Abstract

A unified approach to obtain the characteristics of almost-periodic grating slab waveguides including gain in the waveguide is reported. In this approach the waveguides are divided into short segments, and in each segment the gratings are assumed to be periodic, that is, parameters such as coupling coefficient, grating phase, deviations from the Bragg frequency, and gain in the waveguide are independent of a propagation direction z. Then characteristics of almost-periodic grating slab waveguides can be obtained by multiplying each F matrix of a short segment with the proper grating phase conditions at the interface between two adjacent segments. The appropriateness of this approach is shown for typical aperiodic grating waveguides such as tapered, chirped, and phase-shifted gratings. The results obtained by this method are compared with others and prove to be in good agreement with the results obtained by other methods. In addition to these characteristics, it is shown that the F matrix can be used to obtain the threshold conditions for distributed feedback laser oscillations including reflections from cleaved edges.

© 1987 Optical Society of America

I. Introduction

Almost-periodic distributed feedback waveguides such as tapered, chirped, or phase-shifted gratings play an important role in improving the characteristics of a grating filter[1][5] and stabilizing a longitudinal mode oscillation for a DFB (distributed feedback) laser,[6][10] etc. It is important to derive a unified approach for almost-periodic distributed feedback waveguides with or without gain in the waveguides. So far two different methods of approximation to solve these problems have been reported, namely, utilizing Riccati differential equations for a contradirectional coupled wave interaction near the Bragg frequency[1] and numerical repetitions by integral forms of contradirectional coupled mode equations.[2],[3] In addition to these, one can derive an approximate form by dividing the waveguide into short segments in which the grating is assumed to be constant. If the fundamental matrices for each short segment are determined, one can obtain the characteristics of almost-periodic distributed feedback waveguides by multiplying these fundamental matrices in certain phase conditions of the gratings at the interface between two adjacent segments.

A similar method has been reported for analyzing hologram gratings,[11] but in this case the grating consists of multilayered dielectrics, so it is not suitable for waveguide analysis. Since the grating phase is not included in this analysis, there is a limitation for dividing nonuniform grating structures into small segments, that is, dividing locations of the gratings is limited to where the grating phase is equal to zero. Because of explicit grating phase relationships at the interfaces of each segment, it is easy to analyze phase-shifted grating characteristics; in particular it is useful to study the characteristics of a phase-controlled DFB laser which indicates fantastic dynamic single-mode characteristics under pulse modulations. On the other hand, the methods used in [Refs. 2][4] are difficult to handle this kind of problem.

In this paper we derive an F matrix (fundamental matrix) for nonuniform but almost-periodic distributed feedback waveguides and compare the results obtained by this method with others to justufy it.

II. Derivation of F Matrix for a Periodic Distributed Feedback Waveguide

The basic coupled wave equations for a uniform grating with gain are

dA/dz=κexp[i(2Δβzϕ)]B+gA,dB/dz=κexp[i(2Δβzϕ)]AgB,
Δβ=ββB=βMπ/Λ,
where Δβ is the difference between a propagation constant in the z direction β and the Mth Bragg frequency /Λ of a grating period Λ, κ is a coupling coefficient between forward and backward waves, g is the gain per unit length, and ϕ is a grating phase as shown in Fig. 1.

From the coupled wave equations given by Eq. (1), the F matrix for a periodic distributed feedback slab waveguide is obtained. In the case of periodic waveguides, κ, ϕ, Δβ, and g are independent of z; letting A = EA amd B = EB for complex amplitudes of forward and backward propagating waves, respectively, one gets the following relations:

EA(z)=A(z)exp(iβz),EB(z)=B(z)exp(+iβz),
where β is a propagation constant in the z direction.

Considering the relation given by Eq. (3), the solutions of Eq. (1) are as follows:

EA(z)=[c1exp(Γ1z)+c2exp(Γ2z)]exp[(giβ)z],EB(z)={exp[i(2Δβzϕ)]/κ}[c1Γ1exp(Γ1z)+c2Γ2×exp(Γ2z)]exp[(giβ)z],
where c1 and c2 are arbitrary constants and Δβ′ and Γ1,2, are defined as follows:
Δβ=Δβ+ig,Γ1=iΔβγ,Γ2=iΔβ+γ,
where γ2 = κ2 − (Δβ′)2.

Assuming the continuity conditions of forward and backward waves at the interfaces of z = 0 and z = L as shown in Fig. 2, the F matrix for EA(0), EB(0), and EA(L), EB(L) is given by

(EA(0)EB(0))=[F](EA(L)EB(L)).
The elements of the F matrix in Eq. (6) are given as follows:
F11=[cosh(γL)+iΔβLsinh(γL)/(γL)]exp(iβBL),F12=κLsinh(γL)exp[i(βBL+ϕ)]/(γL),F21=κLsinh(γL)exp[i(βBL+ϕ)]/(γL),F22=[cosh(γL)iΔβLsinh(γL)/(γL)]exp[i(βBL)].
Since we are concerned with the first order of the grating, namely, M = 1, the grating phase ϕ is equal to the phase at z = 0.

The F matrix satisfies the reciprocity, that is, the determinant of the F matrix is unity, namely,

|F|=F11F22F12F21=1.

III. F-Matrix Representation for a Nonuniform but Almost-Periodic Distributed Feedback Slab Waveguide

To begin, let us consider the conditions for dividing almost-periodic waveguides into N segments. To obtain the coupled wave equations in Eq. (1), the first order of perturbed term Δn′2(x,z) for distributed feedback regions is given by

Δn2(x,y)=2a1(x)cos(2πz/Λ),
and its Fourier transform with respect to z is
F[Δn2(x,z)]=4πa1(x)[δ(S2π/Λ)+δ(S2π/Λ)],
where F is the Fourier transform of Δn′2(x,z), S is a spatial frequency, and δ is the delta function. To get the above relation, one tacitly assumes that the distributed feedback region is infinite in the z direction, but it is truncated by a finite length L as shown in Fig. 3. Therefore Δn2(x,z) is given by
Δn2(x,z)={2a1(x)cos(2πz/Λ)|z|L/2,0|z|>L/2,
and its Fourier transform is given by
F[Δn2(x,z)]=2{sin[(S+2π/Λ)L/2]/[S+2π/Λ]+sin[(S2π/Λ)L/2]/[S2π/Λ]}a1(x).
Therefore the validity of the approximation condition, that is, Δn′2 ≒ Δn2 is given by Λ ≪ L, and the F matrix in Eq. (7) includes this condition tacitly, namely, the condition of dividing the waveguide must satisfy
ΛkLk,
where the superscript k indicates a kth segment. The condition given by Eq. (9) is usually satisfied for slowly varying almost-periodic gratings. An almost-periodic distributed feedback waveguide can be divided into N small segments provided the above condition is satisfied. In each segment corrugations are assumed to be periodic and the F matrix for the kth segment is represented by (see Fig. 4)
[Fk]=[F(κk,Δβk,Lk,gk,ϕk)].
Then the charcteristics of the F matrix for an almost-periodic waveguide can be given by multiplication of [Fk] as follows:
[F]=Πk=1N[Fk].
In the following paragraphs we. show the results for tapered, chirped, and phase-shifted gratings as typical examples of almost-periodic distributed feedback waveguides. These gratings are shown schematically in Figs. 5(a), (b), and (c), respectively.

A. Tapered Grating

A tapered grating can be characterized by the coupling coefficient κ which varies along the propagation direction z as shown in Fig. 5(a) and is generally given by

κ(z)=κ0[1+Ta(z)],
where κ0 is a reference coupling coefficient and Ta(z) is the tapered function, namely, linear, quadratic, etc. The grating phase at the interface between two adjacent small segments must satisfy
ϕk=ϕk1+2βBLk1.
Since ϕk−1 + 2βBLk−1 in Eq. (13) represents the grating phase at the end of the (k − 1)th segment, Eq. (13) gives the continuity condition of the grating phase between the (k − 1)th and kth segments.

B. Chirped Grating

A chirped grating can be characterized by changing the grating period Λ in the z direction. In other words, the Bragg frequency βB changes in the z direction as shown in Fig. 5(b). The general expression for a chirped grating is given by

βB(z)=βBO+βBs(z),
where βBO is the reference first-order Bragg frequency π0; here Λ0 is a reference grating period and βBs is the deviation from the reference Bragg frequency βBO.

The relations of deviation quantities from the reference, namely, between βBs(z) and Λs(z) and the phase deviation ϕs(z) are

Λs(z)Λ0=βBs(z)βBO,
ϕs=2βBs(ζ)dζ.
In this case the piecewise F-matrix approximation also requires the following phase relation at the interface between the two adjacent segments, namely,
ϕk=ϕk1+2βBLk1.
Equation (17) shows the continuity condition of the grating at the interface between the (k − 1)th and kth segments, and this also represents the approximation of the phase deviation ϕs(z).

C. Phase-Shifted Grating

A phase-shifted grating can be characterized by the collections of several periodic grating segments which are assembled in such a way that the grating phases between two adjacent segments are not continuous as shown in Fig. 5(c). In this example it consists of two segments and the condition given by Eq. (13) does not hold at the interface of each segment. The phase shift Δϕk at the interface is given by

Δϕk=ϕkϕk12βBLk1.

To justify the F-matrix approach, reflection and transmission characteristics for three different types of grating filter, such as linear tapered, linear chirped, and phase-shifted gratings are obtained. The coefficients of reflection R and transmission T are given by the F-matrix representation as follows:

T=1/F11,
R=F21/F11.
Figure 6(a) shows the results for linear tapered gratings when the coupling coefficient κ is given by
κ(z)=κ0[1+T(zL/2)/L],
where T is a tapered coefficient and L is a waveguide length. Figure 6(b) shows the results for linear chirped gratings when the Bragg frequency βB(z) is given by
βB(z)=βBO+2V(zL/2)/L2,
where V is a chirped coefficient and L is a waveguide length. Figure 6(c) shows the characteristics of the reflection coefficient | R| vs the normalized frequency ΔβL for a phase-shifted grating which consists of two grating segments of equal length and period, that is, L1 = L2 = L/2 for various phase shift parameters Δϕ. In this analysis the number of divisions N is chosen as N = 50 except for the phase-shifted grating.

In the above examples the following parameters are used for three types of grating, namely, a tapered coefficient T for linear tapered gratings, a chirped coefficient V for a linear chirped grating, and a phase shift Δϕ for phase-shifted gratings.

In addition to this filter analysis the threshold conditions of distributed feedback laser oscillations[6],[7] are investigated by the F-matrix approach. Let r1 and r2 be the reflection coefficients at the cleaved facets of a DFB laser and let the F matrix for the distributed feedback region of a DFB laser be [F]; then the characteristic F matrix for the DFB laser [FR] is given as follows:

[FR]=1/{(1r1)(1r2)}1/2(1,(r1)1/2(r1)1/2,1)[F](1,(r2)1/2(r1)1/2,1).
The relation between the threshold gain gthL and the normalized frequency ΔβL is given by
FR11=0.
Figure 7 shows the results of Eq. (24) for the following parameters: the normalized length of a uniform periodic distributed feedback waveguide κL = 3, the reflection coefficients r1 = 0.5332 and r2 = 0 at each facet, respectively, and three different grating phases such as ϕ = 0, ϕ = −π/2, and ϕ = π/2. These results obtained by the F-matrix method are in good agreement with the results shown in [Ref. 6]. The definition of ϕ in this paper, however, is different from that in [Ref. 6]. When the grating phase ϕ is not integer multiplications of π, single longitudinal mode oscillation conditions are obtained.[6]

IV. Conclusion

A unified approach in terms of the F matrix for a nonuniform but almost-periodic distributed feedback slab waveguide is obtained, and this method is used to investigate the characteristics of an active device, such as a DFB laser, and passive devices, such as tapered, chirped, and phase-shifted gratings. The results obtained by this method are in good agreement with previously reported results obtained by other methods. Now w.e are in a situation to utilize this method to design various types of almost-periodic corrugated waveguide; in particular we are interested in designing a wideband light amplifier whose bandwidth is adjustable by virtue of corrugations. This will be reported elsewhere.[12]

The authors wish to thank S. Iida and T. Kambayashi of the Technological University of Nagaoka for their stimulating discussions and comments.

Figures

 

Fig. 1 Definition of grating phase for the first-order grating.

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Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of a periodic distributed feedback waveguide.

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Fig. 3 Corrugations of finite length L.

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Fig. 4 Schematic diagram of N divisions of an almost-periodic distributed feedback waveguide and parameters in the kth segment: k = 1,2,…, N, i.e., κk is a coupling coefficient, βBk is the Bragg frequency, ϕk is a grating phase, gk is the gain, and EAk and EBk are forward and backward electric field amplitudes, respectively.

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Fig. 5 Some examples of aperiodic distributed feedback waveguides, i.e., (a) tapered grating, (b) chirped grating, and (c) phase-shifted grating.

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Fig. 6 Characteristics of reflection coefficient |R|2 vs normalized frequency ΔβL for three different types of aperiodic distributed feedback waveguide: (a) linear tapered grating, (b) linear chirped grating, and (c) phase-shifted grating.

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Fig. 7 Threshold characteristics for the DFB laser, threshold gain gthL vs normalized frequency ΔβL.

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References

1. H. Kogelnik, “Filter Response of Non-Uniform Almost-Periodic Structure,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 55, 109 (1976).

2. K. O. Hill, “Aperiodic Distributed-Parameter Waveguides for Integrated Optics,” Appl. Opt. 13, 1853 (1974). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

3. M. Matsuhara and K. O. Hill, “Optical-Waveguide Band-Rejection Filters: Design,” Appl. Opt. 13, 2886 (1974). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

4. M. Matsuhara, K. O. Hill, and A. Watanabe, “Optical-Waveguide Filters: Synthesis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 804 (1975). [CrossRef]  

5. S. H. Kim and C. G. Fostand, “Tunable Narrow-Band Thin Film Waveguide Grating Filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1405 (1979).

6. Y. Itaya, T. Matuoka, K. Kuroiwa, and T. Ikegami, “Longitudinal Mode Behaviors of 1.5 μm Range GalnAsP/InP Distributed Feedback Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 230 (1984). [CrossRef]  

7. K. Ukata, S. Akiba, K. Sakai, and Y. Matsushima, “Effect of Mirror Facets on Lasing Characteristics of Distributed Feedback InGaAsP/InP Laser Diode at 1.5 μm Range,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 236 (1984).

8. W. Streifer, R. D. Burham, and D. R. Scifres, “Effect of External Reflectors on Longitudinal Modes of Distributed Feedback Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 154 (1975). [CrossRef]  

9. A. Suzuki and T. Tada, “Theory and Experiment on Distributed Feedback Lasers with Chirped Gratings,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 236, 532 (1981).

10. F. Koyama and Y. Suematsu, “Phase-Controlled Active-Distributed-Reflector Laser,” IECE Jpn. OQE84, 67 (1984), in Japanese.

11. D. Kermisch, “Nonuniform Sinusoidally Modulated Dielectric Gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. of Am. 59, 1409 (1969). [CrossRef]  

12. M. Yamada and K. Sakuda, “Adjustable Gain and Bandwidth Light Amplifiers in Terms of Distributed Feedback Structures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A4, 69 (1987), to be published. [CrossRef]  

References

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  1. H. Kogelnik, “Filter Response of Non-Uniform Almost-Periodic Structure,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 55, 109 (1976).
  2. K. O. Hill, “Aperiodic Distributed-Parameter Waveguides for Integrated Optics,” Appl. Opt. 13, 1853 (1974).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. M. Matsuhara, K. O. Hill, “Optical-Waveguide Band-Rejection Filters: Design,” Appl. Opt. 13, 2886 (1974).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. M. Matsuhara, K. O. Hill, A. Watanabe, “Optical-Waveguide Filters: Synthesis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 804 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. H. Kim, C. G. Fostand, “Tunable Narrow-Band Thin Film Waveguide Grating Filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1405 (1979).
  6. Y. Itaya, T. Matuoka, K. Kuroiwa, T. Ikegami, “Longitudinal Mode Behaviors of 1.5 μm Range GalnAsP/InP Distributed Feedback Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 230 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  7. K. Ukata, S. Akiba, K. Sakai, Y. Matsushima, “Effect of Mirror Facets on Lasing Characteristics of Distributed Feedback InGaAsP/InP Laser Diode at 1.5 μm Range,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 236 (1984).
  8. W. Streifer, R. D. Burham, D. R. Scifres, “Effect of External Reflectors on Longitudinal Modes of Distributed Feedback Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 154 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. Suzuki, T. Tada, “Theory and Experiment on Distributed Feedback Lasers with Chirped Gratings,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 236, 532 (1981).
  10. F. Koyama, Y. Suematsu, “Phase-Controlled Active-Distributed-Reflector Laser,” IECE Jpn. OQE84, 67 (1984), in Japanese.
  11. D. Kermisch, “Nonuniform Sinusoidally Modulated Dielectric Gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. of Am. 59, 1409 (1969).
    [Crossref]
  12. M. Yamada, K. Sakuda, “Adjustable Gain and Bandwidth Light Amplifiers in Terms of Distributed Feedback Structures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A4, 69 (1987), to be published.
    [Crossref]

1984 (3)

Y. Itaya, T. Matuoka, K. Kuroiwa, T. Ikegami, “Longitudinal Mode Behaviors of 1.5 μm Range GalnAsP/InP Distributed Feedback Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 230 (1984).
[Crossref]

K. Ukata, S. Akiba, K. Sakai, Y. Matsushima, “Effect of Mirror Facets on Lasing Characteristics of Distributed Feedback InGaAsP/InP Laser Diode at 1.5 μm Range,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 236 (1984).

F. Koyama, Y. Suematsu, “Phase-Controlled Active-Distributed-Reflector Laser,” IECE Jpn. OQE84, 67 (1984), in Japanese.

1981 (1)

A. Suzuki, T. Tada, “Theory and Experiment on Distributed Feedback Lasers with Chirped Gratings,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 236, 532 (1981).

1979 (1)

S. H. Kim, C. G. Fostand, “Tunable Narrow-Band Thin Film Waveguide Grating Filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1405 (1979).

1976 (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Filter Response of Non-Uniform Almost-Periodic Structure,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 55, 109 (1976).

1975 (2)

M. Matsuhara, K. O. Hill, A. Watanabe, “Optical-Waveguide Filters: Synthesis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 804 (1975).
[Crossref]

W. Streifer, R. D. Burham, D. R. Scifres, “Effect of External Reflectors on Longitudinal Modes of Distributed Feedback Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 154 (1975).
[Crossref]

1974 (2)

1969 (1)

D. Kermisch, “Nonuniform Sinusoidally Modulated Dielectric Gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. of Am. 59, 1409 (1969).
[Crossref]

Akiba, S.

K. Ukata, S. Akiba, K. Sakai, Y. Matsushima, “Effect of Mirror Facets on Lasing Characteristics of Distributed Feedback InGaAsP/InP Laser Diode at 1.5 μm Range,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 236 (1984).

Burham, R. D.

W. Streifer, R. D. Burham, D. R. Scifres, “Effect of External Reflectors on Longitudinal Modes of Distributed Feedback Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 154 (1975).
[Crossref]

Fostand, C. G.

S. H. Kim, C. G. Fostand, “Tunable Narrow-Band Thin Film Waveguide Grating Filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1405 (1979).

Hill, K. O.

Ikegami, T.

Y. Itaya, T. Matuoka, K. Kuroiwa, T. Ikegami, “Longitudinal Mode Behaviors of 1.5 μm Range GalnAsP/InP Distributed Feedback Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 230 (1984).
[Crossref]

Itaya, Y.

Y. Itaya, T. Matuoka, K. Kuroiwa, T. Ikegami, “Longitudinal Mode Behaviors of 1.5 μm Range GalnAsP/InP Distributed Feedback Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 230 (1984).
[Crossref]

Kermisch, D.

D. Kermisch, “Nonuniform Sinusoidally Modulated Dielectric Gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. of Am. 59, 1409 (1969).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. H.

S. H. Kim, C. G. Fostand, “Tunable Narrow-Band Thin Film Waveguide Grating Filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1405 (1979).

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, “Filter Response of Non-Uniform Almost-Periodic Structure,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 55, 109 (1976).

Koyama, F.

F. Koyama, Y. Suematsu, “Phase-Controlled Active-Distributed-Reflector Laser,” IECE Jpn. OQE84, 67 (1984), in Japanese.

Kuroiwa, K.

Y. Itaya, T. Matuoka, K. Kuroiwa, T. Ikegami, “Longitudinal Mode Behaviors of 1.5 μm Range GalnAsP/InP Distributed Feedback Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 230 (1984).
[Crossref]

Matsuhara, M.

Matsushima, Y.

K. Ukata, S. Akiba, K. Sakai, Y. Matsushima, “Effect of Mirror Facets on Lasing Characteristics of Distributed Feedback InGaAsP/InP Laser Diode at 1.5 μm Range,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 236 (1984).

Matuoka, T.

Y. Itaya, T. Matuoka, K. Kuroiwa, T. Ikegami, “Longitudinal Mode Behaviors of 1.5 μm Range GalnAsP/InP Distributed Feedback Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 230 (1984).
[Crossref]

Sakai, K.

K. Ukata, S. Akiba, K. Sakai, Y. Matsushima, “Effect of Mirror Facets on Lasing Characteristics of Distributed Feedback InGaAsP/InP Laser Diode at 1.5 μm Range,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 236 (1984).

Sakuda, K.

M. Yamada, K. Sakuda, “Adjustable Gain and Bandwidth Light Amplifiers in Terms of Distributed Feedback Structures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A4, 69 (1987), to be published.
[Crossref]

Scifres, D. R.

W. Streifer, R. D. Burham, D. R. Scifres, “Effect of External Reflectors on Longitudinal Modes of Distributed Feedback Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 154 (1975).
[Crossref]

Streifer, W.

W. Streifer, R. D. Burham, D. R. Scifres, “Effect of External Reflectors on Longitudinal Modes of Distributed Feedback Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 154 (1975).
[Crossref]

Suematsu, Y.

F. Koyama, Y. Suematsu, “Phase-Controlled Active-Distributed-Reflector Laser,” IECE Jpn. OQE84, 67 (1984), in Japanese.

Suzuki, A.

A. Suzuki, T. Tada, “Theory and Experiment on Distributed Feedback Lasers with Chirped Gratings,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 236, 532 (1981).

Tada, T.

A. Suzuki, T. Tada, “Theory and Experiment on Distributed Feedback Lasers with Chirped Gratings,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 236, 532 (1981).

Ukata, K.

K. Ukata, S. Akiba, K. Sakai, Y. Matsushima, “Effect of Mirror Facets on Lasing Characteristics of Distributed Feedback InGaAsP/InP Laser Diode at 1.5 μm Range,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 236 (1984).

Watanabe, A.

Yamada, M.

M. Yamada, K. Sakuda, “Adjustable Gain and Bandwidth Light Amplifiers in Terms of Distributed Feedback Structures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A4, 69 (1987), to be published.
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Filter Response of Non-Uniform Almost-Periodic Structure,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 55, 109 (1976).

IECE Jpn. (1)

F. Koyama, Y. Suematsu, “Phase-Controlled Active-Distributed-Reflector Laser,” IECE Jpn. OQE84, 67 (1984), in Japanese.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

S. H. Kim, C. G. Fostand, “Tunable Narrow-Band Thin Film Waveguide Grating Filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1405 (1979).

Y. Itaya, T. Matuoka, K. Kuroiwa, T. Ikegami, “Longitudinal Mode Behaviors of 1.5 μm Range GalnAsP/InP Distributed Feedback Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 230 (1984).
[Crossref]

K. Ukata, S. Akiba, K. Sakai, Y. Matsushima, “Effect of Mirror Facets on Lasing Characteristics of Distributed Feedback InGaAsP/InP Laser Diode at 1.5 μm Range,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 236 (1984).

W. Streifer, R. D. Burham, D. R. Scifres, “Effect of External Reflectors on Longitudinal Modes of Distributed Feedback Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 154 (1975).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. of Am. (1)

D. Kermisch, “Nonuniform Sinusoidally Modulated Dielectric Gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. of Am. 59, 1409 (1969).
[Crossref]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

A. Suzuki, T. Tada, “Theory and Experiment on Distributed Feedback Lasers with Chirped Gratings,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 236, 532 (1981).

Other (1)

M. Yamada, K. Sakuda, “Adjustable Gain and Bandwidth Light Amplifiers in Terms of Distributed Feedback Structures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A4, 69 (1987), to be published.
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Definition of grating phase for the first-order grating.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of a periodic distributed feedback waveguide.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Corrugations of finite length L.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematic diagram of N divisions of an almost-periodic distributed feedback waveguide and parameters in the kth segment: k = 1,2,…, N, i.e., κk is a coupling coefficient, βBk is the Bragg frequency, ϕk is a grating phase, gk is the gain, and E A k and E B k are forward and backward electric field amplitudes, respectively.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Some examples of aperiodic distributed feedback waveguides, i.e., (a) tapered grating, (b) chirped grating, and (c) phase-shifted grating.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Characteristics of reflection coefficient |R|2 vs normalized frequency ΔβL for three different types of aperiodic distributed feedback waveguide: (a) linear tapered grating, (b) linear chirped grating, and (c) phase-shifted grating.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Threshold characteristics for the DFB laser, threshold gain gthL vs normalized frequency ΔβL.

Equations (28)

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dA / dz = κ exp [ i ( 2 Δ β z ϕ ) ] B + gA , dB / dz = κ exp [ i ( 2 Δ β z ϕ ) ] A gB ,
Δ β = β β B = β M π / Λ ,
E A ( z ) = A ( z ) exp ( i β z ) , E B ( z ) = B ( z ) exp ( + i β z ) ,
E A ( z ) = [ c 1 exp ( Γ 1 z ) + c 2 exp ( Γ 2 z ) ] exp [ ( g i β ) z ] , E B ( z ) = { exp [ i ( 2 Δ β z ϕ ) ] / κ } [ c 1 Γ 1 exp ( Γ 1 z ) + c 2 Γ 2 × exp ( Γ 2 z ) ] exp [ ( g i β ) z ] ,
Δ β = Δ β + ig , Γ 1 = i Δ β γ , Γ 2 = i Δ β + γ ,
( E A ( 0 ) E B ( 0 ) ) = [ F ] ( E A ( L ) E B ( L ) ) .
F 11 = [ cosh ( γ L ) + i Δ β L sinh ( γ L ) / ( γ L ) ] exp ( i β B L ) , F 12 = κ L sinh ( γ L ) exp [ i ( β B L + ϕ ) ] / ( γ L ) , F 21 = κ L sinh ( γ L ) exp [ i ( β B L + ϕ ) ] / ( γ L ) , F 22 = [ cosh ( γ L ) i Δ β L sinh ( γ L ) / ( γ L ) ] exp [ i ( β B L ) ] .
| F | = F 11 F 22 F 12 F 21 = 1 .
Δ n 2 ( x , y ) = 2 a 1 ( x ) cos ( 2 π z / Λ ) ,
F [ Δ n 2 ( x , z ) ] = 4 π a 1 ( x ) [ δ ( S 2 π / Λ ) + δ ( S 2 π / Λ ) ] ,
Δ n 2 ( x , z ) = { 2 a 1 ( x ) cos ( 2 π z / Λ ) | z | L / 2 , 0 | z | > L / 2 ,
F [ Δ n 2 ( x , z ) ] = 2 { sin [ ( S + 2 π / Λ ) L / 2 ] / [ S + 2 π / Λ ] + sin [ ( S 2 π / Λ ) L / 2 ] / [ S 2 π / Λ ] } a 1 ( x ) .
Λ k L k ,
[ F k ] = [ F ( κ k , Δ β k , L k , g k , ϕ k ) ] .
[ F ] = Π k = 1 N [ F k ] .
κ ( z ) = κ 0 [ 1 + T a ( z ) ] ,
ϕ k = ϕ k 1 + 2 β B L k 1 .
β B ( z ) = β B O + β Bs ( z ) ,
Λ s ( z ) Λ 0 = β Bs ( z ) β BO ,
ϕ s = 2 β Bs ( ζ ) d ζ .
ϕ k = ϕ k 1 + 2 β B L k 1 .
Δ ϕ k = ϕ k ϕ k 1 2 β B L k 1 .
T = 1 / F 11 ,
R = F 21 / F 11 .
κ ( z ) = κ 0 [ 1 + T ( z L / 2 ) / L ] ,
β B ( z ) = β BO + 2 V ( z L / 2 ) / L 2 ,
[ F R ] = 1 / { ( 1 r 1 ) ( 1 r 2 ) } 1 / 2 ( 1 , ( r 1 ) 1 / 2 ( r 1 ) 1 / 2 , 1 ) [ F ] ( 1 , ( r 2 ) 1 / 2 ( r 1 ) 1 / 2 , 1 ) .
F R 11 = 0 .

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