. Liu, A. Dienes, W. E. White, A. Sullivan, “Direct measurement of the spectral phase of femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 20, 904–906 (1995).
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1994 (11)

J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, A. Rousse, F. Falliès, J.-C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Dos Santos, G. Hamoniaux, A. Antonetti, “Frequency-domain interferometer for measuring the phase and amplitude of a femtosecond pulse probing a laser-produced plasma,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1997–1999 (1994).
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M. C. Nuss, M. Li, T. H. Chiu, A. M. Weiner, A. Partovi, “Time-to-space mapping of femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 19, 684–686 (1994).
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B. H. Kolner, “Generalization of the concepts of focal length and f-number to space and time,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 3229–3234 (1994).
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C. V. Bennett, R. P. Scott, B. H. Kolner, “Temporal magnification and reversal of 100 Gb∕s optical data with an up-conversion time microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2513–2515 (1994).
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M. T. Kaufman, W. C. Banyai, A. A. Godil, D. M. Bloom, “Time-to-frequency converter for measuring picosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 270–272 (1994).
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B. H. Kolner, “Space–time duality and the theory of temporal imaging,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1951–1963 (1994).
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D. J. Kane, A. J. Taylor, R. Trebino, K. W. Delong, “Single-shot measurement of the intensity and phase of a femtosecond UV laser-pulse with frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1061–1063 (1994).
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J. Paye, “How to measure the amplitude and phase of an ultrashort light pulse with an autocorrelator and a spectrometer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2693–2697 (1994).
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K. W. Delong, R. Trebino, J. Hunter, W. E. White, “Frequency-resolved optical gating with the use of second-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2206–2215 (1994).
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V. Wong, I. A. Walmsley, “Analysis of ultrashort pulse-shape measurement using linear interferometers,” Opt. Lett. 19, 287–289 (1994).
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C. Fiorini, C. Sauteret, C. Rouyer, N. Blanchot, S. Seznec, A. Migus, “Temporal aberrations due to misalignments of a stretcher-compressor system and compensation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1662–1670 (1994).
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1993 (8)

M. Kempe, W. Rudolph, “Femtosecond pulses in the focal region of lenses,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4721–4729 (1993).
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J. Paye, M. Ramaswamy, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, “Measurement of the amplitude and phase of ultrashort light pulses from spectrally resolved autocorrelation,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1946–1948 (1993).
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S. Luan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, R. A. Smith, F. Zhou, “High dynamic range third-order correlation measurement of picosecond laser pulse shapes,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 4, 1426–1429 (1993).
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R. Trebino, D. J. Kane, “Using phase retrieval to measure the intensity and phase of ultrashort pulses: frequency-resolved optical gating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1101–1111 (1993).
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D. J. Kane, R. Trebino, “Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571–579 (1993).
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K. Mori, T. Morioka, M. Saruwatari, “Group velocity dispersion measurement using supercontinuum picosecond pulses generated in an optical fibre,” Electron. Lett. 29, 987–989 (1993).
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D. A. Fishman, “Design and performance of externally modulated 1.5  micron laser transmitter in the presence of chromatic dispersion,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 624–632 (1993).
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M. Beck, M. G. Raymer, I. A. Walmsley, V. Wong, “Chronocyclic tomography for measuring the amplitude and phase structure of optical pulses,” Opt. Lett. 18, 2041–2043 (1993).
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1992 (6)

A. Galvanauskas, J. A. Tellefsen, A. Krotkus, M. Öberg, B. Broberg, “Real-time picosecond electro-optic oscilloscope technique using a tunable semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 145–147 (1992).
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A. A. Godil, B. A. Auld, D. M. Bloom, “Time-lens producing 1.9 ps optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1047–1049 (1992).
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J. L. A. Chilla, O. E. Martinez, “Frequency domain phase measurement of ultrashort light pulses. Effect of noise,” Opt. Commun. 89, 434–440 (1992).
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H. St. Albrecht, P. Heist, J. Kleinschmidt, D. van Lap, T. Schröder, “Measurement of ultraviolet femtosecond pulses using the optical Kerr effect,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 362–364 (1992).
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J. Paye, “The chronocyclic representation of ultrashort light pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2262–2273 (1992).
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J.-P. Foing, J.-P. Likforman, M. Joffre, A. Migus, “Femtosecond pulse phase measurement by spectrally resolved up-conversion: application to continuum compression,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2285–2290 (1992).
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1991 (5)

J. L. A. Chilla, O. E. Martinez, “Direct determination of the amplitude and the phase of femtosecond light pulses,” Opt. Lett. 16, 39–41 (1991).
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J. L. A. Chilla, O. E. Martinez, “Analysis of a method of phase measurement of ultrashort pulses in the frequency domain,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1228–1235 (1991).
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K. Ema, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, F. Shimizu, “All-optical sub-Tbits/s serial-to-parallel conversion using excitonic giant nonlinearity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2799–2801 (1991).
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V. A. Zubov, T. I. Kuznetsova, “Solution of the phase problem for time-dependent optical signals by an interference system,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 1285–1286 (1991).
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Zs. Benkö, Z. Gogolák, Zs. Bor, G. Szabó, “Pulse front distortion measurements in prisms measured by time-of-flight interferometry,” Exp. Tech. Phys. (Berlin) 39, 447–449 (1991).

1990 (5)

1989 (5)

B. H. Kolner, M. Nazarathy, “Temporal imaging with a time-lens,” Opt. Lett. 14, 630–632 (1989).
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F. Reynaud, F. Salin, A. Barthélémy, “Measurement of phase shifts introduced by nonlinear optical phenomena on subpicosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 14, 275–277 (1989).
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K. Naganuma, K. Mogi, H. Yamada, “General method for ultrashort light-pulse chirp measurement,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1225–1233 (1989).
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C. M. Olsen, H. Izadpanah, “Time-resolved chirp evaluations of Gbit/s NRZ and gain-switched DFB laser pulses using narrowband Fabry–Perot spectrometer,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1018–1019 (1989).
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Z. Bor, Z. Gogolák, G. Szabó, “Femtosecond-resolution pulse-front distortion measurement by time-of-flight interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 14, 862–864 (1989).
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1988 (2)

1987 (5)

A. Watanabe, H. Saito, Y. Ishida, T. Yajima, “Computer-assisted spectrum-resolved SHG autocorrelator for monitoring phase characteristics of femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Commun. 63, 320–324 (1987).
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R. L. Fork, C. H. Brito Cruz, P. C. Becker, C. V. Shank, “Compression of optical pulses to six femtoseconds by using cubic phase compensation,” Opt. Lett. 12, 483–485 (1987).
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J. E. Rothenberg, D. Grischkowsky, “Measurement of optical phase with subpicosecond resolution by time-domain interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 12, 99–101 (1987).
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S. A. Akhmanov, V. A. Vysloukh, A. S. Chirkin, “Self-action of wave packets in a nonlinear medium and femtosecond laser pulse generation,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 29, 642–677 (1987).
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F. Salin, P. Georges, G. Roger, A. Brun, “Single-shot measurement of a 52-fs pulse,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4528–4531 (1987).
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1986 (2)

M. Vampouille, J. Marty, C. Froehly, “Optical frequency intermodulation between two picosecond laser pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 192–194 (1986).
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A. S. L. Gomes, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, J. R. Taylor, “Direct measurement of chirped optical pulses with picosecond resolution,” Electron. Lett. 22, 41–42 (1986).
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1985 (5)

Y. Ishida, K. Naganuma, T. Yajima, “Self-phase modulation in hybridly mode-locked CW dye lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 69–77 (1985).
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A. Watanabe, S. Tanaka, T. Kobayashi, “Microcomputer-based spectrum-resolved second-harmonic generation correlator for fast measurement of ultrashort pulses,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 56, 2259–2262 (1985).
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D. Strickland, G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56, 219–221 (1985).
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J.-C. M. Diels, J. J. Fontaine, I. C. McMichael, F. Simoni, “Control and measurement of ultrashort pulse shapes (in amplitude and phase) with femtosecond accuracy,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1270–1282 (1985).
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L. S. Telegin, A. S. Chirkin, “Reversal and reconstruction of the profile of ultrashort light pulses,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15, 101–102 (1985).
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1984 (2)

M. Vampouille, A. Barthélémy, B. Colombeau, C. Froehly, “Observation et applications des modulations de fréquence dans les fibres unimodales,” J. Opt. (Paris) 15, 385–390 (1984).
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D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, P. R. Smith, “Picosecond photoconducting Hertzian dipoles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284–286 (1984).
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1983 (2)

T. Jannson, “Real-time Fourier transformation in dispersive optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 8, 232–234 (1983).
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T. Mindl, P. Hefferle, S. Schneider, F. Dörr, “Characterisation of a train of subpicosecond laser pulses by fringe resolved autocorrelation measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 201–207 (1983).
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1982 (2)

M. R. Teague, “Irradiance moments: their propagation and use for unique retrieval of phase,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1199–1209 (1982).
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M. Takeda, H. Ina, S. Kobayashi, “Fourier-transform method of fringe- pattern analysis for computer-based topography and interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 156–160 (1982).
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1981 (1)

G. Mourou, C. V. Stancampiano, D. Blumenthal, “Picosecond microwave pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 470–472 (1981).
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1980 (1)

1974 (1)

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1973 (1)

C. Froehly, A. Lacourt, J. C. Vienot, “Notions de réponse impulsionelle et de fonction de transfert temporelle des pupilles optiques, justifications expérimentales et applications,” Nouv. Rev. Opt. 4, 183–196 (1973).
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1971 (4)

W. J. Caputi, “Stretch: a time transformation technique,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. AES-7, 269–278 (1971).
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L. Dahlström, B. Källberg, “Third-order correlation measurement of ultrashort light pulses,” Opt. Commun. 4, 285–288 (1971).
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D. H. Auston, “Measurement of picosecond pulse shape and background level,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 249–251 (1971).
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E. B. Treacy, “Measurement and interpretation of dynamic spectrograms of picosecond light pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 3848–3858 (1971).
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1969 (1)

E. I. Blount, J. R. Klauder, “Recovery of laser intensity from correlation data,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 2874–2875 (1969).
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1968 (3)

S. L. Shapiro, “Second harmonic generation in LiNbO3 by picosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 19–21 (1968).
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P. Tournois, J.-L. Vernet, G. Bienvenu, “Sur l’analogie optique de certains montages électroniques: formation d’images temporelles de signaux électriques,” Acad. Sci., Paris, C. R. 267, 375–378 (1968).

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1967 (3)

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P. Londero, M. E. Anderson, C. Radzewicz, C. Iaconis, I. A. Walmsley, “Measuring ultrafast pulses in the near-ultraviolet using spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 179–184 (2003).
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M. E. Anderson, L. E. E. de Araujo, E. M. Kosik, I. A. Walmsley, “The effects of noise on ultrashort-optical-pulse measurement using spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S85–S93 (2000).
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T. M. Shuman, M. E. Anderson, J. Bromage, C. Iaconis, L. Waxer, I. A. Walmsley, “Real-time SPIDER: ultrashort pulse characterization at 20 Hz,” Opt. Express 5, 134–143 (1999).
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Angelow, G.

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