Abstract

A metasurface combined with phase-change material ${\rm Ge_{2}Sb_{2}Te_{5}}$ (GST) is proposed to act as a switchable wave plate to adjust spin-orbit interactions (SOIs), so that the polarization and phase of the reflected light are simultaneously manipulated. A converter, which could act as a quarter-wave plate or three-quarter-wave plate when the GST layer is in the amorphous or crystalline state, and a switch, which could act as a mirror (corresponding to the “OFF” state of SOIs) or half-wave plate (corresponding to the “ON” state of SOIs) when the GST layer is in the amorphous or crystalline state, are designed, respectively. Consequently, a convertible vectorial beams converter, which could generate radial or azimuthal polarization, is designed when the GST layer is in the amorphous or crystalline state. In addition, a switchable vortex beam generator could realize orbital angular momentum with topological charge $l = \pm {2}$ when the GST layer changes from amorphous to the crystalline state. The designed metasurface could offer a promising route for high-efficiency reconfigurable devices and encrypted optical communications.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. INTRODUCTION

Vectorial beams have wide application prospects in polarization imaging, anticounterfeiting technology, target recognition, and optical communication [1,2]. Traditional methods to generate vectorial beams are based on interferometry, spatial light modulation, and spatially variant metasurfaces [3,4]. Vortex beams have widespread applications in quantum information, optical microscopy, and optical tweezers due to the disparate energy distribution of a circular symmetric doughnut-shape [5,6]. The spiral phase distributions are generally generated by space light modulators, spiral phase plates, and $q$ plates [7,8]. Traditional optical components used to generate vectorial and vortex beams suffer from bulky size, narrow operation bandwidth, and large phase pixels, which impede the use in applications that require miniaturization, broadband, and high stability.

Benefiting from advantages such as ultrathin, arbitrary structure design, and flexible manipulation, metasurfaces [913] have been investigated for photonic spin-orbit interactions (SOIs) [14,15]. Although steps have been made in polarization and phase manipulation, most existing methods based on SOIs can only generate a specific beam, which means the meta-devices could not realize tunable beam manipulation [16,17]. The solutions of the above problems could push many potential applications, such as secure communication, anticounterfeiting, and so on.

Currently, with the interest in tunable metasurfaces controlling [18], scientists realize tunable control according to electrochemistry [19], the change of voltage [19], temperature variation [20], and the use of phase-change materials (PCMs) [21]. Among all the methods above, the use of PCMs is promising for nonvolatile optical devices. PCMs, whose refractive index can be artificially controlled, have been used for optical disk storage before [22]. In recent years, the combination of PCM and metasurfaces is used to design reconfigurable, stabilized, and ultrafast meta-devices [21,23,24]. The optical response produced by these meta-devices could be tuned selectively by exploiting the large difference of the refractive index between amorphous and crystalline states. Ways to modulate PCMs, including heating, lighting, and electronic control are discussed in [2527]. Researchers have demonstrated that the phase transition (from amorphous to the crystalline state) of a GST refractive index change can be induced by adjusting the femtosecond pulse sequence [26]. Moreover, the reverse process (from crystalline to the amorphous state) can also be achieved with the same femtosecond laser by modifying the excitation conditions (less pulse duration but higher pulse peak power). And the phase can basically be changed in real time (nanosecond magnitude) [28]. Up to now, researchers have designed tunable absorbers, displays, and filters as well as beam steering meta-devices using PCMs [20,25,2729]. Recently, our group has reported a plasmonic metasurface for switchable photonic SOIs based on PCMs [30].

In this paper, a polarization converter and a vortex beam switcher have been designed based on a Pancharatnam–Berry phase [31,32], using phase-change and low-loss properties of PCMs ${{\rm Ge}_2}{{\rm Sb}_2}{{\rm Te}_5}$ (GST) operating at the working wavelength of 10.6 µm. Compared with our previous work [30], the meta-devices have higher polarization conversion ratios (PCR) when the GST layer is in two different states. First, a convertible vectorial beam converter concentrating on manipulation of the circularly polarized light (CPL) could produce azimuthally polarized (AP) and radially polarized (RP) light when the GST layer is in the crystalline and amorphous states, respectively. The polarization conversion efficiency of the convertible vectorial beam converter is as high as 83% in the amorphous state and 79% in the crystalline state. Second, a switchable vortex generator is designed using a similar method but different geometries. When the GST layer is in the amorphous state, the PCR of the metasurface is 6%, corresponding to the “OFF” state of the wave plate. When the GST layer is in the crystalline state, the PCR of the metasurface is 93%, corresponding to the “ON” state of the wave plate. Simultaneously, the reflected light carries OAM with a topological charge of $ \pm {2}$ depending on the handedness of incidence. This switchable metasurface could offer a promising route to design high-efficiency reconfigurable devices and encrypted optical communications.

2. PRINCIPLE

Figure 1(a) shows the schematic of the unit cell. The metasurface consists of a gold (Au), GST, and ${{\rm MgF}_2}$ multilayer stack. The GST film acts essentially as a switchable dielectric medium that changes the phase response of the output. Here, we defined that the electric field of transverse electronic (TE) polarization light is parallel to the $y$ axis (Ey), and the electric field transverse magnetic (TM) polarization light is parallel to $x$ axis (Ex). The phase retardation between TE and TM polarization can be exactly adjusted by optimizing the geometric parameters (thicknesses and widths) of the unit cell. The ${{\rm MgF}_2}$ layer acts as an isolation layer on top of the GST layer to prevent GST from oxidation in the atmosphere [30].

 figure: Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. (a) Schematic of the metasurface. Phase distribution of TE and TM with linearly polarized beam of (b) quarter- or three-quarter wave plate and (c) mirror or half-wave plate for different states of GST. (d) Co-polarization and cross-polarization reflectance for quarter- or three-quarter-wave plate. (e) Co-polarization and cross-polarization reflectance for mirror or half-wave plate. RCP with respect to the frequency for (f) quarter- or three-quarter-wave plate and (g) mirror or half-wave plate.

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 figure: Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. (a) Three-dimensional (3D) schematic of the switchable vectorial converter. Inset is the top view of the super unit cell. (b) Top view of the tunable vectorial beam generator.

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 figure: Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. Diffraction pattern of the designed switchable vectorial generator at the transverse plane 12 µm away from the metasurface. (a)–(c) When the GST layer is in the amorphous state, the transmitted electric fields for $x$ and $y$ components, and the polarization distribution, respectively. (d)–(f) Electric field distributions when the GST layer is in the crystalline state.

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As a proof of concept, different geometric parameters are selected to implement switchable vectorial beams and vortex beam generation, respectively. Both tunable beam generators are based on the switchable SOIs of the phase-change metasurface, with  the  unit  cells  behaving  as  quarter-   or  three-quarter-wave plates for switchable vectorial beam generation, while a mirror or half-wave plate is used for switchable vortex beam generation. The unit cell is simulated and optimized using the frequency domain solver in CST Microwave Studio with unit cell boundary conditions. According to the measured results in our previous report [30], GST has a large permittivity difference between amorphous (${\varepsilon _1} = {12}$) and crystalline (${\varepsilon _2} = {25}$) states at the working frequency of 28.3 THz. By placing the metasurface on a hot plate, GST could achieve phase change from an amorphous to crystalline state.

The geometric parameters are optimized as follows: the period is $p = {4.2}\,\,\unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}$; the thicknesses of Au, GST, and ${{\rm MgF}_2}$ layers are ${t_1} = {1.1}\,\,\unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}$, ${t_2} = {0.6}\,\,\unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}$, and ${t_3} = {0.1}\,\,\unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}$, respectively. The widths of protuberant GST and gold layers are ${w_1} = {1.3}\,\,\unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}$ and ${w_2} = {0.7}\,\,\unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}$. As shown in Fig. 1(b), the reflected phase retardation between TE and TM polarizations is 91° with the GST layer in the amorphous (red line). When the GST layer is in the crystalline state (blue line), the phase retardation between TE and TM polarizations is approximate to $ - {270}^\circ $ (90°). Both TE and TM polarization varies from the amorphous to crystalline state. Therefore, the wave plate in the crystalline state is obtained by rotating 180° in the amorphous state. As shown in Fig. 1(d), the reflectance of cross-polarization and co-polarization is 83% and 0.2%, when GST in the amorphous state. When GST changes to the crystalline state, the reflectance of cross-polarization and co-polarization is 79% and 0.1%. The simulated PCR defined as PCR=Rcross/(Rcross+Rco) is depicted in Fig. 1(f). The PCR is 100% whether the GST layer is in the amorphous or crystalline state at 28.3 THz.

Moreover, we also develop a switchable unit cell function as a mirror or half-wave plate at two different states of GST. The geometric parameters of the unit cell are as follows: the period is $p = {3.9}\,\,\unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}$, and the thicknesses of Au, GST, and ${{\rm MgF}_2}$ layers are 1.7, 1, and 0.1 µm, respectively. The widths of protuberant GST and gold layers are ${w_1} = {2.95}\,\,\unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}$ and ${w_2} = {2.35}\,\,\unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}$. As shown in Fig. 1(c), the reflected phase retardation between TE and TM polarizations is nearly 0° (red line) with the GST layer in the amorphous. When the GST layer is in the crystalline state (blue line), the phase retardation between TE and TM polarizations approximate to 180°. As shown in Fig. 1(e), the reflectance of cross-polarization and co-polarization are 0.3% and 88%, when the GST layer is in the amorphous state. When GST changes to the crystalline state, the reflectance of cross-polarization and co-polarization is 85% and 0.6%. The simulated PCR is depicted in Fig. 1(g), which shows the PCR is 0% and 100%, when the GST layer is in amorphous and crystalline states at 28.3 THz.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

A. Convertible Vectorial Beam Converter

For LCP incidence, the output light property can be described by the Jones vector in Eq. (1):

$$\left( {\begin{array}{*{20}{c}}{\cos \beta }&{\sin \beta }\\{ - \sin \beta }&{\cos \beta }\end{array}} \right)\left( \begin{array}{*{20}{c}}1&0\\0&\exp ( { \pm j \cdot \pi } / / 2 ) \end{array} \right)\left( {\begin{array}{*{20}{c}}{\cos \beta }&{ - \sin \beta }\\{\sin \beta }&{\cos \beta }\end{array}} \right)\frac{1}{{\sqrt 2 }}\left( {\begin{array}{*{20}{c}}1\\{ - j}\end{array}} \right) = \exp ( - j\beta )\left( {\begin{array}{*{20}{c}}{\cos (\beta \pm {\pi {/ {{\pi 4}}}})}\\ \sin (\beta \pm {\pi {/ {{\pi 4}}}})\end{array}} \right),$$
where $\beta $ is the angle between the fast axis and the $x$ axis. The superscripts + and − represent the amorphous and crystalline states of GST. From Eq. (1), it can be seen that, when an LCP incident light impinges on the spatially rotating quarter-wave plate (corresponding to the amorphous state of PCMs), the reflected light is RP light carrying OAM. Similarly, we can deduce that, when the LCP light illuminates on a spatially rotating three-quarter-wave plate, it will become an AP light carrying OAM.

Above all, a switchable vectorial beam converter is designed, as shown in Fig. 2(a), and it is a circular structure with a radius of 80 µm. As shown in Fig. 2(b), the switchable vectorial converter is realized by eight super-units. As shown in the inset in Fig. 2(a), each super cell is composed of a rotating unit cell with an orientation angle of 45° with the radial axis. The geometric parameters are as follows: the period is $p = {4.2}\,\unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}$; the thicknesses of Au, GST, and ${{\rm MgF}_2}$ layers are ${t_1} = {1.1}\,\unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}$, ${t_2} = {0.6}\,\unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}$, and ${t_3} = {0.1}\,\unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}$, respectively; the widths of protuberant GST and gold layers are ${w_1} = {1.3}\,\unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}$ and ${w_2} = {0.7}\,\unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}$. Figures 3(a) and 3(b) show the simulated $x$ and $y$ polarized electric field components. As shown in Fig. 3(c), the polarization distribution also verifies that, when the GST layer is in the amorphous state, the generator could realize RP light. Figures 3(d) and 3(e) show the simulated electric fields for $x$ and $y$ components, which constitute AP light. As shown in Fig. 3(f), the polarization distribution verifies that, when the GST layer is in the crystalline state, the generator could realize AP light. Because the AP and RP light have OAM phases, as shown in Eq. (1), in order to see the resulting beam clearly, we add an impact factor ${\exp}({j}\beta )$. In actual experiment and applications, the factor is easy to implement by adding a spiral sheet in front of the receiving screen. Similarly, when we set the incident source to RCP, we can obtain the RP light (amorphous state) and AP light (crystalline state).

 figure: Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. (a) 3D schematic of the switchable OAM generator. The illustration is part of the generator. In the actual simulation, it is composed of 10 rings. (b) Top view of the tunable vortex generator.

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B. Switchable Vortex Generator

For a circularly polarized incidence ${{E}_{in}}(r,\varphi ) = {({1},j)^T}$, the reflected output beam can be expressed as

$$\left( \begin{array}{*{20}{c}}{\cos \beta }&{\sin \beta }\\{ - \sin \beta }&{\cos \beta }\end{array}\right)\left( {\begin{array}{*{20}{c}}{\exp (j \cdot \delta /2)}&0\\0&{\exp ( {{{j \cdot \delta } {/ } 2}} )}\end{array}} \right)\left( {\begin{array}{*{20}{c}}{\cos \beta }&{ - \sin \beta }\\{\sin \beta }&{\cos \beta }\end{array}} \right)\frac{1}{{\sqrt 2 }}\left[ {\begin{array}{*{20}{c}}1\\j\end{array}} \right] = \cos \frac{\delta }{2}\left( {\begin{array}{*{20}{c}}1\\j\end{array}} \right) + j \sin\frac{\delta }{2}\exp (j2\beta )\left( {\begin{array}{*{20}{c}}1\\{ - j}\end{array}} \right),$$
where $\beta $ is the angle formed between the fast axis and the $x$ axis and $\delta $ is the phase shift between the main axes. Beams that carry OAM have a helical phase of electromagnetic field proportional to ${\exp}({ j}l\phi )$, where $l$ is the topological charge, and $\phi $ is the azimuthal angle. A wave plate with a phase retardation of $\pi $ is desired to realize 100% conversion efficiency. Above all, a switchable vortex generator is composed of 12 concentric rings with the same width. The generator is theoretically a space-variant polarizer with its transmission axis oriented in the radial direction, which can be expressed by
 figure: Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. Diffraction pattern of designed switchable vortex generator at the transverse plane 12 µm away from the metasurface. (a) and (b) The incident light is LCP. The electric field intensity distributions when the GST layer is in different states. (c) Phase distribution. (d)–(f) When the incident light is RCP, the electric field intensity and phase distributions for different states.

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$$\begin{split}{R_{\rm in}} = {p {/ {\vphantom {p 2}} } 2} - {w {/ {\vphantom {w 2}} } 2} + (n - 1) \cdot p\\{R_{\rm out}} = {p {/ {\vphantom {p 2}} } 2} + {w {/ {\vphantom {w 2}} } 2} + (n - 1) \cdot p\end{split}.$$
As shown in Fig. 4(a), where ${R_{\rm in}}$ is the inner diameter of the ring, and ${R_{\rm out}}$ is the outer diameter of the ring, as shown in Fig. 4(b). $n$ is the number of rings, and we set $n = {10}$. The geometric parameters of the unit cell are as follows: the period is $p = {3.9}\,\,\unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}$; the thicknesses of Au, GST, and ${{\rm MgF}_2}$ layers are 1.7, 1, and 0.1 µm, respectively. The widths of protuberant GST and gold layers are ${w_1} = {2.95}\,\,\unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}$ and ${w_2} = {2.35}\,\,\unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}$. This generator could have the space-variation continuity and, thus, will realize continuous phase.

The simulated result of the wave plate is shown in Fig. 5, and the intensity distribution is the result after filtering. The simulated intensity distribution for LCP incidence and GST of the amorphous state is shown in Fig. 5(a). The topological charge is identified by interference with a spherical wave with a focal length of 10 µm. Figure 5(b) shows the intensity of electromagnetic for the crystalline state. We can clearly see the contrast of the intensity when the GST layer is in two different states. The phase distribution for the crystalline state is shown in Fig. 5(c). It is obviously seen that the output beam with topological charge $l = + {2}$. For RCP incidence and amorphous state GST, the intensity distribution of electromagnetic is shown in Fig. 5(d). Figure 5(e) shows the intensity of electromagnetic for the crystalline state of GST. The phase distribution for the crystalline state is shown in Fig. 5(f). It achieves our previous design well.

4. SUMMARY

In conclusion, we designed an ultrathin metasurface platform composed of rotating grating structures. Because the phases of TE and TM polarization light can be arbitrarily designed with a high PCR when the GST layer is in the amorphous or crystalline state, the designed metasurface could act as a different wave plate according to a change in the geometric parameters of the metasurface. Last, a switchable vortex generator and a convertible vectorial beam converter are proposed. The PCR of the vectorial generator is as high as 100% whenever the GST layer is in the amorphous or crystalline state. The switchable vortex generator could realize OAM-carrying beams in the crystalline state; in the amorphous state, however, this phenomenon disappears. The simulated PCR is 0% and 100% for the amorphous and crystalline states, respectively. This tunable metasurface proposed here may provide a promising route for high-efficiency reconfigurable devices, such as deflectors, tunable hologram generation, and encrypted optical communications and can be extended to other wavebands.

Funding

National Natural Science Foundation of China (61575201, 61875253).

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References

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  1. M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1, e1500396 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. Lin, J. P. B. Mueller, Q. Wang, G. Yuan, N. Antoniou, X.-C. Yuan, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-controlled tunable directional coupling of surface plasmon polaritons,” Science 340, 331–334 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  3. H. Chen, J. Hao, B.-F. Zhang, J. Xu, J. Ding, and H.-T. Wang, “Generation of vector beam with space-variant distribution of both polarization and phase,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3179–3181 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  4. N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6328–6333 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. Wang, “Advances in communications using optical vortices,” Photon. Res. 4, B14–B28 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  6. P. Miao, Z. Zhang, J. Sun, W. Walasik, S. Longhi, N. M. Litchinitser, and L. Feng, “Orbital angular momentum microlaser,” Science 353, 464–467 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  7. L. Li, C. Chang, X. Yuan, C. Yuan, S. Feng, S. Nie, and J. Ding, “Generation of optical vortex array along arbitrary curvilinear arrangement,” Opt. Express 26, 9798–9812 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  8. E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e167 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  9. X. Xie, X. Li, M. Pu, X. Ma, K. Liu, Y. Guo, and X. Luo, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for simultaneous thermal infrared invisibility and holographic illusion,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1706673 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  10. X. Luo, D. Tsai, M. Gu, and M. Hong, “Subwavelength interference of light on structured surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 10, 757–842 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  11. X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, Y. Guo, and X. Luo, “All-metallic wide-angle metasurfaces for multifunctional polarization manipulation,” Opto-Electron. Adv. 2, 180023 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  12. Y. Wang, X. Ma, X. Li, M. Pu, and X. Luo, “Perfect electromagnetic and sound absorption via subwavelength holes array,” Opto-Electron. Adv. 1, 180013 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  13. X. Luo, D. Tsai, M. Gu, and M. Hong, “Extraordinary optical fields in nanostructures: from sub-diffraction-limited optics to sensing and energy conversion,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 48, 2458–2494 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  14. F. Yue, D. Wen, J. Xin, B. D. Gerardot, J. Li, and X. Chen, “Vector vortex beam generation with a single plasmonic metasurface,” ACS Photon. 3, 1558–1563 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  15. Y. Guo, X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “High-efficiency and wide-angle beam steering based on catenary optical fields in ultrathin metalens,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1800592 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  16. Z. Deng, J. Deng, X. Zhuang, S. Wang, K. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Chi, X. Ye, J. Xu, G. P. Wang, R. Zhao, X. Wang, Y. Cao, X. Cheng, G. Li, and X. Li, “Diatomic metasurface for vectorial holography,” Nano Lett. 18, 2885–2892 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  17. N. Arash, Q. Wang, M. Hong, and J. Teng, “Tunable and reconfigurable metasurfaces and metadevices,” Opto-Electron. Adv. 1, 180009 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  18. K. Thyagarajan, R. Sokhoyan, L. Zornberg, and H. A. Atwater, “Millivolt modulation of plasmonic metasurface optical response via ionic conductance,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1701044 (2017).
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  19. C. T. Phare, M. C. Shin, S. A. Miller, B. Stern, and M. Lipson, “Silicon optical phased array with high-efficiency beam formation over 180 degree field of view,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (IEEE, 2018), pp. 1–2.
  20. P. Hosseini, C. D. Wright, and H. Bhaskaran, “An optoelectronic framework enabled by low-dimensional phase-change films,” Nature 511, 206–211 (2014).
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  21. M. Wuttig and N. Yamada, “Phase-change materials for rewriteable data storage,” Nat. Mater. 6, 824 (2007).
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  22. N. Raeis-Hosseini and J. Rho, “Metasurfaces based on phase-change material as a reconfigurable platform for multifunctional devices,” Materials 10, 1046 (2017).
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  23. A.-K. U. Michel, D. N. Chigrin, T. W. W. Maß, K. Schönauer, M. Salinga, M. Wuttig, and T. Taubner, “Using low-loss phase-change materials for mid-infrared antenna resonance tuning,” Nano Lett. 13, 3470–3475 (2013).
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  24. W. Dong, Y. Qiu, X. Zhou, A. Banas, K. Banas, M. B. H. Breese, T. Cao, and R. E. Simpson, “Tunable mid-infrared phase-change metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701346 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  25. Q. Wang, E. T. F. Rogers, B. Gholipour, C.-M. Wang, G. Yuan, J. Teng, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optically reconfigurable metasurfaces and photonic devices based on phase change materials,” Nat. Photonics 10, 60–65 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  26. A.-K. U. Michel, P. Zalden, D. N. Chigrin, M. Wuttig, A. M. Lindenberg, and T. Taubner, “Reversible optical switching of infrared antenna resonances with ultrathin phase-change layers using femtosecond laser pulses,” ACS Photon. 1, 833–839 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  27. A. Tittl, A.-K. U. Michel, M. Schäferling, X. Yin, B. Gholipour, L. Cui, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, F. Neubrech, and H. Giessen, “A switchable mid-infrared plasmonic perfect absorber with multispectral thermal imaging capability,” Adv. Mater. 27, 4597–4603 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  28. C. R. de Galarreta, A. M. Alexeev, Y.-Y. Au, M. Lopez-Garcia, M. Klemm, M. Cryan, J. Bertolotti, and C. D. Wright, “Nonvolatile reconfigurable phase-change metadevices for beam steering in the near infrared,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1704993 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  29. K.-K. Du, Q. Li, Y.-B. Lyu, J.-C. Ding, Y. Lu, Z.-Y. Cheng, and M. Qiu, “Control over emissivity of zero-static-power thermal emitters based on phase-changing material GST,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16194 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  30. M. Zhang, M. Pu, F. Zhang, Y. Guo, Q. He, X. Ma, Y. Huang, X. Li, H. Yu, and X. Luo, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for switchable photonic spin-orbit interactions based on phase change materials,” Adv. Sci. 5, 1800835 (2018).
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  31. X. Luo, “Principles of electromagnetic waves in metasurfaces,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. 58, 594201 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  32. G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 308 (2015).
    [Crossref]

2019 (2)

X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, Y. Guo, and X. Luo, “All-metallic wide-angle metasurfaces for multifunctional polarization manipulation,” Opto-Electron. Adv. 2, 180023 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Luo, D. Tsai, M. Gu, and M. Hong, “Extraordinary optical fields in nanostructures: from sub-diffraction-limited optics to sensing and energy conversion,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 48, 2458–2494 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (10)

Y. Wang, X. Ma, X. Li, M. Pu, and X. Luo, “Perfect electromagnetic and sound absorption via subwavelength holes array,” Opto-Electron. Adv. 1, 180013 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Guo, X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “High-efficiency and wide-angle beam steering based on catenary optical fields in ultrathin metalens,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1800592 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Deng, J. Deng, X. Zhuang, S. Wang, K. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Chi, X. Ye, J. Xu, G. P. Wang, R. Zhao, X. Wang, Y. Cao, X. Cheng, G. Li, and X. Li, “Diatomic metasurface for vectorial holography,” Nano Lett. 18, 2885–2892 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Arash, Q. Wang, M. Hong, and J. Teng, “Tunable and reconfigurable metasurfaces and metadevices,” Opto-Electron. Adv. 1, 180009 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Li, C. Chang, X. Yuan, C. Yuan, S. Feng, S. Nie, and J. Ding, “Generation of optical vortex array along arbitrary curvilinear arrangement,” Opt. Express 26, 9798–9812 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Xie, X. Li, M. Pu, X. Ma, K. Liu, Y. Guo, and X. Luo, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for simultaneous thermal infrared invisibility and holographic illusion,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1706673 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Luo, D. Tsai, M. Gu, and M. Hong, “Subwavelength interference of light on structured surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 10, 757–842 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Dong, Y. Qiu, X. Zhou, A. Banas, K. Banas, M. B. H. Breese, T. Cao, and R. E. Simpson, “Tunable mid-infrared phase-change metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701346 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. R. de Galarreta, A. M. Alexeev, Y.-Y. Au, M. Lopez-Garcia, M. Klemm, M. Cryan, J. Bertolotti, and C. D. Wright, “Nonvolatile reconfigurable phase-change metadevices for beam steering in the near infrared,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1704993 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, M. Pu, F. Zhang, Y. Guo, Q. He, X. Ma, Y. Huang, X. Li, H. Yu, and X. Luo, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for switchable photonic spin-orbit interactions based on phase change materials,” Adv. Sci. 5, 1800835 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

K.-K. Du, Q. Li, Y.-B. Lyu, J.-C. Ding, Y. Lu, Z.-Y. Cheng, and M. Qiu, “Control over emissivity of zero-static-power thermal emitters based on phase-changing material GST,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16194 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Raeis-Hosseini and J. Rho, “Metasurfaces based on phase-change material as a reconfigurable platform for multifunctional devices,” Materials 10, 1046 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Thyagarajan, R. Sokhoyan, L. Zornberg, and H. A. Atwater, “Millivolt modulation of plasmonic metasurface optical response via ionic conductance,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1701044 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

F. Yue, D. Wen, J. Xin, B. D. Gerardot, J. Li, and X. Chen, “Vector vortex beam generation with a single plasmonic metasurface,” ACS Photon. 3, 1558–1563 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, “Advances in communications using optical vortices,” Photon. Res. 4, B14–B28 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Miao, Z. Zhang, J. Sun, W. Walasik, S. Longhi, N. M. Litchinitser, and L. Feng, “Orbital angular momentum microlaser,” Science 353, 464–467 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, E. T. F. Rogers, B. Gholipour, C.-M. Wang, G. Yuan, J. Teng, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optically reconfigurable metasurfaces and photonic devices based on phase change materials,” Nat. Photonics 10, 60–65 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

A. Tittl, A.-K. U. Michel, M. Schäferling, X. Yin, B. Gholipour, L. Cui, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, F. Neubrech, and H. Giessen, “A switchable mid-infrared plasmonic perfect absorber with multispectral thermal imaging capability,” Adv. Mater. 27, 4597–4603 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Luo, “Principles of electromagnetic waves in metasurfaces,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. 58, 594201 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 308 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1, e1500396 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Hosseini, C. D. Wright, and H. Bhaskaran, “An optoelectronic framework enabled by low-dimensional phase-change films,” Nature 511, 206–211 (2014).
[Crossref]

A.-K. U. Michel, P. Zalden, D. N. Chigrin, M. Wuttig, A. M. Lindenberg, and T. Taubner, “Reversible optical switching of infrared antenna resonances with ultrathin phase-change layers using femtosecond laser pulses,” ACS Photon. 1, 833–839 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

A.-K. U. Michel, D. N. Chigrin, T. W. W. Maß, K. Schönauer, M. Salinga, M. Wuttig, and T. Taubner, “Using low-loss phase-change materials for mid-infrared antenna resonance tuning,” Nano Lett. 13, 3470–3475 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, J. P. B. Mueller, Q. Wang, G. Yuan, N. Antoniou, X.-C. Yuan, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-controlled tunable directional coupling of surface plasmon polaritons,” Science 340, 331–334 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2007 (1)

M. Wuttig and N. Yamada, “Phase-change materials for rewriteable data storage,” Nat. Mater. 6, 824 (2007).
[Crossref]

Aieta, F.

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref]

Alexeev, A. M.

C. R. de Galarreta, A. M. Alexeev, Y.-Y. Au, M. Lopez-Garcia, M. Klemm, M. Cryan, J. Bertolotti, and C. D. Wright, “Nonvolatile reconfigurable phase-change metadevices for beam steering in the near infrared,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1704993 (2018).
[Crossref]

Antoniou, N.

J. Lin, J. P. B. Mueller, Q. Wang, G. Yuan, N. Antoniou, X.-C. Yuan, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-controlled tunable directional coupling of surface plasmon polaritons,” Science 340, 331–334 (2013).
[Crossref]

Arash, N.

N. Arash, Q. Wang, M. Hong, and J. Teng, “Tunable and reconfigurable metasurfaces and metadevices,” Opto-Electron. Adv. 1, 180009 (2018).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

K. Thyagarajan, R. Sokhoyan, L. Zornberg, and H. A. Atwater, “Millivolt modulation of plasmonic metasurface optical response via ionic conductance,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1701044 (2017).
[Crossref]

Au, Y.-Y.

C. R. de Galarreta, A. M. Alexeev, Y.-Y. Au, M. Lopez-Garcia, M. Klemm, M. Cryan, J. Bertolotti, and C. D. Wright, “Nonvolatile reconfigurable phase-change metadevices for beam steering in the near infrared,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1704993 (2018).
[Crossref]

Banas, A.

W. Dong, Y. Qiu, X. Zhou, A. Banas, K. Banas, M. B. H. Breese, T. Cao, and R. E. Simpson, “Tunable mid-infrared phase-change metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701346 (2018).
[Crossref]

Banas, K.

W. Dong, Y. Qiu, X. Zhou, A. Banas, K. Banas, M. B. H. Breese, T. Cao, and R. E. Simpson, “Tunable mid-infrared phase-change metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701346 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bertolotti, J.

C. R. de Galarreta, A. M. Alexeev, Y.-Y. Au, M. Lopez-Garcia, M. Klemm, M. Cryan, J. Bertolotti, and C. D. Wright, “Nonvolatile reconfigurable phase-change metadevices for beam steering in the near infrared,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1704993 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bhaskaran, H.

P. Hosseini, C. D. Wright, and H. Bhaskaran, “An optoelectronic framework enabled by low-dimensional phase-change films,” Nature 511, 206–211 (2014).
[Crossref]

Boyd, R. W.

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Breese, M. B. H.

W. Dong, Y. Qiu, X. Zhou, A. Banas, K. Banas, M. B. H. Breese, T. Cao, and R. E. Simpson, “Tunable mid-infrared phase-change metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701346 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cao, T.

W. Dong, Y. Qiu, X. Zhou, A. Banas, K. Banas, M. B. H. Breese, T. Cao, and R. E. Simpson, “Tunable mid-infrared phase-change metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701346 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cao, Y.

Z. Deng, J. Deng, X. Zhuang, S. Wang, K. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Chi, X. Ye, J. Xu, G. P. Wang, R. Zhao, X. Wang, Y. Cao, X. Cheng, G. Li, and X. Li, “Diatomic metasurface for vectorial holography,” Nano Lett. 18, 2885–2892 (2018).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

J. Lin, J. P. B. Mueller, Q. Wang, G. Yuan, N. Antoniou, X.-C. Yuan, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-controlled tunable directional coupling of surface plasmon polaritons,” Science 340, 331–334 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chang, C.

Chen, H.

Chen, X.

F. Yue, D. Wen, J. Xin, B. D. Gerardot, J. Li, and X. Chen, “Vector vortex beam generation with a single plasmonic metasurface,” ACS Photon. 3, 1558–1563 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cheng, X.

Z. Deng, J. Deng, X. Zhuang, S. Wang, K. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Chi, X. Ye, J. Xu, G. P. Wang, R. Zhao, X. Wang, Y. Cao, X. Cheng, G. Li, and X. Li, “Diatomic metasurface for vectorial holography,” Nano Lett. 18, 2885–2892 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Z.-Y.

K.-K. Du, Q. Li, Y.-B. Lyu, J.-C. Ding, Y. Lu, Z.-Y. Cheng, and M. Qiu, “Control over emissivity of zero-static-power thermal emitters based on phase-changing material GST,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16194 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chi, Y.

Z. Deng, J. Deng, X. Zhuang, S. Wang, K. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Chi, X. Ye, J. Xu, G. P. Wang, R. Zhao, X. Wang, Y. Cao, X. Cheng, G. Li, and X. Li, “Diatomic metasurface for vectorial holography,” Nano Lett. 18, 2885–2892 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chigrin, D. N.

A.-K. U. Michel, P. Zalden, D. N. Chigrin, M. Wuttig, A. M. Lindenberg, and T. Taubner, “Reversible optical switching of infrared antenna resonances with ultrathin phase-change layers using femtosecond laser pulses,” ACS Photon. 1, 833–839 (2014).
[Crossref]

A.-K. U. Michel, D. N. Chigrin, T. W. W. Maß, K. Schönauer, M. Salinga, M. Wuttig, and T. Taubner, “Using low-loss phase-change materials for mid-infrared antenna resonance tuning,” Nano Lett. 13, 3470–3475 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cryan, M.

C. R. de Galarreta, A. M. Alexeev, Y.-Y. Au, M. Lopez-Garcia, M. Klemm, M. Cryan, J. Bertolotti, and C. D. Wright, “Nonvolatile reconfigurable phase-change metadevices for beam steering in the near infrared,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1704993 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cui, L.

A. Tittl, A.-K. U. Michel, M. Schäferling, X. Yin, B. Gholipour, L. Cui, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, F. Neubrech, and H. Giessen, “A switchable mid-infrared plasmonic perfect absorber with multispectral thermal imaging capability,” Adv. Mater. 27, 4597–4603 (2015).
[Crossref]

de Galarreta, C. R.

C. R. de Galarreta, A. M. Alexeev, Y.-Y. Au, M. Lopez-Garcia, M. Klemm, M. Cryan, J. Bertolotti, and C. D. Wright, “Nonvolatile reconfigurable phase-change metadevices for beam steering in the near infrared,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1704993 (2018).
[Crossref]

De Leon, I.

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Deng, J.

Z. Deng, J. Deng, X. Zhuang, S. Wang, K. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Chi, X. Ye, J. Xu, G. P. Wang, R. Zhao, X. Wang, Y. Cao, X. Cheng, G. Li, and X. Li, “Diatomic metasurface for vectorial holography,” Nano Lett. 18, 2885–2892 (2018).
[Crossref]

Deng, Z.

Z. Deng, J. Deng, X. Zhuang, S. Wang, K. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Chi, X. Ye, J. Xu, G. P. Wang, R. Zhao, X. Wang, Y. Cao, X. Cheng, G. Li, and X. Li, “Diatomic metasurface for vectorial holography,” Nano Lett. 18, 2885–2892 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ding, J.

Ding, J.-C.

K.-K. Du, Q. Li, Y.-B. Lyu, J.-C. Ding, Y. Lu, Z.-Y. Cheng, and M. Qiu, “Control over emissivity of zero-static-power thermal emitters based on phase-changing material GST,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16194 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dong, W.

W. Dong, Y. Qiu, X. Zhou, A. Banas, K. Banas, M. B. H. Breese, T. Cao, and R. E. Simpson, “Tunable mid-infrared phase-change metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701346 (2018).
[Crossref]

Du, K.-K.

K.-K. Du, Q. Li, Y.-B. Lyu, J.-C. Ding, Y. Lu, Z.-Y. Cheng, and M. Qiu, “Control over emissivity of zero-static-power thermal emitters based on phase-changing material GST,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16194 (2017).
[Crossref]

Feng, L.

P. Miao, Z. Zhang, J. Sun, W. Walasik, S. Longhi, N. M. Litchinitser, and L. Feng, “Orbital angular momentum microlaser,” Science 353, 464–467 (2016).
[Crossref]

Feng, S.

Gaburro, Z.

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gao, P.

M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1, e1500396 (2015).
[Crossref]

Genevet, P.

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gerardot, B. D.

F. Yue, D. Wen, J. Xin, B. D. Gerardot, J. Li, and X. Chen, “Vector vortex beam generation with a single plasmonic metasurface,” ACS Photon. 3, 1558–1563 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gholipour, B.

Q. Wang, E. T. F. Rogers, B. Gholipour, C.-M. Wang, G. Yuan, J. Teng, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optically reconfigurable metasurfaces and photonic devices based on phase change materials,” Nat. Photonics 10, 60–65 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Tittl, A.-K. U. Michel, M. Schäferling, X. Yin, B. Gholipour, L. Cui, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, F. Neubrech, and H. Giessen, “A switchable mid-infrared plasmonic perfect absorber with multispectral thermal imaging capability,” Adv. Mater. 27, 4597–4603 (2015).
[Crossref]

Giessen, H.

A. Tittl, A.-K. U. Michel, M. Schäferling, X. Yin, B. Gholipour, L. Cui, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, F. Neubrech, and H. Giessen, “A switchable mid-infrared plasmonic perfect absorber with multispectral thermal imaging capability,” Adv. Mater. 27, 4597–4603 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gu, M.

X. Luo, D. Tsai, M. Gu, and M. Hong, “Extraordinary optical fields in nanostructures: from sub-diffraction-limited optics to sensing and energy conversion,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 48, 2458–2494 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Luo, D. Tsai, M. Gu, and M. Hong, “Subwavelength interference of light on structured surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 10, 757–842 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1, e1500396 (2015).
[Crossref]

Guo, Y.

X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, Y. Guo, and X. Luo, “All-metallic wide-angle metasurfaces for multifunctional polarization manipulation,” Opto-Electron. Adv. 2, 180023 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Xie, X. Li, M. Pu, X. Ma, K. Liu, Y. Guo, and X. Luo, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for simultaneous thermal infrared invisibility and holographic illusion,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1706673 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Guo, X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “High-efficiency and wide-angle beam steering based on catenary optical fields in ultrathin metalens,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1800592 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, M. Pu, F. Zhang, Y. Guo, Q. He, X. Ma, Y. Huang, X. Li, H. Yu, and X. Luo, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for switchable photonic spin-orbit interactions based on phase change materials,” Adv. Sci. 5, 1800835 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hao, J.

He, Q.

M. Zhang, M. Pu, F. Zhang, Y. Guo, Q. He, X. Ma, Y. Huang, X. Li, H. Yu, and X. Luo, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for switchable photonic spin-orbit interactions based on phase change materials,” Adv. Sci. 5, 1800835 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hong, M.

X. Luo, D. Tsai, M. Gu, and M. Hong, “Extraordinary optical fields in nanostructures: from sub-diffraction-limited optics to sensing and energy conversion,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 48, 2458–2494 (2019).
[Crossref]

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E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e167 (2014).
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Wang, J.

Wang, Q.

N. Arash, Q. Wang, M. Hong, and J. Teng, “Tunable and reconfigurable metasurfaces and metadevices,” Opto-Electron. Adv. 1, 180009 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, E. T. F. Rogers, B. Gholipour, C.-M. Wang, G. Yuan, J. Teng, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optically reconfigurable metasurfaces and photonic devices based on phase change materials,” Nat. Photonics 10, 60–65 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, J. P. B. Mueller, Q. Wang, G. Yuan, N. Antoniou, X.-C. Yuan, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-controlled tunable directional coupling of surface plasmon polaritons,” Science 340, 331–334 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

Z. Deng, J. Deng, X. Zhuang, S. Wang, K. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Chi, X. Ye, J. Xu, G. P. Wang, R. Zhao, X. Wang, Y. Cao, X. Cheng, G. Li, and X. Li, “Diatomic metasurface for vectorial holography,” Nano Lett. 18, 2885–2892 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Z. Deng, J. Deng, X. Zhuang, S. Wang, K. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Chi, X. Ye, J. Xu, G. P. Wang, R. Zhao, X. Wang, Y. Cao, X. Cheng, G. Li, and X. Li, “Diatomic metasurface for vectorial holography,” Nano Lett. 18, 2885–2892 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Z. Deng, J. Deng, X. Zhuang, S. Wang, K. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Chi, X. Ye, J. Xu, G. P. Wang, R. Zhao, X. Wang, Y. Cao, X. Cheng, G. Li, and X. Li, “Diatomic metasurface for vectorial holography,” Nano Lett. 18, 2885–2892 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, X. Ma, X. Li, M. Pu, and X. Luo, “Perfect electromagnetic and sound absorption via subwavelength holes array,” Opto-Electron. Adv. 1, 180013 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1, e1500396 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wen, D.

F. Yue, D. Wen, J. Xin, B. D. Gerardot, J. Li, and X. Chen, “Vector vortex beam generation with a single plasmonic metasurface,” ACS Photon. 3, 1558–1563 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wright, C. D.

C. R. de Galarreta, A. M. Alexeev, Y.-Y. Au, M. Lopez-Garcia, M. Klemm, M. Cryan, J. Bertolotti, and C. D. Wright, “Nonvolatile reconfigurable phase-change metadevices for beam steering in the near infrared,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1704993 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Hosseini, C. D. Wright, and H. Bhaskaran, “An optoelectronic framework enabled by low-dimensional phase-change films,” Nature 511, 206–211 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wuttig, M.

A. Tittl, A.-K. U. Michel, M. Schäferling, X. Yin, B. Gholipour, L. Cui, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, F. Neubrech, and H. Giessen, “A switchable mid-infrared plasmonic perfect absorber with multispectral thermal imaging capability,” Adv. Mater. 27, 4597–4603 (2015).
[Crossref]

A.-K. U. Michel, P. Zalden, D. N. Chigrin, M. Wuttig, A. M. Lindenberg, and T. Taubner, “Reversible optical switching of infrared antenna resonances with ultrathin phase-change layers using femtosecond laser pulses,” ACS Photon. 1, 833–839 (2014).
[Crossref]

A.-K. U. Michel, D. N. Chigrin, T. W. W. Maß, K. Schönauer, M. Salinga, M. Wuttig, and T. Taubner, “Using low-loss phase-change materials for mid-infrared antenna resonance tuning,” Nano Lett. 13, 3470–3475 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Wuttig and N. Yamada, “Phase-change materials for rewriteable data storage,” Nat. Mater. 6, 824 (2007).
[Crossref]

Xie, X.

X. Xie, X. Li, M. Pu, X. Ma, K. Liu, Y. Guo, and X. Luo, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for simultaneous thermal infrared invisibility and holographic illusion,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1706673 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xin, J.

F. Yue, D. Wen, J. Xin, B. D. Gerardot, J. Li, and X. Chen, “Vector vortex beam generation with a single plasmonic metasurface,” ACS Photon. 3, 1558–1563 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

Z. Deng, J. Deng, X. Zhuang, S. Wang, K. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Chi, X. Ye, J. Xu, G. P. Wang, R. Zhao, X. Wang, Y. Cao, X. Cheng, G. Li, and X. Li, “Diatomic metasurface for vectorial holography,” Nano Lett. 18, 2885–2892 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, J. Hao, B.-F. Zhang, J. Xu, J. Ding, and H.-T. Wang, “Generation of vector beam with space-variant distribution of both polarization and phase,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3179–3181 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yamada, N.

M. Wuttig and N. Yamada, “Phase-change materials for rewriteable data storage,” Nat. Mater. 6, 824 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1, e1500396 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ye, X.

Z. Deng, J. Deng, X. Zhuang, S. Wang, K. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Chi, X. Ye, J. Xu, G. P. Wang, R. Zhao, X. Wang, Y. Cao, X. Cheng, G. Li, and X. Li, “Diatomic metasurface for vectorial holography,” Nano Lett. 18, 2885–2892 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yin, X.

A. Tittl, A.-K. U. Michel, M. Schäferling, X. Yin, B. Gholipour, L. Cui, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, F. Neubrech, and H. Giessen, “A switchable mid-infrared plasmonic perfect absorber with multispectral thermal imaging capability,” Adv. Mater. 27, 4597–4603 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yu, H.

M. Zhang, M. Pu, F. Zhang, Y. Guo, Q. He, X. Ma, Y. Huang, X. Li, H. Yu, and X. Luo, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for switchable photonic spin-orbit interactions based on phase change materials,” Adv. Sci. 5, 1800835 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yu, N.

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yuan, C.

Yuan, G.

Q. Wang, E. T. F. Rogers, B. Gholipour, C.-M. Wang, G. Yuan, J. Teng, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optically reconfigurable metasurfaces and photonic devices based on phase change materials,” Nat. Photonics 10, 60–65 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, J. P. B. Mueller, Q. Wang, G. Yuan, N. Antoniou, X.-C. Yuan, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-controlled tunable directional coupling of surface plasmon polaritons,” Science 340, 331–334 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yuan, X.

Yuan, X.-C.

J. Lin, J. P. B. Mueller, Q. Wang, G. Yuan, N. Antoniou, X.-C. Yuan, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-controlled tunable directional coupling of surface plasmon polaritons,” Science 340, 331–334 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yue, F.

F. Yue, D. Wen, J. Xin, B. D. Gerardot, J. Li, and X. Chen, “Vector vortex beam generation with a single plasmonic metasurface,” ACS Photon. 3, 1558–1563 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zalden, P.

A.-K. U. Michel, P. Zalden, D. N. Chigrin, M. Wuttig, A. M. Lindenberg, and T. Taubner, “Reversible optical switching of infrared antenna resonances with ultrathin phase-change layers using femtosecond laser pulses,” ACS Photon. 1, 833–839 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zentgraf, T.

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 308 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, B.-F.

Zhang, F.

M. Zhang, M. Pu, F. Zhang, Y. Guo, Q. He, X. Ma, Y. Huang, X. Li, H. Yu, and X. Luo, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for switchable photonic spin-orbit interactions based on phase change materials,” Adv. Sci. 5, 1800835 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, M.

M. Zhang, M. Pu, F. Zhang, Y. Guo, Q. He, X. Ma, Y. Huang, X. Li, H. Yu, and X. Luo, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for switchable photonic spin-orbit interactions based on phase change materials,” Adv. Sci. 5, 1800835 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 308 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

P. Miao, Z. Zhang, J. Sun, W. Walasik, S. Longhi, N. M. Litchinitser, and L. Feng, “Orbital angular momentum microlaser,” Science 353, 464–467 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhao, R.

Z. Deng, J. Deng, X. Zhuang, S. Wang, K. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Chi, X. Ye, J. Xu, G. P. Wang, R. Zhao, X. Wang, Y. Cao, X. Cheng, G. Li, and X. Li, “Diatomic metasurface for vectorial holography,” Nano Lett. 18, 2885–2892 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Z.

Y. Guo, X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “High-efficiency and wide-angle beam steering based on catenary optical fields in ultrathin metalens,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1800592 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1, e1500396 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zheludev, N. I.

Q. Wang, E. T. F. Rogers, B. Gholipour, C.-M. Wang, G. Yuan, J. Teng, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optically reconfigurable metasurfaces and photonic devices based on phase change materials,” Nat. Photonics 10, 60–65 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zheng, G.

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 308 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, X.

W. Dong, Y. Qiu, X. Zhou, A. Banas, K. Banas, M. B. H. Breese, T. Cao, and R. E. Simpson, “Tunable mid-infrared phase-change metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701346 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhuang, X.

Z. Deng, J. Deng, X. Zhuang, S. Wang, K. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Chi, X. Ye, J. Xu, G. P. Wang, R. Zhao, X. Wang, Y. Cao, X. Cheng, G. Li, and X. Li, “Diatomic metasurface for vectorial holography,” Nano Lett. 18, 2885–2892 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zornberg, L.

K. Thyagarajan, R. Sokhoyan, L. Zornberg, and H. A. Atwater, “Millivolt modulation of plasmonic metasurface optical response via ionic conductance,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1701044 (2017).
[Crossref]

ACS Photon. (2)

F. Yue, D. Wen, J. Xin, B. D. Gerardot, J. Li, and X. Chen, “Vector vortex beam generation with a single plasmonic metasurface,” ACS Photon. 3, 1558–1563 (2016).
[Crossref]

A.-K. U. Michel, P. Zalden, D. N. Chigrin, M. Wuttig, A. M. Lindenberg, and T. Taubner, “Reversible optical switching of infrared antenna resonances with ultrathin phase-change layers using femtosecond laser pulses,” ACS Photon. 1, 833–839 (2014).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

C. R. de Galarreta, A. M. Alexeev, Y.-Y. Au, M. Lopez-Garcia, M. Klemm, M. Cryan, J. Bertolotti, and C. D. Wright, “Nonvolatile reconfigurable phase-change metadevices for beam steering in the near infrared,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1704993 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Xie, X. Li, M. Pu, X. Ma, K. Liu, Y. Guo, and X. Luo, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for simultaneous thermal infrared invisibility and holographic illusion,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1706673 (2018).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (2)

A. Tittl, A.-K. U. Michel, M. Schäferling, X. Yin, B. Gholipour, L. Cui, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, F. Neubrech, and H. Giessen, “A switchable mid-infrared plasmonic perfect absorber with multispectral thermal imaging capability,” Adv. Mater. 27, 4597–4603 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Thyagarajan, R. Sokhoyan, L. Zornberg, and H. A. Atwater, “Millivolt modulation of plasmonic metasurface optical response via ionic conductance,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1701044 (2017).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (2)

W. Dong, Y. Qiu, X. Zhou, A. Banas, K. Banas, M. B. H. Breese, T. Cao, and R. E. Simpson, “Tunable mid-infrared phase-change metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701346 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Guo, X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “High-efficiency and wide-angle beam steering based on catenary optical fields in ultrathin metalens,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1800592 (2018).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Adv. Sci. (1)

M. Zhang, M. Pu, F. Zhang, Y. Guo, Q. He, X. Ma, Y. Huang, X. Li, H. Yu, and X. Luo, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for switchable photonic spin-orbit interactions based on phase change materials,” Adv. Sci. 5, 1800835 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

X. Luo, D. Tsai, M. Gu, and M. Hong, “Extraordinary optical fields in nanostructures: from sub-diffraction-limited optics to sensing and energy conversion,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 48, 2458–2494 (2019).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (2)

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

K.-K. Du, Q. Li, Y.-B. Lyu, J.-C. Ding, Y. Lu, Z.-Y. Cheng, and M. Qiu, “Control over emissivity of zero-static-power thermal emitters based on phase-changing material GST,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16194 (2017).
[Crossref]

Materials (1)

N. Raeis-Hosseini and J. Rho, “Metasurfaces based on phase-change material as a reconfigurable platform for multifunctional devices,” Materials 10, 1046 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (3)

A.-K. U. Michel, D. N. Chigrin, T. W. W. Maß, K. Schönauer, M. Salinga, M. Wuttig, and T. Taubner, “Using low-loss phase-change materials for mid-infrared antenna resonance tuning,” Nano Lett. 13, 3470–3475 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Deng, J. Deng, X. Zhuang, S. Wang, K. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Chi, X. Ye, J. Xu, G. P. Wang, R. Zhao, X. Wang, Y. Cao, X. Cheng, G. Li, and X. Li, “Diatomic metasurface for vectorial holography,” Nano Lett. 18, 2885–2892 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

M. Wuttig and N. Yamada, “Phase-change materials for rewriteable data storage,” Nat. Mater. 6, 824 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 308 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

Q. Wang, E. T. F. Rogers, B. Gholipour, C.-M. Wang, G. Yuan, J. Teng, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optically reconfigurable metasurfaces and photonic devices based on phase change materials,” Nat. Photonics 10, 60–65 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

P. Hosseini, C. D. Wright, and H. Bhaskaran, “An optoelectronic framework enabled by low-dimensional phase-change films,” Nature 511, 206–211 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opto-Electron. Adv. (3)

N. Arash, Q. Wang, M. Hong, and J. Teng, “Tunable and reconfigurable metasurfaces and metadevices,” Opto-Electron. Adv. 1, 180009 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, Y. Guo, and X. Luo, “All-metallic wide-angle metasurfaces for multifunctional polarization manipulation,” Opto-Electron. Adv. 2, 180023 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, X. Ma, X. Li, M. Pu, and X. Luo, “Perfect electromagnetic and sound absorption via subwavelength holes array,” Opto-Electron. Adv. 1, 180013 (2018).
[Crossref]

Photon. Res. (1)

Sci. Adv. (1)

M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1, e1500396 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sci. China Phys. Mech. (1)

X. Luo, “Principles of electromagnetic waves in metasurfaces,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. 58, 594201 (2015).
[Crossref]

Science (2)

J. Lin, J. P. B. Mueller, Q. Wang, G. Yuan, N. Antoniou, X.-C. Yuan, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-controlled tunable directional coupling of surface plasmon polaritons,” Science 340, 331–334 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Miao, Z. Zhang, J. Sun, W. Walasik, S. Longhi, N. M. Litchinitser, and L. Feng, “Orbital angular momentum microlaser,” Science 353, 464–467 (2016).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

C. T. Phare, M. C. Shin, S. A. Miller, B. Stern, and M. Lipson, “Silicon optical phased array with high-efficiency beam formation over 180 degree field of view,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (IEEE, 2018), pp. 1–2.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic of the metasurface. Phase distribution of TE and TM with linearly polarized beam of (b) quarter- or three-quarter wave plate and (c) mirror or half-wave plate for different states of GST. (d) Co-polarization and cross-polarization reflectance for quarter- or three-quarter-wave plate. (e) Co-polarization and cross-polarization reflectance for mirror or half-wave plate. RCP with respect to the frequency for (f) quarter- or three-quarter-wave plate and (g) mirror or half-wave plate.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Three-dimensional (3D) schematic of the switchable vectorial converter. Inset is the top view of the super unit cell. (b) Top view of the tunable vectorial beam generator.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Diffraction pattern of the designed switchable vectorial generator at the transverse plane 12 µm away from the metasurface. (a)–(c) When the GST layer is in the amorphous state, the transmitted electric fields for $x$ and $y$ components, and the polarization distribution, respectively. (d)–(f) Electric field distributions when the GST layer is in the crystalline state.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) 3D schematic of the switchable OAM generator. The illustration is part of the generator. In the actual simulation, it is composed of 10 rings. (b) Top view of the tunable vortex generator.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Diffraction pattern of designed switchable vortex generator at the transverse plane 12 µm away from the metasurface. (a) and (b) The incident light is LCP. The electric field intensity distributions when the GST layer is in different states. (c) Phase distribution. (d)–(f) When the incident light is RCP, the electric field intensity and phase distributions for different states.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

( cos β sin β sin β cos β ) ( 1 0 0 exp ( ± j π / / 2 ) ) ( cos β sin β sin β cos β ) 1 2 ( 1 j ) = exp ( j β ) ( cos ( β ± π / π 4 ) sin ( β ± π / π 4 ) ) ,
( cos β sin β sin β cos β ) ( exp ( j δ / 2 ) 0 0 exp ( j δ / 2 ) ) ( cos β sin β sin β cos β ) 1 2 [ 1 j ] = cos δ 2 ( 1 j ) + j sin δ 2 exp ( j 2 β ) ( 1 j ) ,
R i n = p / p 2 2 w / w 2 2 + ( n 1 ) p R o u t = p / p 2 2 + w / w 2 2 + ( n 1 ) p .

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