Abstract

By using the optical frequency dependence of surface-plasmon polaritons, color images can be reconstructed from holograms illuminated with white light. We report details on the color selectivity of the color holograms. The selectivity is tuned by the thickness of a dielectric film covering a plasmonic metal film. When the dielectric is SiO2 and the metal is silver, the appropriate thicknesses are 25 and 55 nm, respectively. In terms of spatial color uniformity, holograms made of silver-film corrugations are better than holograms recorded on photographic film on a flat silver surface.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

A quantum of a charge-density wave of free electrons on a metal surface is called a surface-plasmon polariton (SPP), which is excited by coupling with light waves. SPPs can be applied to sensors [1], solar cells [2], plasmonic lasers [3,4], near-field optical microscopy [5], Raman spectroscopy with high spatial resolution [6], optical nanocircuits [7], photodynamic cancer cell treatments [8], and nanolens magnifiers [9]. In some of these applications, the resonant-frequency dependence of SPPs is utilized. Recently, we reconstructed holograms in color with white-light illumination by exploiting the optical frequency dependence of SPPs [10]. Colors were extracted from white light by using this frequency dependence. In this paper, we report on the details of color selectivity and spatial color uniformity. When the color isolation is not sufficiently large, colors become mixed, and the resultant reconstructed image is whitish. When the color selectivity is spatially uneven, color unevenness occurs in a reconstructed image.

2. Color Extraction by SPPs

Figure 1 shows the optical geometry for the excitation of SPPs. Silver film is illuminated by light from the glass side. kgx is the wavenumber of the incident light in the direction of the x axis and is given by

kgx=ωcngsinθ,
where ω, c, ng, and θ are the frequency of light, speed of light in vacuum, refractive index of glass, and incident angle of light, respectively. kspp is a wavenumber of SPPs, which is given by
kspp=ωc(na2nm(ω)2na2+nm(ω)2)1/2,
where na and nm(ω), which are functions of ω, are the refractive indices of air and silver, respectively [11,12]. When kgx is equal to kspp, SPPs are excited. Thus, from Eqs. (1) and (2), the excitation condition of SPPs is expressed by
θ=sin1{1ng(na2nm(ω)2na2+nm(ω)2)1/2}.
Thus, the frequency ω, which describes the photon color, is theoretically selected by the incident angle θ. If the incident light is white light, the frequency waves fulfill the condition exciting SPPs.

 figure: Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Excitation of SPPs by light waves. Light is illuminated at the incident angle θ, which is larger than the critical angle. When the wave vector of SPPs (kspp) equals that of incident light in the x component (kgx), SPPs are excited. na, nm(ω), and ng are the refractive indices of air, silver, and glass, respectively.

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3. Color-Selectivity Tuning

To improve color selectivity, the silver surface must be covered with an SiO2 layer, as shown in Fig. 2(a). Figure 2(b) is a calculated relationship between the incident angle θ and the color of the SPPs. The calculations are based on Fresnel’s equations. When the SiO2 thickness td is 0 nm, incident-angle separation between red and blue is less than 3°, which is not sufficiently large to separate colors, and the obtained reconstructed images are whitish. When the SiO2 thickness is 25 nm, which is the most appropriate thickness for color holograms in the calculations, the incident angle θ for red, green, and blue broadens to 45.6°, 48.6°, and 54.1°, respectively. If SiO2 thickness is 50 nm or more, blue SPPs cannot be excited. These color-selectivity responses are caused by the effective value of na, which is affected by SiO2 thickness [13,14].

 figure: Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. (a) Excitation of SPPs on silver film covered with SiO2 film. (b) Relationship between the incident angle of white light and color of SPPs to be excited when tm is 55 nm. The blackness of the band indicates reflectance at each wavelength. Low reflectance (dark part) corresponds to excitation of SPPs. When td is 0 nm, the incident angle θ for red, green, and blue SPP excitation is 42.8°, 43.7°, and 45.2°, respectively. When tm is 25 nm, the incident angle θ for red, green, and blue SPP excitation is 45.6°, 48.6°, and 54.1°, respectively. When SiO2 thickness is 50 nm or more, blue SPPs cannot be excited.

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Figure 3(a) shows a color selectivity identical to that shown in Fig. 2(b), except that the silver-film thickness is thinner (35 nm). Dark bands corresponding to the excitation of SPPs broaden, and hence, the color selectivity gets worse. When the silver thickness is thicker, the bandwidth does not broaden, but the excitation efficiency of SPPs decreases, as shown in Fig. 3(b).

 figure: Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. (a) Relationship between the incident angle of white light and SPP color when tm is 35 nm. When bandwidth was broadened, color selectivity became worse compared with Fig. 2(b). (b) Relationship between the incident angle of white light and the SPP color when tm is 75 nm. SPP-excitation efficiency decreased compared with Fig. 2(b).

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4. Hologram Reconstruction with Spatially Uniform Color

In SPP holography, the hologram to be reconstructed should be located in the near field of the metal surface. In Fig. 4(a), an image hologram [15] is on a flat silver surface on which SPPs are excited. SPPs propagating on a silver surface are diffracted by the hologram [16]. The diffracted waves focus an image. In this hologram, color separation is broadened by a hologram layer instead of by an SiO2 film. Figure 4(b) shows a reconstructed image. The center of the image is green, although collimated white light illuminates the hologram to reconstruct a red image. This partial color shift is caused by hologram thickness that is thinner than the surrounding area, as shown in Fig. 4(c). Figure 4(d) shows the relationship between the hologram thickness and the wavelength of the light exciting the SPPs. Red SPPs were excited in the thick hologram area, while green SPPs were excited in the thin area. The uneven thickness of the hologram is mainly caused by the intensity distribution of the exposure light. In this case, the intensity of the center area is larger than that of the surrounding area.

 figure: Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. (a) Dielectric hologram on a silver surface on which SPPs are excited. SPPs propagating on the silver surface are diffracted by the hologram. The diffracted waves focus an image. (b) Reconstructed image with color shift in the center. (c) Cross section of a hologram that reconstructs images with uneven color such as in (b). The center of the hologram is thinner than both ends. (The modulation pitch is several hundred nanometers and the depth is several dozen nanometers in actual SPP holograms.) (d) Relationship between the effective thickness of the hologram and the color of SPPs (53° illumination angle).

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To suppress the color unevenness, a silver-relief SPP hologram [Fig. 5(a)] is needed. Fringes of the hologram consist of corrugations of silver film on which SPPs are excited and diffracted. To create this hologram, we first coated the glass surface with the photoresist and then exposed it to the reference and object light beams. Next, we developed the exposed photoresist and deposited the silver onto the hologram. As a last step, we deposited SiO2 onto the silver surface for tuning the color selectivity. In this hologram, the spatially uneven photoresist layer recorded is below the silver film, and the SiO2 layer above it can be uniformly deposited by sputtering. Thus, the color shift is eliminated. Figure 5(b) shows a red bar reconstructed from the silver-relief SPP hologram. A color shift does not occur, and the center of the image, in which exposure intensity is high, is brighter than both ends of the image. Figure 5(c) shows the distribution of image brightness.

 figure: Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. (a) Silver-relief hologram. SPPs are excited on the hologram made of silver-film corrugations. SPPs are diffracted by the corrugations. The diffracted waves focus an image. (b) Image reconstructed from the silver-relief SPP hologram. No color shifts occur. [Compare it to Fig. 4(b).] (c) Normalized brightness of the image, where the center is brighter than both ends.

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5. Conclusion

The thickness of an SiO2 film on a silver surface controls color selectivity of SPP holograms reconstructed with white-light illumination. The appropriate SiO2 thickness is 25 nm and needs to be uniform since its unevenness causes a partial color shift. The thickness of the silver film also affects the color selectivity. The optimal thickness of the silver is 55 nm.

Although gold is well known as a plasmonic material, we use silver because it covers the entire visible range, while gold covers only the range from yellow to red, owing to the resonance frequency of SPPs.

In terms of color uniformity, holograms made of silver-film corrugations are more appropriate than dielectric holograms on flat silver film because the thickness of the hologram layer is uneven, which causes a partial color shift. Although a periodical structure, such as a hologram, also shifts the color of SPPs excited by white light, the depth of our hologram is up to 25 nm, and hence, the color shift is negligible [17,18]. When we suppress an image blur by using the incident angle dependence of the SPP excitation [19], a silver-relief SPP hologram is preferred because it offers spatially stable excitation conditions.

When the hologram is recorded in our experiments, a thin photoresist film is exposed with interference fringes of the object light and the reference beam, and then it is developed. Therefore, this is a traditional process to record the thin holograms, and it is possible to make fringes of computer-generated holograms in some way. In addition, even though the SPP holograms described here are such thin holograms based on Raman–Nath diffraction, a color image with white-light illumination can be reconstructed.

When the refractive index ng decreases, the incident angle θ increases, according to Eq. (3). Thus, the hologram is illuminated at a larger incident angle when a low refractive-index substrate glass is used. Such holograms, with large incident-angle illumination, are called “edge-illuminated holograms”; these have potential for use in slate-type devices and improve the usability of holography [2022]. An SPP hologram supports slate-type devices based on edge and back illumination, since the opaque metal film prevents stray light from emerging on the observer’s side, while typical back-lit holograms are illuminated through transparent materials.

References

1. C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, “Gas detection by means of surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators 3, 79–88 (1982). [CrossRef]  

2. V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8, 4391–4397 (2008). [CrossRef]  

3. T. Okamoto, F. H’Dhili, and S. Kawata, “Towards plasmonic band gap laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3968–3970 (2004). [CrossRef]  

4. N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, “Lasing spaser,” Nat. Photonics 2, 351–354 (2008). [CrossRef]  

5. S. Kawata and Y. Inouye, “Near-field scanning optical microscope with a metallic probe tip,” Opt. Lett. 19, 159–161 (1994). [CrossRef]  

6. N. Hayazawa, Y. Inouye, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Metallized tip amplification of near-field Raman scattering,” Opt. Commun. 183, 333–336 (2000). [CrossRef]  

7. S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics—a route to nanoscale optical devices,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1501–1505 (2001). [CrossRef]  

8. C. Loo, A. Lowery, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, “Immunotargeted nanoshells for integrated cancer imaging and therapy,” Nano Lett. 5, 709–711 (2005). [CrossRef]  

9. S. Kawata, A. Ono, and P. Verma, “Subwavelength colour imaging with a metallic nanolens,” Nat. Photonics 2, 438–442 (2008). [CrossRef]  

10. M. Ozaki, J. Kato, and S. Kawata, “Surface-plasmon holography with white light illumination,” Science 332, 218–220 (2011). [CrossRef]  

11. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

12. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972). [CrossRef]  

13. K. Holst and H. Raether, “The influence of thin surface films on the plasma resonance emission,” Opt. Commun. 2, 312–316 (1970). [CrossRef]  

14. I. Pockrand, “Surface plasma oscillations at silver surfaces with thin transparent and absorbing coatings,” Surf. Sci. 72, 577–588 (1978). [CrossRef]  

15. G. W. Stroke, “White-light reconstruction of holographic images using transmission holograms recorded with conventionally-focused images and ‘in-line’ background,” Phys. Lett. 23, 325–327 (1966). [CrossRef]  

16. S. Maruo, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, “Evanescent-wave holography by use of surface-plasmon resonance,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2343–2346 (1997). [CrossRef]  

17. I. Pockrand, “Reflection of light from periodically corrugated silver films near the plasma frequency,” Phys. Lett. 49A, 259–260 (1974).

18. I. Pockrand and H. Raether, “Surface plasma oscillations in silver films with wavy surface profiles: a quantitative experimental study,” Opt. Commun. 18, 395–399 (1976). [CrossRef]  

19. M. Ozaki, J. Kato, and S. Kawata, “Blur suppression in holographic imaging with use of surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 241117 (2012). [CrossRef]  

20. L. H. Lin, “Edge-illuminated hologram,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 714A (1970). [CrossRef]  

21. S. A. Benton, S. M. Birner, and A. Shirakura, “Edge-lit rainbow holograms,” Proc. SPIE 1212, 149–157 (1990). [CrossRef]  

22. J. Upatnieks, “Edge-illuminated holograms,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1048–1052 (1992). [CrossRef]  

References

  • View by:

  1. C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, “Gas detection by means of surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators 3, 79–88 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  2. V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8, 4391–4397 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  3. T. Okamoto, F. H’Dhili, and S. Kawata, “Towards plasmonic band gap laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3968–3970 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  4. N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, “Lasing spaser,” Nat. Photonics 2, 351–354 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. Kawata and Y. Inouye, “Near-field scanning optical microscope with a metallic probe tip,” Opt. Lett. 19, 159–161 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  6. N. Hayazawa, Y. Inouye, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Metallized tip amplification of near-field Raman scattering,” Opt. Commun. 183, 333–336 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics—a route to nanoscale optical devices,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1501–1505 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  8. C. Loo, A. Lowery, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, “Immunotargeted nanoshells for integrated cancer imaging and therapy,” Nano Lett. 5, 709–711 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  9. S. Kawata, A. Ono, and P. Verma, “Subwavelength colour imaging with a metallic nanolens,” Nat. Photonics 2, 438–442 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  10. M. Ozaki, J. Kato, and S. Kawata, “Surface-plasmon holography with white light illumination,” Science 332, 218–220 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  11. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988).
  12. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  13. K. Holst and H. Raether, “The influence of thin surface films on the plasma resonance emission,” Opt. Commun. 2, 312–316 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  14. I. Pockrand, “Surface plasma oscillations at silver surfaces with thin transparent and absorbing coatings,” Surf. Sci. 72, 577–588 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  15. G. W. Stroke, “White-light reconstruction of holographic images using transmission holograms recorded with conventionally-focused images and ‘in-line’ background,” Phys. Lett. 23, 325–327 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  16. S. Maruo, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, “Evanescent-wave holography by use of surface-plasmon resonance,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2343–2346 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  17. I. Pockrand, “Reflection of light from periodically corrugated silver films near the plasma frequency,” Phys. Lett. 49A, 259–260 (1974).
  18. I. Pockrand and H. Raether, “Surface plasma oscillations in silver films with wavy surface profiles: a quantitative experimental study,” Opt. Commun. 18, 395–399 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  19. M. Ozaki, J. Kato, and S. Kawata, “Blur suppression in holographic imaging with use of surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 241117 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  20. L. H. Lin, “Edge-illuminated hologram,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 714A (1970).
    [Crossref]
  21. S. A. Benton, S. M. Birner, and A. Shirakura, “Edge-lit rainbow holograms,” Proc. SPIE 1212, 149–157 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  22. J. Upatnieks, “Edge-illuminated holograms,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1048–1052 (1992).
    [Crossref]

2012 (1)

M. Ozaki, J. Kato, and S. Kawata, “Blur suppression in holographic imaging with use of surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 241117 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

M. Ozaki, J. Kato, and S. Kawata, “Surface-plasmon holography with white light illumination,” Science 332, 218–220 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

S. Kawata, A. Ono, and P. Verma, “Subwavelength colour imaging with a metallic nanolens,” Nat. Photonics 2, 438–442 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8, 4391–4397 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, “Lasing spaser,” Nat. Photonics 2, 351–354 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

C. Loo, A. Lowery, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, “Immunotargeted nanoshells for integrated cancer imaging and therapy,” Nano Lett. 5, 709–711 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

T. Okamoto, F. H’Dhili, and S. Kawata, “Towards plasmonic band gap laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3968–3970 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics—a route to nanoscale optical devices,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1501–1505 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

N. Hayazawa, Y. Inouye, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Metallized tip amplification of near-field Raman scattering,” Opt. Commun. 183, 333–336 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

S. A. Benton, S. M. Birner, and A. Shirakura, “Edge-lit rainbow holograms,” Proc. SPIE 1212, 149–157 (1990).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, “Gas detection by means of surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators 3, 79–88 (1982).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

I. Pockrand, “Surface plasma oscillations at silver surfaces with thin transparent and absorbing coatings,” Surf. Sci. 72, 577–588 (1978).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

I. Pockrand and H. Raether, “Surface plasma oscillations in silver films with wavy surface profiles: a quantitative experimental study,” Opt. Commun. 18, 395–399 (1976).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

I. Pockrand, “Reflection of light from periodically corrugated silver films near the plasma frequency,” Phys. Lett. 49A, 259–260 (1974).

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

1970 (2)

K. Holst and H. Raether, “The influence of thin surface films on the plasma resonance emission,” Opt. Commun. 2, 312–316 (1970).
[Crossref]

L. H. Lin, “Edge-illuminated hologram,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 714A (1970).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

G. W. Stroke, “White-light reconstruction of holographic images using transmission holograms recorded with conventionally-focused images and ‘in-line’ background,” Phys. Lett. 23, 325–327 (1966).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8, 4391–4397 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics—a route to nanoscale optical devices,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1501–1505 (2001).
[Crossref]

Benton, S. A.

S. A. Benton, S. M. Birner, and A. Shirakura, “Edge-lit rainbow holograms,” Proc. SPIE 1212, 149–157 (1990).
[Crossref]

Birner, S. M.

S. A. Benton, S. M. Birner, and A. Shirakura, “Edge-lit rainbow holograms,” Proc. SPIE 1212, 149–157 (1990).
[Crossref]

Brongersma, M. L.

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics—a route to nanoscale optical devices,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1501–1505 (2001).
[Crossref]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Drezek, R.

C. Loo, A. Lowery, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, “Immunotargeted nanoshells for integrated cancer imaging and therapy,” Nano Lett. 5, 709–711 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fedotov, V. A.

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, “Lasing spaser,” Nat. Photonics 2, 351–354 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ferry, V. E.

V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8, 4391–4397 (2008).
[Crossref]

H’Dhili, F.

T. Okamoto, F. H’Dhili, and S. Kawata, “Towards plasmonic band gap laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3968–3970 (2004).
[Crossref]

Halas, N.

C. Loo, A. Lowery, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, “Immunotargeted nanoshells for integrated cancer imaging and therapy,” Nano Lett. 5, 709–711 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hayazawa, N.

N. Hayazawa, Y. Inouye, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Metallized tip amplification of near-field Raman scattering,” Opt. Commun. 183, 333–336 (2000).
[Crossref]

Holst, K.

K. Holst and H. Raether, “The influence of thin surface films on the plasma resonance emission,” Opt. Commun. 2, 312–316 (1970).
[Crossref]

Inouye, Y.

N. Hayazawa, Y. Inouye, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Metallized tip amplification of near-field Raman scattering,” Opt. Commun. 183, 333–336 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Kawata and Y. Inouye, “Near-field scanning optical microscope with a metallic probe tip,” Opt. Lett. 19, 159–161 (1994).
[Crossref]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Kato, J.

M. Ozaki, J. Kato, and S. Kawata, “Blur suppression in holographic imaging with use of surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 241117 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Ozaki, J. Kato, and S. Kawata, “Surface-plasmon holography with white light illumination,” Science 332, 218–220 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kawata, S.

M. Ozaki, J. Kato, and S. Kawata, “Blur suppression in holographic imaging with use of surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 241117 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Ozaki, J. Kato, and S. Kawata, “Surface-plasmon holography with white light illumination,” Science 332, 218–220 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Kawata, A. Ono, and P. Verma, “Subwavelength colour imaging with a metallic nanolens,” Nat. Photonics 2, 438–442 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Okamoto, F. H’Dhili, and S. Kawata, “Towards plasmonic band gap laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3968–3970 (2004).
[Crossref]

N. Hayazawa, Y. Inouye, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Metallized tip amplification of near-field Raman scattering,” Opt. Commun. 183, 333–336 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Maruo, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, “Evanescent-wave holography by use of surface-plasmon resonance,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2343–2346 (1997).
[Crossref]

S. Kawata and Y. Inouye, “Near-field scanning optical microscope with a metallic probe tip,” Opt. Lett. 19, 159–161 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kik, P. G.

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics—a route to nanoscale optical devices,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1501–1505 (2001).
[Crossref]

Liedberg, B.

C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, “Gas detection by means of surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators 3, 79–88 (1982).
[Crossref]

Lin, L. H.

L. H. Lin, “Edge-illuminated hologram,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 714A (1970).
[Crossref]

Lind, T.

C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, “Gas detection by means of surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators 3, 79–88 (1982).
[Crossref]

Loo, C.

C. Loo, A. Lowery, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, “Immunotargeted nanoshells for integrated cancer imaging and therapy,” Nano Lett. 5, 709–711 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lowery, A.

C. Loo, A. Lowery, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, “Immunotargeted nanoshells for integrated cancer imaging and therapy,” Nano Lett. 5, 709–711 (2005).
[Crossref]

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics—a route to nanoscale optical devices,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1501–1505 (2001).
[Crossref]

Maruo, S.

Meltzer, S.

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics—a route to nanoscale optical devices,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1501–1505 (2001).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, O.

Nylander, C.

C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, “Gas detection by means of surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators 3, 79–88 (1982).
[Crossref]

Okamoto, T.

T. Okamoto, F. H’Dhili, and S. Kawata, “Towards plasmonic band gap laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3968–3970 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ono, A.

S. Kawata, A. Ono, and P. Verma, “Subwavelength colour imaging with a metallic nanolens,” Nat. Photonics 2, 438–442 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ozaki, M.

M. Ozaki, J. Kato, and S. Kawata, “Blur suppression in holographic imaging with use of surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 241117 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Ozaki, J. Kato, and S. Kawata, “Surface-plasmon holography with white light illumination,” Science 332, 218–220 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pacifici, D.

V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8, 4391–4397 (2008).
[Crossref]

Papasimakis, N.

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, “Lasing spaser,” Nat. Photonics 2, 351–354 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pockrand, I.

I. Pockrand, “Surface plasma oscillations at silver surfaces with thin transparent and absorbing coatings,” Surf. Sci. 72, 577–588 (1978).
[Crossref]

I. Pockrand and H. Raether, “Surface plasma oscillations in silver films with wavy surface profiles: a quantitative experimental study,” Opt. Commun. 18, 395–399 (1976).
[Crossref]

I. Pockrand, “Reflection of light from periodically corrugated silver films near the plasma frequency,” Phys. Lett. 49A, 259–260 (1974).

Prosvirnin, S. L.

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, “Lasing spaser,” Nat. Photonics 2, 351–354 (2008).
[Crossref]

Raether, H.

I. Pockrand and H. Raether, “Surface plasma oscillations in silver films with wavy surface profiles: a quantitative experimental study,” Opt. Commun. 18, 395–399 (1976).
[Crossref]

K. Holst and H. Raether, “The influence of thin surface films on the plasma resonance emission,” Opt. Commun. 2, 312–316 (1970).
[Crossref]

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

Requicha, A. A. G.

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics—a route to nanoscale optical devices,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1501–1505 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sekkat, Z.

N. Hayazawa, Y. Inouye, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Metallized tip amplification of near-field Raman scattering,” Opt. Commun. 183, 333–336 (2000).
[Crossref]

Shirakura, A.

S. A. Benton, S. M. Birner, and A. Shirakura, “Edge-lit rainbow holograms,” Proc. SPIE 1212, 149–157 (1990).
[Crossref]

Stroke, G. W.

G. W. Stroke, “White-light reconstruction of holographic images using transmission holograms recorded with conventionally-focused images and ‘in-line’ background,” Phys. Lett. 23, 325–327 (1966).
[Crossref]

Sweatlock, L. A.

V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8, 4391–4397 (2008).
[Crossref]

Upatnieks, J.

Verma, P.

S. Kawata, A. Ono, and P. Verma, “Subwavelength colour imaging with a metallic nanolens,” Nat. Photonics 2, 438–442 (2008).
[Crossref]

West, J.

C. Loo, A. Lowery, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, “Immunotargeted nanoshells for integrated cancer imaging and therapy,” Nano Lett. 5, 709–711 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zheludev, N. I.

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, “Lasing spaser,” Nat. Photonics 2, 351–354 (2008).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics—a route to nanoscale optical devices,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1501–1505 (2001).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. Ozaki, J. Kato, and S. Kawata, “Blur suppression in holographic imaging with use of surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 241117 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Okamoto, F. H’Dhili, and S. Kawata, “Towards plasmonic band gap laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3968–3970 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

L. H. Lin, “Edge-illuminated hologram,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 714A (1970).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (2)

V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8, 4391–4397 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Loo, A. Lowery, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, “Immunotargeted nanoshells for integrated cancer imaging and therapy,” Nano Lett. 5, 709–711 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

S. Kawata, A. Ono, and P. Verma, “Subwavelength colour imaging with a metallic nanolens,” Nat. Photonics 2, 438–442 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, “Lasing spaser,” Nat. Photonics 2, 351–354 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (3)

I. Pockrand and H. Raether, “Surface plasma oscillations in silver films with wavy surface profiles: a quantitative experimental study,” Opt. Commun. 18, 395–399 (1976).
[Crossref]

N. Hayazawa, Y. Inouye, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Metallized tip amplification of near-field Raman scattering,” Opt. Commun. 183, 333–336 (2000).
[Crossref]

K. Holst and H. Raether, “The influence of thin surface films on the plasma resonance emission,” Opt. Commun. 2, 312–316 (1970).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Lett. (2)

G. W. Stroke, “White-light reconstruction of holographic images using transmission holograms recorded with conventionally-focused images and ‘in-line’ background,” Phys. Lett. 23, 325–327 (1966).
[Crossref]

I. Pockrand, “Reflection of light from periodically corrugated silver films near the plasma frequency,” Phys. Lett. 49A, 259–260 (1974).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. A. Benton, S. M. Birner, and A. Shirakura, “Edge-lit rainbow holograms,” Proc. SPIE 1212, 149–157 (1990).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

M. Ozaki, J. Kato, and S. Kawata, “Surface-plasmon holography with white light illumination,” Science 332, 218–220 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sens. Actuators (1)

C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, “Gas detection by means of surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators 3, 79–88 (1982).
[Crossref]

Surf. Sci. (1)

I. Pockrand, “Surface plasma oscillations at silver surfaces with thin transparent and absorbing coatings,” Surf. Sci. 72, 577–588 (1978).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Excitation of SPPs by light waves. Light is illuminated at the incident angle θ, which is larger than the critical angle. When the wave vector of SPPs (kspp) equals that of incident light in the x component (kgx), SPPs are excited. na, nm(ω), and ng are the refractive indices of air, silver, and glass, respectively.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Excitation of SPPs on silver film covered with SiO2 film. (b) Relationship between the incident angle of white light and color of SPPs to be excited when tm is 55 nm. The blackness of the band indicates reflectance at each wavelength. Low reflectance (dark part) corresponds to excitation of SPPs. When td is 0 nm, the incident angle θ for red, green, and blue SPP excitation is 42.8°, 43.7°, and 45.2°, respectively. When tm is 25 nm, the incident angle θ for red, green, and blue SPP excitation is 45.6°, 48.6°, and 54.1°, respectively. When SiO2 thickness is 50 nm or more, blue SPPs cannot be excited.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Relationship between the incident angle of white light and SPP color when tm is 35 nm. When bandwidth was broadened, color selectivity became worse compared with Fig. 2(b). (b) Relationship between the incident angle of white light and the SPP color when tm is 75 nm. SPP-excitation efficiency decreased compared with Fig. 2(b).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Dielectric hologram on a silver surface on which SPPs are excited. SPPs propagating on the silver surface are diffracted by the hologram. The diffracted waves focus an image. (b) Reconstructed image with color shift in the center. (c) Cross section of a hologram that reconstructs images with uneven color such as in (b). The center of the hologram is thinner than both ends. (The modulation pitch is several hundred nanometers and the depth is several dozen nanometers in actual SPP holograms.) (d) Relationship between the effective thickness of the hologram and the color of SPPs (53° illumination angle).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Silver-relief hologram. SPPs are excited on the hologram made of silver-film corrugations. SPPs are diffracted by the corrugations. The diffracted waves focus an image. (b) Image reconstructed from the silver-relief SPP hologram. No color shifts occur. [Compare it to Fig. 4(b).] (c) Normalized brightness of the image, where the center is brighter than both ends.

Equations (3)

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kgx=ωcngsinθ,
kspp=ωc(na2nm(ω)2na2+nm(ω)2)1/2,
θ=sin1{1ng(na2nm(ω)2na2+nm(ω)2)1/2}.

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