This paper provides an opportunity to learn about the recent optical progress and remaining challenges in holographic displays. In this article, the history of development in virtual reality and augmented reality is introduced comprehensibly. The paper outlines how optical platforms for virtual and augmented reality have evolved from binocular vision display to holographic displays. Although holographic displays are considered the most promising technologies for an immersive and comfortable 3D experience, various challenging issues remain. The paper references previous attempts to resolve challenging issues including speckle, computation cost, form factor, and limited space-bandwidth product. There have been efforts to optimize holographic display systems, develop novel materials for spatial light modulators, and streamline rendering algorithms for holograms. In conclusion, a new era for holographic displays is expected to start in a few decades.
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