Abstract

Recent progress in coherent optical communication, a field revived by advances in digital signal processing (DSP), is reviewed. DSP-based phase and polarization management techniques make coherent detection robust and practical. With coherent detection, the complex field of the received signal is fully recovered, allowing compensation of linear impairments including chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion using digital filters. In addition, fiber nonlinearities can also be compensated by using backward propagation in the digital domain.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (8)

X. Li, X. Chen, G. Goldfarb, E. Mateo, I. Kim, F. Yaman, G. Li, “Electronic post-compensation of WDM transmission impairments using coherent detection and digital signal processing,” Opt. Express 16, 880–888 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Mateo, L. Zhu, G. Li, “Impact of XPM and FWM on the digital implementation of impairment compensation for WDM transmission using backward propagation,” Opt. Express 16, 16124–16137 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Goldfarb, M. G. Taylor, G. Li, “Experimental demonstration of fiber impairment compensation using the split-step finite-impulse-response filtering method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1887–1889 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Sun, K. T. Wu, K. Roberts, “Real-time measurements of a 40 Gb∕s coherent system,” Opt. Express 16, 873–879 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yoshida, H. Goto, K. Kasai, M. Nakazawa, “64 and 128 coherent QAM optical transmission over 150 km using frequency-stabilized laser and heterodyne PLL detection,” Opt. Express 16, 829–840 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Shieh, H. Bao, Y. Tang, “Coherent optical OFDM: theory and design,” Opt. Express 16, 841–859 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Shieh, X. W. Yi, Y. Ma, Q. Yang, “Coherent optical OFDM: has its time come? [Invited],” J. Opt. Netw. 7, 234–255 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, O. Adamczyk, R. Peveling, V. Herath, M. Porrmann, R. Noe, “Coherent optical communication: towards realtime systems at 40 Gbits∕s and beyond,” Opt. Express 16, 866–872 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (8)

A. J. Lowery, L. B. Du, J. Armstrong, “Performance of optical OFDM in ultralong-haul WDM lightwave systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 131–138 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Goldfarb, G. Li, M. G. Taylor, “Orthogonal wavelength-division multiplexing using coherent detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2015–2017 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Yamazaki, F. Inuzuka, K. Yonenaga, A. Takada, M. Koga, “Compensation of interchannel crosstalk induced by optical fiber nonlinearity in carrier phase-locked WDM system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 9–11 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Goldfarb, G. Li, “Chromatic dispersion compensation using digital IIR filtering with coherent detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 969–971 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Ip, J. M. Kahn, “Digital equalization of chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 2033–2043 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Savory, G. Gavioli, R. I. Killey, P. Bayvel, “Electronic compensation of chromatic dispersion using a digital coherent receiver,” Opt. Express 15, 2120–2126 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Leven, N. Kaneda, U.-V. Koc, Y.-K. Chen, “Frequency estimation in intradyne reception,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 366–368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Ip, J. M. Kahn, “Feedforward carrier recovery for coherent optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 2675–2692 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (8)

K. Kikuchi, “Phase-diversity homodyne detection of multilevel optical modulation with digital carrier phase estimation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 563–570 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Goldfarb, G. Li, “BER estimation of QPSK homodyne detection with carrier phase estimation using digital signal processing,” Opt. Express 14, 8043–8053 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Ly-Gagnon, S. Tsukarnoto, K. Katoh, K. Kikuchi, “Coherent detection of optical quadrature phase-shift keying signals with carrier phase estimation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 12–21 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Roberts, L. Chuandong, L. Strawczynski, M. O. Sullivan, I. Hardcastle, “Electronic precompensation of optical nonlinearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 403–405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, X. Q. Wang, W. Lee, C. A. White, E. C. Burrows, “Electronic predistortion and fiber nonlinearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1804–1806 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Kikuchi, “Phase-diversity homodyne detection of multilevel optical modulation with digital carrier phase estimation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 563–570 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Peveling, S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, O. Adamczyk, M. Porrmann, R. Noe, Y. Achiam, “First real-time data recovery for synchronous QPSK transmission with standard DFB lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1907–1909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Lowery, J. Armstrong, “Orthogonal-frequency-division multiplexing for dispersion compensation of long-haul optical systems,” Opt. Express 14, 2079–2084 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (6)

A. D. Ellis, F. C. G. Gunning, “Spectral density enhancement using coherent WDM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 504–506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Xun, C. Xingzhong, M. Qasmi, “A broad-band digital filtering approach for time-domain simulation of pulse propagation in optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 864–875 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. I. Killey, P. M. Watts, V. Mikhailov, M. Glick, P. Bayvel, “Electronic dispersion compensation by signal predistortion using digital processing and a dual-drive Mach–Zehnder modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 714–716 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Noe, “Phase noise-tolerant synchronous QPSK/BPSK baseband-type intradyne receiver concept with feedforward carrier recovery,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 802–808 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Noe, “PLL-free synchronous QPSK polarization multiplex/diversity receiver concept with digital I&Q baseband processing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 887–889 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Han, G. Li, “Coherent optical communication using polarization multiple-input-multiple-output,” Opt. Express 13, 7527–7534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (7)

T. Tokle, C. R. Davidson, M. Nissov, J. X. Cai, D. Foursa, A. Pilipetskii, “6500 km transmission of RZ-DQPSK WDM signals,” Electron. Lett. 40, 444–445 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Cho, G. Harston, C. J. Kerr, A. S. Greenblatt, A. Kaplan, Y. Achiam, G. Levy-Yurista, M. Margalit, Y. Gross, J. B. Khurgin, “Investigation of 2-b∕s∕Hz40-gb∕s DWDM transmission over 4×100 km SMF-28 fiber using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 656–658 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Kim, G. Li, “Direct-detection optical differential 8-level phase-shift keying (OD8PSK) for spectrally efficient transmission,” Opt. Express 12, 3415–3421 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Han, C. Kim, G. Li, “Simplified receiver implementation for optical differential 8-level phase-shift keying,” Electron. Lett. 40, 1372–1373 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Han, G. Li, “Direct detection differential polarization-phase-shift keying based on Jones vector,” Opt. Express 12, 5821–5826 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Taylor, “Coherent detection method using DSP for demodulation of signal and subsequent equalization of propagation impairments,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 674–676 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Kim, C. Kim, G. Li, “Requirements for the sampling source in coherent linear sampling,” Opt. Express 12, 2723–2730 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

S. L. Woodward, H. Sun-Yuan, M. D. Feuer, M. Boroditsky, “Demonstration of an electronic dispersion compensator in a 100-km10-Gb∕s ring network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 867–869 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Gesbert, M. Shafi, S. Da-shan, P. J. Smith, A. Naguib, “From theory to practice: an overview of MIMO space-time coded wireless systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 281–302 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

P. P. Mitra, J. B. Stark, “Nonlinear limits to the information capacity of optical fibre communications,” Nature 411, 1027–1030 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

1992 (1)

J. R. Barry, J. M. Kahn, “Carrier synchronization for homodyne and heterodyne-detection of optical quadriphase-shift keying,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1939–1951 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

L. Kazovsky, “Balanced phase-locked loops for optical homodyne receivers: performance analysis, design considerations, and laser linewidth requirements,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 182–195 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

D. Godard, “Self-recovering equalization and carrier tracking in two-dimensional data communication systems,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 28, 1867–1875 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Achiam, Y.

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Peveling, S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, O. Adamczyk, M. Porrmann, R. Noe, Y. Achiam, “First real-time data recovery for synchronous QPSK transmission with standard DFB lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1907–1909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Cho, G. Harston, C. J. Kerr, A. S. Greenblatt, A. Kaplan, Y. Achiam, G. Levy-Yurista, M. Margalit, Y. Gross, J. B. Khurgin, “Investigation of 2-b∕s∕Hz40-gb∕s DWDM transmission over 4×100 km SMF-28 fiber using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 656–658 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adamczyk, O.

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, O. Adamczyk, R. Peveling, V. Herath, M. Porrmann, R. Noe, “Coherent optical communication: towards realtime systems at 40 Gbits∕s and beyond,” Opt. Express 16, 866–872 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Peveling, S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, O. Adamczyk, M. Porrmann, R. Noe, Y. Achiam, “First real-time data recovery for synchronous QPSK transmission with standard DFB lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1907–1909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, 1995).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Academic, 2006).

Armstrong, J.

A. J. Lowery, L. B. Du, J. Armstrong, “Performance of optical OFDM in ultralong-haul WDM lightwave systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 131–138 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Lowery, J. Armstrong, “Orthogonal-frequency-division multiplexing for dispersion compensation of long-haul optical systems,” Opt. Express 14, 2079–2084 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Auth, B.

M. Seimetz, L. Molle, D.-D. Gross, B. Auth, R. Freund, “Coherent RZ-8PSK transmission at 30 Gbits∕s over 1200 km employing homodyne detection with digital carrier phase estimation,” in Proceedings of the 33rd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2007), paper WE 08.03.04.

Bao, H.

Barry, J. R.

J. R. Barry, J. M. Kahn, “Carrier synchronization for homodyne and heterodyne-detection of optical quadriphase-shift keying,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1939–1951 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bayvel, P.

S. J. Savory, G. Gavioli, R. I. Killey, P. Bayvel, “Electronic compensation of chromatic dispersion using a digital coherent receiver,” Opt. Express 15, 2120–2126 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. I. Killey, P. M. Watts, V. Mikhailov, M. Glick, P. Bayvel, “Electronic dispersion compensation by signal predistortion using digital processing and a dual-drive Mach–Zehnder modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 714–716 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Benedetto, S.

L. G. Kazovsky, S. Benedetto, A. E. Willner, Optical Fiber Communication Systems (Artech House, 1996).

Bhandare, S.

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Peveling, S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, O. Adamczyk, M. Porrmann, R. Noe, Y. Achiam, “First real-time data recovery for synchronous QPSK transmission with standard DFB lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1907–1909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boroditsky, M.

S. L. Woodward, H. Sun-Yuan, M. D. Feuer, M. Boroditsky, “Demonstration of an electronic dispersion compensator in a 100-km10-Gb∕s ring network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 867–869 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, E. C.

R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, X. Q. Wang, W. Lee, C. A. White, E. C. Burrows, “Electronic predistortion and fiber nonlinearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1804–1806 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Peveling, S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, O. Adamczyk, M. Porrmann, R. Noe, Y. Achiam, “First real-time data recovery for synchronous QPSK transmission with standard DFB lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1907–1909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pfau, T.

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, O. Adamczyk, R. Peveling, V. Herath, M. Porrmann, R. Noe, “Coherent optical communication: towards realtime systems at 40 Gbits∕s and beyond,” Opt. Express 16, 866–872 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Peveling, S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, O. Adamczyk, M. Porrmann, R. Noe, Y. Achiam, “First real-time data recovery for synchronous QPSK transmission with standard DFB lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1907–1909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pilipetskii, A.

T. Tokle, C. R. Davidson, M. Nissov, J. X. Cai, D. Foursa, A. Pilipetskii, “6500 km transmission of RZ-DQPSK WDM signals,” Electron. Lett. 40, 444–445 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Porrmann, M.

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, O. Adamczyk, R. Peveling, V. Herath, M. Porrmann, R. Noe, “Coherent optical communication: towards realtime systems at 40 Gbits∕s and beyond,” Opt. Express 16, 866–872 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Peveling, S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, O. Adamczyk, M. Porrmann, R. Noe, Y. Achiam, “First real-time data recovery for synchronous QPSK transmission with standard DFB lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1907–1909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proakis, J. G.

J. G. Proakis, D. G. Manolakis, Digital Signal Processing: Principles, Algorithms, and Applications (Prentice Hall, 1996).

Qasmi, M.

Qian, D.

X. Zhou, J. Yu, D. Qian, T. Wang, G. Zhang, P. Magill, “8×114 Gb∕s, 25-GHz-spaced, PolMux-RZ-8PSK transmission over 640 km of SSMF employing digital coherent detection and EDFA-only amplification,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper PDP1.

Roberts, K.

H. Sun, K. T. Wu, K. Roberts, “Real-time measurements of a 40 Gb∕s coherent system,” Opt. Express 16, 873–879 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Roberts, L. Chuandong, L. Strawczynski, M. O. Sullivan, I. Hardcastle, “Electronic precompensation of optical nonlinearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 403–405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sandel, D.

Sasaki, S.

S. Hayase, N. Kikuchi, K. Sekein, S. Sasaki, “Proposal of 8-state per symbol (binary ASK and QPSK) 30-Gbit∕s optical modulation/demodulation scheme,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (Institute of Electrical Engineers, 2003), paper TH2.6.4.

Savory, S. J.

Sayed, A. H.

A. H. Sayed, Fundamentals of Adaptive Filtering (Wiley, 2003).

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Schneider, T.

T. Schneider, Nonlinear Optics in Telecommunications (Springer, 2004).
[CrossRef]

Schopflin, A.

Seimetz, M.

M. Seimetz, L. Molle, D.-D. Gross, B. Auth, R. Freund, “Coherent RZ-8PSK transmission at 30 Gbits∕s over 1200 km employing homodyne detection with digital carrier phase estimation,” in Proceedings of the 33rd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2007), paper WE 08.03.04.

Sekein, K.

S. Hayase, N. Kikuchi, K. Sekein, S. Sasaki, “Proposal of 8-state per symbol (binary ASK and QPSK) 30-Gbit∕s optical modulation/demodulation scheme,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (Institute of Electrical Engineers, 2003), paper TH2.6.4.

Shafi, M.

D. Gesbert, M. Shafi, S. Da-shan, P. J. Smith, A. Naguib, “From theory to practice: an overview of MIMO space-time coded wireless systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 281–302 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shieh, W.

Smith, P. J.

D. Gesbert, M. Shafi, S. Da-shan, P. J. Smith, A. Naguib, “From theory to practice: an overview of MIMO space-time coded wireless systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 281–302 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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P. P. Mitra, J. B. Stark, “Nonlinear limits to the information capacity of optical fibre communications,” Nature 411, 1027–1030 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strawczynski, L.

K. Roberts, L. Chuandong, L. Strawczynski, M. O. Sullivan, I. Hardcastle, “Electronic precompensation of optical nonlinearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 403–405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, M. O.

K. Roberts, L. Chuandong, L. Strawczynski, M. O. Sullivan, I. Hardcastle, “Electronic precompensation of optical nonlinearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 403–405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H.

H. Sun, K. T. Wu, K. Roberts, “Real-time measurements of a 40 Gb∕s coherent system,” Opt. Express 16, 873–879 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun-Yuan, H.

S. L. Woodward, H. Sun-Yuan, M. D. Feuer, M. Boroditsky, “Demonstration of an electronic dispersion compensator in a 100-km10-Gb∕s ring network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 867–869 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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E. Yamazaki, F. Inuzuka, K. Yonenaga, A. Takada, M. Koga, “Compensation of interchannel crosstalk induced by optical fiber nonlinearity in carrier phase-locked WDM system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 9–11 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Y.

Taylor, M. G.

G. Goldfarb, M. G. Taylor, G. Li, “Experimental demonstration of fiber impairment compensation using the split-step finite-impulse-response filtering method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1887–1889 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Goldfarb, G. Li, M. G. Taylor, “Orthogonal wavelength-division multiplexing using coherent detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2015–2017 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Taylor, “Coherent detection method using DSP for demodulation of signal and subsequent equalization of propagation impairments,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 674–676 (2004).
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M. G. Taylor, “Phase estimation methods for optical coherent detection using digital signal processing,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Tokle, T.

T. Tokle, C. R. Davidson, M. Nissov, J. X. Cai, D. Foursa, A. Pilipetskii, “6500 km transmission of RZ-DQPSK WDM signals,” Electron. Lett. 40, 444–445 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tsukamoto, S.

S. Tsukamoto, K. Katoh, K. Kikuchi, “Unrepeated 20-Gbits∕s QPSK transmission over 200-km Standard single-mode fiber using homodyne detection and DSP for dispersion compensation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OWB4.

Tsukarnoto, S.

Wang, T.

X. Zhou, J. Yu, D. Qian, T. Wang, G. Zhang, P. Magill, “8×114 Gb∕s, 25-GHz-spaced, PolMux-RZ-8PSK transmission over 640 km of SSMF employing digital coherent detection and EDFA-only amplification,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper PDP1.

Wang, X. Q.

R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, X. Q. Wang, W. Lee, C. A. White, E. C. Burrows, “Electronic predistortion and fiber nonlinearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1804–1806 (2006).
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R. I. Killey, P. M. Watts, V. Mikhailov, M. Glick, P. Bayvel, “Electronic dispersion compensation by signal predistortion using digital processing and a dual-drive Mach–Zehnder modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 714–716 (2005).
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White, C. A.

R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, X. Q. Wang, W. Lee, C. A. White, E. C. Burrows, “Electronic predistortion and fiber nonlinearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1804–1806 (2006).
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S. L. Woodward, H. Sun-Yuan, M. D. Feuer, M. Boroditsky, “Demonstration of an electronic dispersion compensator in a 100-km10-Gb∕s ring network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 867–869 (2003).
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H. Sun, K. T. Wu, K. Roberts, “Real-time measurements of a 40 Gb∕s coherent system,” Opt. Express 16, 873–879 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xingzhong, C.

Xu, C.

Xun, L.

Yaman, F.

Yamazaki, E.

E. Yamazaki, F. Inuzuka, K. Yonenaga, A. Takada, M. Koga, “Compensation of interchannel crosstalk induced by optical fiber nonlinearity in carrier phase-locked WDM system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 9–11 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Q.

Yi, X. W.

Yonenaga, K.

E. Yamazaki, F. Inuzuka, K. Yonenaga, A. Takada, M. Koga, “Compensation of interchannel crosstalk induced by optical fiber nonlinearity in carrier phase-locked WDM system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 9–11 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, M.

Yoshida-Dierolf, M.

Yu, J.

X. Zhou, J. Yu, D. Qian, T. Wang, G. Zhang, P. Magill, “8×114 Gb∕s, 25-GHz-spaced, PolMux-RZ-8PSK transmission over 640 km of SSMF employing digital coherent detection and EDFA-only amplification,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper PDP1.

Zhang, C.

K. Kikuchi, K. Igarashi, Y. Mori, C. Zhang, “Demodulation of 320-Gbits∕s optical quadrature phase-shift keying signal with digital coherent receiver having time-division demultiplexing function,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OTuO4.

Zhang, G.

X. Zhou, J. Yu, D. Qian, T. Wang, G. Zhang, P. Magill, “8×114 Gb∕s, 25-GHz-spaced, PolMux-RZ-8PSK transmission over 640 km of SSMF employing digital coherent detection and EDFA-only amplification,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper PDP1.

Zhang, H.

X. Chen, I. Kim, G. Li, H. Zhang, B. Zhou, “Coherent detection using optical time-domain sampling,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JThA62.

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X. Chen, I. Kim, G. Li, H. Zhang, B. Zhou, “Coherent detection using optical time-domain sampling,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JThA62.

Zhou, X.

X. Zhou, J. Yu, D. Qian, T. Wang, G. Zhang, P. Magill, “8×114 Gb∕s, 25-GHz-spaced, PolMux-RZ-8PSK transmission over 640 km of SSMF employing digital coherent detection and EDFA-only amplification,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper PDP1.

Zhu, L.

Electron. Lett. (2)

T. Tokle, C. R. Davidson, M. Nissov, J. X. Cai, D. Foursa, A. Pilipetskii, “6500 km transmission of RZ-DQPSK WDM signals,” Electron. Lett. 40, 444–445 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Han, C. Kim, G. Li, “Simplified receiver implementation for optical differential 8-level phase-shift keying,” Electron. Lett. 40, 1372–1373 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

D. Gesbert, M. Shafi, S. Da-shan, P. J. Smith, A. Naguib, “From theory to practice: an overview of MIMO space-time coded wireless systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 281–302 (2003).
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[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

K. Roberts, L. Chuandong, L. Strawczynski, M. O. Sullivan, I. Hardcastle, “Electronic precompensation of optical nonlinearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 403–405 (2006).
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P. S. Cho, G. Harston, C. J. Kerr, A. S. Greenblatt, A. Kaplan, Y. Achiam, G. Levy-Yurista, M. Margalit, Y. Gross, J. B. Khurgin, “Investigation of 2-b∕s∕Hz40-gb∕s DWDM transmission over 4×100 km SMF-28 fiber using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 656–658 (2004).
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G. Goldfarb, G. Li, M. G. Taylor, “Orthogonal wavelength-division multiplexing using coherent detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2015–2017 (2007).
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[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (9)

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A. D. Ellis, F. C. G. Gunning, “Spectral density enhancement using coherent WDM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 504–506 (2005).
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T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Peveling, S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, O. Adamczyk, M. Porrmann, R. Noe, Y. Achiam, “First real-time data recovery for synchronous QPSK transmission with standard DFB lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1907–1909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Yamazaki, F. Inuzuka, K. Yonenaga, A. Takada, M. Koga, “Compensation of interchannel crosstalk induced by optical fiber nonlinearity in carrier phase-locked WDM system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 9–11 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. I. Killey, P. M. Watts, V. Mikhailov, M. Glick, P. Bayvel, “Electronic dispersion compensation by signal predistortion using digital processing and a dual-drive Mach–Zehnder modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 714–716 (2005).
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M. G. Taylor, “Coherent detection method using DSP for demodulation of signal and subsequent equalization of propagation impairments,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 674–676 (2004).
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G. Goldfarb, G. Li, “Chromatic dispersion compensation using digital IIR filtering with coherent detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 969–971 (2007).
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Opt. Express (3)

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, O. Adamczyk, R. Peveling, V. Herath, M. Porrmann, R. Noe, “Coherent optical communication: towards realtime systems at 40 Gbits∕s and beyond,” Opt. Express 16, 866–872 (2008).
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G. Goldfarb, G. Li, “BER estimation of QPSK homodyne detection with carrier phase estimation using digital signal processing,” Opt. Express 14, 8043–8053 (2006).
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C. Kim, G. Li, “Direct-detection optical differential 8-level phase-shift keying (OD8PSK) for spectrally efficient transmission,” Opt. Express 12, 3415–3421 (2004).
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M. Seimetz, L. Molle, D.-D. Gross, B. Auth, R. Freund, “Coherent RZ-8PSK transmission at 30 Gbits∕s over 1200 km employing homodyne detection with digital carrier phase estimation,” in Proceedings of the 33rd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2007), paper WE 08.03.04.

X. Chen, I. Kim, G. Li, H. Zhang, B. Zhou, “Coherent detection using optical time-domain sampling,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JThA62.

K. Kikuchi, K. Igarashi, Y. Mori, C. Zhang, “Demodulation of 320-Gbits∕s optical quadrature phase-shift keying signal with digital coherent receiver having time-division demultiplexing function,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OTuO4.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a coherent receiver.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the phase estimation algorithm for QPSK.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Analogy between wireless MIMO and optical PDM and (b) Schematic of an optical polarization MIMO system. PBS, polarization beam splitter; PBC, polarization beam combiner [23].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of an FIR digital filter for compensation of chromatic dispersion.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Receiver architecture for polarization demultiplexing and PMD compensation, after [26].

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Constellation diagrams for the (a) x and (b) y polarization at the receiver after 6400 km of transmission with an estimated BER = 2.4 × 10 3 [26].

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Architecture of WDM transmission with fiber dispersion and nonlinearity compensation using coherent detection and DSP. Optical path, black; electrical path, blue; OM, optical modulator. (b) Backward propagation for a multispan fiber link. L, span number; N, step number per span [38].

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Eye diagrams of the fifth WDM channel: (a) at back-to-back, (b) after 500 km transmission over DSF without ENLC, (c) after 500 km transmission over DSF with ENLC [38].

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Experimental setup for OWDM [45].

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Eye diagrams for (top left) back-to-back and after 760 km with compensation, using (top right) CDC, (bottom left) lumped, and (bottom right) distributed [45] compensation.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) OWDM experimental setup; (b) Q factor versus channel spacing [46].

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a) Schematic and (b) experimental setup for COTDS [58].

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Eye diagrams before and after dispersion compensation and phase estimation using (a) optical sampling and 10 Gsample s ADC and (b) CW LO and 20 Gsample s ADC [58].

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Photograph of a CMOS ASIC coherent receiver for PDM QPSK with four 20 Gsample s ACDs and 12 × 10 12 operations per second [50].

Equations (40)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E ( t ) = A exp { j [ θ s ( t ) + θ c ( t ) ] } ,
A 4 exp [ j { 4 θ s ( t ) + 4 θ c ( t ) } ] = A 4 exp [ j { 4 θ c ( t ) } ] ,
r k = exp [ j { θ s ( k ) + θ c ( k ) } ] + n k ,
r k 4 = exp { j 4 θ c ( k ) } + 4 exp { j [ 3 θ s ( k ) + 3 θ c ( k ) ] } n k + o ( n k 2 )
arg ( r k 4 ) = 4 θ c ( k ) + δ ( θ c ) n k + o ( n k 2 ) ,
θ c , est = 1 4 arg { k = 1 N b r k 4 } .
H ZL ( z ) = 1 α 1 α z 1 ,
H FL ( z ) = ( 1 α ) α D + ( 1 α ) 2 k = 1 D α D k z k 1 α z 1 ,
α = M 2 σ w 2 + 2 σ q 2 M σ w M 2 σ w 2 + 4 σ q 2 2 σ q 2
p ( r k s k , θ c ( k ) ) = 1 π 2 σ n 2 exp ( r k s k e j θ c ( k ) 2 2 σ n 2 ) .
( s ̂ , θ ̂ c ) = max s , θ c { 1 π 2 σ n 2 exp ( r k s k e j θ c ( k ) 2 2 σ n 2 ) } p ( s ) p ( θ c ) ,
( s ̂ , θ ̂ c ) = max s , θ c k ( r k s k exp ( i θ c ( k ) ) 2 2 σ n 2 ( θ c ( k ) θ c ( k 1 ) ) 2 2 σ w 2 ) .
( E x E y ) = L ( J x x J x y J y x J y y ) ( E x E y ) = J L ( E x E y ) ,
J i = J i 1 + μ [ ( E x E y ) i J i 1 L ( E x E y ) i ] L ( E x E y ) i T , i 0 , J 1 = initial guess ,
ɛ x 2 J x x = 0 , ɛ x 2 J x y = 0 , ɛ y 2 J y x = 0 , ɛ y 2 J y y = 0.
J x x J x x + μ ɛ x E x E x * ,
J x y J x y + μ ɛ x E x E y * ,
J y x J y x + μ ɛ y E y E x * ,
J y y J y y + μ ɛ y E y E y * ,
H f ( ω ) = exp { j λ 0 2 D z 4 π c ω 2 } .
J ( t ) = ( J x x ( t ) J x y ( t ) J y x ( t ) J y y ( t ) ) ,
E = m E m = m E ̂ m exp ( i m Δ ω t ) ,
E z = ( N ̂ 1 + D ̂ 1 ) A ,
N ̂ 1 = i γ E 2 , D ̂ 1 = i β 2 2 2 t 2 + β 3 6 3 t 3 α 2 .
C [ E ̂ m ] = E ̂ m z + α 2 E ̂ m + K 1 m E ̂ m t + K 2 m 2 E ̂ m t 2 + K 3 m 3 E ̂ m t 3 + i γ ( q C E ̂ q 2 E ̂ m 2 ) E ̂ m = 0 ,
E C [ E ̂ m ] = C [ E ̂ m ] + F 3 m + F 5 m = 0 ,
F 3 m = 2 E ̂ m + 1 E ̂ m 1 E ̂ m * ,
F 5 m = E ̂ m + 1 2 E ̂ m + 2 * + E ̂ m 1 2 E ̂ m 2 * + 2 E ̂ m 1 E ̂ m + 1 E ̂ m + 1 * + 2 E ̂ m + 1 E ̂ m 2 E ̂ m 1 * + 2 E ̂ m + 2 E ̂ m 2 E ̂ m * .
E ̂ m k = E ̂ m k 1 exp ( i γ E ̂ m k 1 2 h ) + h ( F 3 m k 1 + F 5 m k 1 ) ,
S TNLSE = 2 C Δ f B ,
L nl = 1 γ P T 2 C 1 C , L wo = 1 2 π β 2 ( C 1 ) Δ f B ,
i γ ( 2 q I E q 2 E m 2 ) E m i γ [ [ r s l m ] I E r E s E l * exp ( i δ k r s l m z ) ] ,
δ k r s l m = k r + k s k l k m = 1 2 β 2 Δ ω 2 [ r 2 + s 2 ( r + s m ) 2 m 2 ] .
δ k max = 1 4 β 2 ( C 1 ) 2 Δ ω 2 .
L fwm = 1 π 2 β 2 ( C 1 ) 2 Δ f 2 .
s ( t ) = k = 1 C q = 0 a k , q g ( t q T ) e j ω k t ,
r ( t ) = ( s ( t ) e j ω LO t + n ( t ) ) h ( t ) ,
ω k ω k 1 = 2 π T .
r ( t ) = q = 0 0 T ( a 1 , q g ( t τ q T ) ) + a 2 , q g ( t τ q T ) exp ( j 2 π T t ) exp ( j 2 π T τ ) d τ ,
r ( t ) = q = 0 a 1 , q g h ( t q T ) .

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