Abstract

Instrumentation and techniques used for studying the effect of surface contamination on the reflectance of evaporated vacuum ultraviolet mirrors and temperature control coatings are discussed, and data on the behavior of optical materials and coatings under ultraviolet, electron, and proton irradiation are presented.

© 1970 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. Hass, R. Tousey, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 49, 593 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. W. Angel, W. R. Hunter, R. Tousey, G. Hass, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 51, 913 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. P. Bradford, G. Hass, J. F. Osantowski, A. R. Toft, Appl. Opt. 8, 1183 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. Hass, L. F. Drummeter, M. Schach, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 49, 918 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. F. Drummeter, G. Hass, Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, R. Thun, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1964), Vol. 2, pp. 305–361.
  6. O. E. Berg, F. F. Richardson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 40, 1333 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. T. Cox, G. Hass, J. B. Ramsey, J. Phys. (Paris) 25, 250 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. N. Hadley, D. M. Dennison, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 37, 451 (1947); J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 38, 483 (1948).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. R. Canfield, G. Hass, J. E. Waylonis, Appl. Opt. 5, 45 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. P. Madden, L. R. Canfield, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 51, 838 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. E. Bennett, J. O. Porteus, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 53, 123 (1961); H. Davies, Proc. IEEE 101, 209 (1954); H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, R. Thun, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1967), Vol. 4, pp. 12–21.
  12. H. Shapiro, J. Hanyok, Vacuum 18, 587 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Melville, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London), A167, 99 (1938).
  14. W. N. Hess, J. Geophys. Res. 68, 667 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. A. Frank, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 1905 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. B. Gillette, B. Kenyon, private communication.
  17. G. Hass, J. B. Ramsey, J. J. Triolo, H. T. Albright, Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, G. B. Heller, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1966), Vol. 18, pp. 47–60.
  18. G. Hass, J. B. Ramsey, J. B. Heaney, J. J. Triolo, Appl. Opt. 8, 275 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. A. P. Bradford, G. Hass, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 53, 1096 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. P. Bradford, G. Hass, J. B. Heaney, J. J. Triolo, Appl. Opt. 9, 339 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. R. L. O’Neal, NASA TN D-4284, p. 102 (1968).
  22. R. A. Breuch, S. A. Greenberg, Proceedings of the Joint Air Force–NASA Thermal Control Working Group,” W. P. Johnson, C. P. Boebel, Eds. (Air Force Materials Laboratory TR-68-198, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, August1968), pp. 485–499.
  23. W. R. Hunter, S. A. Malo, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 30, 2739 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  24. D. A. Patterson, W. H. Vaughan, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 53, 851 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  25. D. F. Heath, P. A. Sacher, Appl. Opt. 5, 937 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. L. R. Painter, R. N. Hamm, E. T. Arakawa, R. D. Birkhoff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 282 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  27. G. A. Haynes, W. E. Miller, NASA TN D-2620 (1965).

1970 (1)

1969 (5)

W. R. Hunter, S. A. Malo, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 30, 2739 (1969).
[CrossRef]

G. Hass, J. B. Ramsey, J. B. Heaney, J. J. Triolo, Appl. Opt. 8, 275 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Shapiro, J. Hanyok, Vacuum 18, 587 (1969).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Bradford, G. Hass, J. F. Osantowski, A. R. Toft, Appl. Opt. 8, 1183 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. E. Berg, F. F. Richardson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 40, 1333 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

L. R. Painter, R. N. Hamm, E. T. Arakawa, R. D. Birkhoff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 282 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

L. A. Frank, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 1905 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966 (2)

1964 (1)

J. T. Cox, G. Hass, J. B. Ramsey, J. Phys. (Paris) 25, 250 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1963 (3)

W. N. Hess, J. Geophys. Res. 68, 667 (1963).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Bradford, G. Hass, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 53, 1096 (1963).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Patterson, W. H. Vaughan, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 53, 851 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1961 (3)

R. P. Madden, L. R. Canfield, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 51, 838 (1961).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Bennett, J. O. Porteus, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 53, 123 (1961); H. Davies, Proc. IEEE 101, 209 (1954); H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, R. Thun, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1967), Vol. 4, pp. 12–21.

D. W. Angel, W. R. Hunter, R. Tousey, G. Hass, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 51, 913 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1959 (2)

G. Hass, R. Tousey, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 49, 593 (1959).
[CrossRef]

G. Hass, L. F. Drummeter, M. Schach, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 49, 918 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1947 (1)

L. N. Hadley, D. M. Dennison, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 37, 451 (1947); J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 38, 483 (1948).
[CrossRef]

1938 (1)

H. Melville, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London), A167, 99 (1938).

Albright, H. T.

G. Hass, J. B. Ramsey, J. J. Triolo, H. T. Albright, Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, G. B. Heller, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1966), Vol. 18, pp. 47–60.

Angel, D. W.

D. W. Angel, W. R. Hunter, R. Tousey, G. Hass, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 51, 913 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, E. T.

L. R. Painter, R. N. Hamm, E. T. Arakawa, R. D. Birkhoff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 282 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, H. E.

H. E. Bennett, J. O. Porteus, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 53, 123 (1961); H. Davies, Proc. IEEE 101, 209 (1954); H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, R. Thun, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1967), Vol. 4, pp. 12–21.

Berg, O. E.

O. E. Berg, F. F. Richardson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 40, 1333 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Birkhoff, R. D.

L. R. Painter, R. N. Hamm, E. T. Arakawa, R. D. Birkhoff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 282 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Bradford, A. P.

Breuch, R. A.

R. A. Breuch, S. A. Greenberg, Proceedings of the Joint Air Force–NASA Thermal Control Working Group,” W. P. Johnson, C. P. Boebel, Eds. (Air Force Materials Laboratory TR-68-198, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, August1968), pp. 485–499.

Canfield, L. R.

L. R. Canfield, G. Hass, J. E. Waylonis, Appl. Opt. 5, 45 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Madden, L. R. Canfield, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 51, 838 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Cox, J. T.

J. T. Cox, G. Hass, J. B. Ramsey, J. Phys. (Paris) 25, 250 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Dennison, D. M.

L. N. Hadley, D. M. Dennison, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 37, 451 (1947); J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 38, 483 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Drummeter, L. F.

G. Hass, L. F. Drummeter, M. Schach, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 49, 918 (1959).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Drummeter, G. Hass, Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, R. Thun, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1964), Vol. 2, pp. 305–361.

Frank, L. A.

L. A. Frank, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 1905 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Gillette, R. B.

R. B. Gillette, B. Kenyon, private communication.

Greenberg, S. A.

R. A. Breuch, S. A. Greenberg, Proceedings of the Joint Air Force–NASA Thermal Control Working Group,” W. P. Johnson, C. P. Boebel, Eds. (Air Force Materials Laboratory TR-68-198, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, August1968), pp. 485–499.

Hadley, L. N.

L. N. Hadley, D. M. Dennison, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 37, 451 (1947); J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 38, 483 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Hamm, R. N.

L. R. Painter, R. N. Hamm, E. T. Arakawa, R. D. Birkhoff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 282 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Hanyok, J.

H. Shapiro, J. Hanyok, Vacuum 18, 587 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Hass, G.

A. P. Bradford, G. Hass, J. B. Heaney, J. J. Triolo, Appl. Opt. 9, 339 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Bradford, G. Hass, J. F. Osantowski, A. R. Toft, Appl. Opt. 8, 1183 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Hass, J. B. Ramsey, J. B. Heaney, J. J. Triolo, Appl. Opt. 8, 275 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. R. Canfield, G. Hass, J. E. Waylonis, Appl. Opt. 5, 45 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Cox, G. Hass, J. B. Ramsey, J. Phys. (Paris) 25, 250 (1964).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Bradford, G. Hass, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 53, 1096 (1963).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Angel, W. R. Hunter, R. Tousey, G. Hass, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 51, 913 (1961).
[CrossRef]

G. Hass, L. F. Drummeter, M. Schach, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 49, 918 (1959).
[CrossRef]

G. Hass, R. Tousey, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 49, 593 (1959).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Drummeter, G. Hass, Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, R. Thun, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1964), Vol. 2, pp. 305–361.

G. Hass, J. B. Ramsey, J. J. Triolo, H. T. Albright, Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, G. B. Heller, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1966), Vol. 18, pp. 47–60.

Haynes, G. A.

G. A. Haynes, W. E. Miller, NASA TN D-2620 (1965).

Heaney, J. B.

Heath, D. F.

Hess, W. N.

W. N. Hess, J. Geophys. Res. 68, 667 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, W. R.

W. R. Hunter, S. A. Malo, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 30, 2739 (1969).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Angel, W. R. Hunter, R. Tousey, G. Hass, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 51, 913 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Kenyon, B.

R. B. Gillette, B. Kenyon, private communication.

Madden, R. P.

R. P. Madden, L. R. Canfield, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 51, 838 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Malo, S. A.

W. R. Hunter, S. A. Malo, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 30, 2739 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Melville, H.

H. Melville, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London), A167, 99 (1938).

Miller, W. E.

G. A. Haynes, W. E. Miller, NASA TN D-2620 (1965).

O’Neal, R. L.

R. L. O’Neal, NASA TN D-4284, p. 102 (1968).

Osantowski, J. F.

Painter, L. R.

L. R. Painter, R. N. Hamm, E. T. Arakawa, R. D. Birkhoff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 282 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, D. A.

D. A. Patterson, W. H. Vaughan, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 53, 851 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Porteus, J. O.

H. E. Bennett, J. O. Porteus, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 53, 123 (1961); H. Davies, Proc. IEEE 101, 209 (1954); H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, R. Thun, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1967), Vol. 4, pp. 12–21.

Ramsey, J. B.

G. Hass, J. B. Ramsey, J. B. Heaney, J. J. Triolo, Appl. Opt. 8, 275 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Cox, G. Hass, J. B. Ramsey, J. Phys. (Paris) 25, 250 (1964).
[CrossRef]

G. Hass, J. B. Ramsey, J. J. Triolo, H. T. Albright, Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, G. B. Heller, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1966), Vol. 18, pp. 47–60.

Richardson, F. F.

O. E. Berg, F. F. Richardson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 40, 1333 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Sacher, P. A.

Schach, M.

G. Hass, L. F. Drummeter, M. Schach, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 49, 918 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, H.

H. Shapiro, J. Hanyok, Vacuum 18, 587 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Toft, A. R.

Tousey, R.

D. W. Angel, W. R. Hunter, R. Tousey, G. Hass, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 51, 913 (1961).
[CrossRef]

G. Hass, R. Tousey, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 49, 593 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Triolo, J. J.

A. P. Bradford, G. Hass, J. B. Heaney, J. J. Triolo, Appl. Opt. 9, 339 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Hass, J. B. Ramsey, J. B. Heaney, J. J. Triolo, Appl. Opt. 8, 275 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Hass, J. B. Ramsey, J. J. Triolo, H. T. Albright, Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, G. B. Heller, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1966), Vol. 18, pp. 47–60.

Vaughan, W. H.

D. A. Patterson, W. H. Vaughan, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 53, 851 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Waylonis, J. E.

Appl. Opt. (5)

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

W. N. Hess, J. Geophys. Res. 68, 667 (1963).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Frank, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 1905 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (8)

L. N. Hadley, D. M. Dennison, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 37, 451 (1947); J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 38, 483 (1948).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Madden, L. R. Canfield, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 51, 838 (1961).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Bennett, J. O. Porteus, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 53, 123 (1961); H. Davies, Proc. IEEE 101, 209 (1954); H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, R. Thun, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1967), Vol. 4, pp. 12–21.

G. Hass, L. F. Drummeter, M. Schach, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 49, 918 (1959).
[CrossRef]

G. Hass, R. Tousey, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 49, 593 (1959).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Angel, W. R. Hunter, R. Tousey, G. Hass, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 51, 913 (1961).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Patterson, W. H. Vaughan, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 53, 851 (1963).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Bradford, G. Hass, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 53, 1096 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. (Paris) (1)

J. T. Cox, G. Hass, J. B. Ramsey, J. Phys. (Paris) 25, 250 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

W. R. Hunter, S. A. Malo, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 30, 2739 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

L. R. Painter, R. N. Hamm, E. T. Arakawa, R. D. Birkhoff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 282 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) (1)

H. Melville, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London), A167, 99 (1938).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

O. E. Berg, F. F. Richardson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 40, 1333 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Vacuum (1)

H. Shapiro, J. Hanyok, Vacuum 18, 587 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

L. F. Drummeter, G. Hass, Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, R. Thun, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1964), Vol. 2, pp. 305–361.

R. B. Gillette, B. Kenyon, private communication.

G. Hass, J. B. Ramsey, J. J. Triolo, H. T. Albright, Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, G. B. Heller, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1966), Vol. 18, pp. 47–60.

G. A. Haynes, W. E. Miller, NASA TN D-2620 (1965).

R. L. O’Neal, NASA TN D-4284, p. 102 (1968).

R. A. Breuch, S. A. Greenberg, Proceedings of the Joint Air Force–NASA Thermal Control Working Group,” W. P. Johnson, C. P. Boebel, Eds. (Air Force Materials Laboratory TR-68-198, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, August1968), pp. 485–499.

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Figures (17)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measured reflectance of aluminum coated with an evaporated SiO2 film (t = 7800 Å) and of uncoated aluminum as a function of wavelength from 200–700 mμ.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated effect of surface films with n = 1.6 and values of k ranging from 0 to 0.1 on the reflectance of Al at 1216 Å.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured reflectance of Al + SiO2 (t = 5600 Å) as a function of wavelength from 250–750 mμ before and after depositing a 20 Å thick surface film of carbon.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sketch of three samples with thin absorbing surface layers and the calculated effect on reflectance of the thickness of an absorbing layer at 5000 Å.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated effect of a thin absorbing layer (N = 1 + i1) on the reflectance of Al + MgF2 at 1216 Å for the MgF2 effectively λ/4, λ/2, and 3λ/4 thick.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Photograph and schematic diagram of the real time contamination monitor.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured reflectance of Al + Al2O3 (t = 5200 Å) as a function of wavelength from 200 mμ to 400 mμ before and after deposition of DC 705 diffusion pump oil. Equivalent oil thickness = 50 Å.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured reflectance change of an Al + MgF2 coating after deposition of DC 705 diffusion pump oil at 1216 Å. Equivalent oil thickness = 44 Å.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Measured effect of evaporated DC 705 diffusion pump oil on the reflectance of Al + MgF2 coatings effectively λ/2 and 3λ/4 thick.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Measured effect of ultraviolet irradiation from a quartz–mercury lamp on the reflectance of DC 705 oil-coated Al + MgF2 at 1216 Å. Equivalent oil thickness = 85 Å.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Microphotograph showing the effect of uv irradiation from a quartz–mercury lamp on evaporated DC 705 diffusion pump oil evaporated onto Al + MgF2. Equivalent oil thickness = 200 Å. 700 × enlargement.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Measured reflectance of Al + Al2O3 (t = 1 μ) before (solid line) and after (dashed line) irradiation with 200-keV protons (4 × 1015 protons/cm2) as a function of wavelength from 0.3μ to 1.3 μ.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Measured effect of uv irradiation from a xenon arc lamp in oil-free high vacuum on the reflectance of aluminum overcoated with two thicknesses of SiO2 as a function of wavelength from 300 mμ to 700 mμ.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Measured transmittance of 3-mm thick LiF and MgF2 plates before (solid lines) and after (dashed lines) irradiation with 1-MeV electrons as a function of wavelength from 1000 Å to 3000 Å. Dose for LiF = 2 × 1014 electrons/cm2, and for MgF2 = 1 × 1015 electrons/cm2.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Measured transmittance of a 2-mm thick Suprasil plate before (solid line) and after (dashed line) irradiation by 1-MeV electrons (1 × 1015 electrons/cm2) as a function of wavelength from 1200 Å to 3000 Å.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Measured transmittance of a 2-mm thick Herasil plate before (solid line) and after (dashed line) irradiation by 1-MeV electrons (1 × 1015 electrons/cm2) and effect of uv irradiation from a quartz–mercury lamp (dot–dash line) on the electron-irradiated sample.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Measured effect of electron irradiation, followed by annealing at 500°C, followed by a second electron irradiation on the transmittance of fused silica at 2200 Å.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Reflectance of Al + MgF2a Coatings at 1216 Å Before and After Applying a Thin Surface Film of Carbon

Tables Icon

Table II Reflectance of MgF2-Protected Aluminum Mirrors Before and After Irradiation with 1-MeV Electrons and 5-MeV Protons

Tables Icon

Table III Short Wavelength Transmittance Limit, or Cutoff Wavelength, at 20°C of Optical Materials Transparent in the Vacuum Ultraviolet

Metrics