Abstract

The behavior of Q-switched, free-running, and mode-locked laser oscillators, with one cavity mirror consisting of a stack of thin glass plates, is described. The beam divergence can equal that obtained with a thin film coated dielectric mirror, but intensity and spatial coherence vary over the beam cross section. It is concluded that the stack mirror may be more suitable for high power lasers than the multilayer quarter-wave dielectric mirror because of its greater damage resistance and ease of fabrication.

© 1970 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. M. Burch, in Quantum Electronics 3, P. Grivet, N. Bloembergen, Eds. (Columbia University Press, New York, 1964), p. 1187.
  2. A. J. DeMaria, D. A. Stetser, H. Heynau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 174 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. I. Little, D. Rowley, J. Phys. E (Sci. Instrum.) 3, 469 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. G. Stokes, Proc. Roy. Soc. 11, 545 (1862).
  5. I. M. Winer, Appl. Opt. 5, 1437 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. F. Nelson, R. J. Collins, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 739 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Magyar, L. Mandel, Nature 198, 255 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Singh, M. Di Domenico, R. G. Smith, Proc. IEEE 53, 507 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Statz, C. L. Tang, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3923 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Statz, G. A. DeMars, C. L. Tang, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 2212 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  11. V. I. Malyshev, A. S. Markin, A. V. Masalov, A. A. Sychov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 57, 827 (1969) [Sov. Phys. JETP 30, 453 (1970)].
  12. R. E. McClure, Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 148 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. W. Smith, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 3, 627 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. Snitzer in Quantum Electronics 3, P. Grivet, N. Bloembergen, Eds. (Columbia University Press, New York, 1964), p. 999.
  15. M. Michon, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 612 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Katzenstein, G. Magyar, A. C. Selden, Opto-electronics 1, 13 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  17. B. H. Soffer, B. B. McFarland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 166 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. E. Schwarz, T. Y. Tan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 4 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  19. V. S. Letokhov, JETP Lett. 3, 269 (1966).
  20. R. G. Harrison, P. Key, V. I. Little, G. Magyar, J. Katzenstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 253 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. L. Shapiro, M. A. Duguay, L. B. Kreuzer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 36 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. J. Bradley, G. H. C. New, B. Sutherland, S. J. Caughey, Phys. Lett. 28A, 532 (1969).
  23. R. V. Pole, H. Wieder, Appl. Opt. 3, 1086 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  24. E. G. Berzing, Yu. V. Naboikin, I. A. Rom-Krichevskaya, Yu. A. Tiunov, Opt. Spectrosc. 22, 274 (1967).
  25. G. I. Kachen, J. O. Kysilka, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 6, 84 (1970).
    [CrossRef]

1970 (2)

V. I. Little, D. Rowley, J. Phys. E (Sci. Instrum.) 3, 469 (1970).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Kachen, J. O. Kysilka, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 6, 84 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (3)

V. I. Malyshev, A. S. Markin, A. V. Masalov, A. A. Sychov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 57, 827 (1969) [Sov. Phys. JETP 30, 453 (1970)].

J. Katzenstein, G. Magyar, A. C. Selden, Opto-electronics 1, 13 (1969).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Bradley, G. H. C. New, B. Sutherland, S. J. Caughey, Phys. Lett. 28A, 532 (1969).

1968 (2)

R. G. Harrison, P. Key, V. I. Little, G. Magyar, J. Katzenstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 253 (1968).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Shapiro, M. A. Duguay, L. B. Kreuzer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 36 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967 (4)

S. E. Schwarz, T. Y. Tan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 4 (1967).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Smith, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 3, 627 (1967).
[CrossRef]

H. Statz, G. A. DeMars, C. L. Tang, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 2212 (1967).
[CrossRef]

E. G. Berzing, Yu. V. Naboikin, I. A. Rom-Krichevskaya, Yu. A. Tiunov, Opt. Spectrosc. 22, 274 (1967).

1966 (5)

I. M. Winer, Appl. Opt. 5, 1437 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Michon, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 612 (1966).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Letokhov, JETP Lett. 3, 269 (1966).

B. H. Soffer, B. B. McFarland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 166 (1966).
[CrossRef]

A. J. DeMaria, D. A. Stetser, H. Heynau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 174 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965 (3)

R. E. McClure, Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 148 (1965).
[CrossRef]

G. Singh, M. Di Domenico, R. G. Smith, Proc. IEEE 53, 507 (1965).
[CrossRef]

H. Statz, C. L. Tang, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3923 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

1963 (1)

G. Magyar, L. Mandel, Nature 198, 255 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

D. F. Nelson, R. J. Collins, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 739 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1862 (1)

G. G. Stokes, Proc. Roy. Soc. 11, 545 (1862).

Berzing, E. G.

E. G. Berzing, Yu. V. Naboikin, I. A. Rom-Krichevskaya, Yu. A. Tiunov, Opt. Spectrosc. 22, 274 (1967).

Bradley, D. J.

D. J. Bradley, G. H. C. New, B. Sutherland, S. J. Caughey, Phys. Lett. 28A, 532 (1969).

Burch, J. M.

J. M. Burch, in Quantum Electronics 3, P. Grivet, N. Bloembergen, Eds. (Columbia University Press, New York, 1964), p. 1187.

Caughey, S. J.

D. J. Bradley, G. H. C. New, B. Sutherland, S. J. Caughey, Phys. Lett. 28A, 532 (1969).

Collins, R. J.

D. F. Nelson, R. J. Collins, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 739 (1961).
[CrossRef]

DeMaria, A. J.

A. J. DeMaria, D. A. Stetser, H. Heynau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 174 (1966).
[CrossRef]

DeMars, G. A.

H. Statz, G. A. DeMars, C. L. Tang, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 2212 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Di Domenico, M.

G. Singh, M. Di Domenico, R. G. Smith, Proc. IEEE 53, 507 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Duguay, M. A.

S. L. Shapiro, M. A. Duguay, L. B. Kreuzer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 36 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, R. G.

R. G. Harrison, P. Key, V. I. Little, G. Magyar, J. Katzenstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 253 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Heynau, H.

A. J. DeMaria, D. A. Stetser, H. Heynau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 174 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Kachen, G. I.

G. I. Kachen, J. O. Kysilka, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 6, 84 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Katzenstein, J.

J. Katzenstein, G. Magyar, A. C. Selden, Opto-electronics 1, 13 (1969).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Harrison, P. Key, V. I. Little, G. Magyar, J. Katzenstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 253 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Key, P.

R. G. Harrison, P. Key, V. I. Little, G. Magyar, J. Katzenstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 253 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Kreuzer, L. B.

S. L. Shapiro, M. A. Duguay, L. B. Kreuzer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 36 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Kysilka, J. O.

G. I. Kachen, J. O. Kysilka, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 6, 84 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Letokhov, V. S.

V. S. Letokhov, JETP Lett. 3, 269 (1966).

Little, V. I.

V. I. Little, D. Rowley, J. Phys. E (Sci. Instrum.) 3, 469 (1970).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Harrison, P. Key, V. I. Little, G. Magyar, J. Katzenstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 253 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Magyar, G.

J. Katzenstein, G. Magyar, A. C. Selden, Opto-electronics 1, 13 (1969).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Harrison, P. Key, V. I. Little, G. Magyar, J. Katzenstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 253 (1968).
[CrossRef]

G. Magyar, L. Mandel, Nature 198, 255 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Malyshev, V. I.

V. I. Malyshev, A. S. Markin, A. V. Masalov, A. A. Sychov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 57, 827 (1969) [Sov. Phys. JETP 30, 453 (1970)].

Mandel, L.

G. Magyar, L. Mandel, Nature 198, 255 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Markin, A. S.

V. I. Malyshev, A. S. Markin, A. V. Masalov, A. A. Sychov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 57, 827 (1969) [Sov. Phys. JETP 30, 453 (1970)].

Masalov, A. V.

V. I. Malyshev, A. S. Markin, A. V. Masalov, A. A. Sychov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 57, 827 (1969) [Sov. Phys. JETP 30, 453 (1970)].

McClure, R. E.

R. E. McClure, Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 148 (1965).
[CrossRef]

McFarland, B. B.

B. H. Soffer, B. B. McFarland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 166 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Michon, M.

M. Michon, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 612 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Naboikin, Yu. V.

E. G. Berzing, Yu. V. Naboikin, I. A. Rom-Krichevskaya, Yu. A. Tiunov, Opt. Spectrosc. 22, 274 (1967).

Nelson, D. F.

D. F. Nelson, R. J. Collins, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 739 (1961).
[CrossRef]

New, G. H. C.

D. J. Bradley, G. H. C. New, B. Sutherland, S. J. Caughey, Phys. Lett. 28A, 532 (1969).

Pole, R. V.

Rom-Krichevskaya, I. A.

E. G. Berzing, Yu. V. Naboikin, I. A. Rom-Krichevskaya, Yu. A. Tiunov, Opt. Spectrosc. 22, 274 (1967).

Rowley, D.

V. I. Little, D. Rowley, J. Phys. E (Sci. Instrum.) 3, 469 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Schwarz, S. E.

S. E. Schwarz, T. Y. Tan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 4 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Selden, A. C.

J. Katzenstein, G. Magyar, A. C. Selden, Opto-electronics 1, 13 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, S. L.

S. L. Shapiro, M. A. Duguay, L. B. Kreuzer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 36 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Singh, G.

G. Singh, M. Di Domenico, R. G. Smith, Proc. IEEE 53, 507 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. W.

P. W. Smith, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 3, 627 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. G.

G. Singh, M. Di Domenico, R. G. Smith, Proc. IEEE 53, 507 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Snitzer, E.

E. Snitzer in Quantum Electronics 3, P. Grivet, N. Bloembergen, Eds. (Columbia University Press, New York, 1964), p. 999.

Soffer, B. H.

B. H. Soffer, B. B. McFarland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 166 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Statz, H.

H. Statz, G. A. DeMars, C. L. Tang, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 2212 (1967).
[CrossRef]

H. Statz, C. L. Tang, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3923 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Stetser, D. A.

A. J. DeMaria, D. A. Stetser, H. Heynau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 174 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Stokes, G. G.

G. G. Stokes, Proc. Roy. Soc. 11, 545 (1862).

Sutherland, B.

D. J. Bradley, G. H. C. New, B. Sutherland, S. J. Caughey, Phys. Lett. 28A, 532 (1969).

Sychov, A. A.

V. I. Malyshev, A. S. Markin, A. V. Masalov, A. A. Sychov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 57, 827 (1969) [Sov. Phys. JETP 30, 453 (1970)].

Tan, T. Y.

S. E. Schwarz, T. Y. Tan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 4 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. L.

H. Statz, G. A. DeMars, C. L. Tang, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 2212 (1967).
[CrossRef]

H. Statz, C. L. Tang, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3923 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Tiunov, Yu. A.

E. G. Berzing, Yu. V. Naboikin, I. A. Rom-Krichevskaya, Yu. A. Tiunov, Opt. Spectrosc. 22, 274 (1967).

Wieder, H.

Winer, I. M.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

R. E. McClure, Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 148 (1965).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Harrison, P. Key, V. I. Little, G. Magyar, J. Katzenstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 253 (1968).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Shapiro, M. A. Duguay, L. B. Kreuzer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 36 (1968).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Soffer, B. B. McFarland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 166 (1966).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Schwarz, T. Y. Tan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 4 (1967).
[CrossRef]

A. J. DeMaria, D. A. Stetser, H. Heynau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 174 (1966).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

P. W. Smith, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 3, 627 (1967).
[CrossRef]

M. Michon, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 612 (1966).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Kachen, J. O. Kysilka, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 6, 84 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

D. F. Nelson, R. J. Collins, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 739 (1961).
[CrossRef]

H. Statz, C. L. Tang, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3923 (1965).
[CrossRef]

H. Statz, G. A. DeMars, C. L. Tang, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 2212 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. E (Sci. Instrum.) (1)

V. I. Little, D. Rowley, J. Phys. E (Sci. Instrum.) 3, 469 (1970).
[CrossRef]

JETP Lett. (1)

V. S. Letokhov, JETP Lett. 3, 269 (1966).

Nature (1)

G. Magyar, L. Mandel, Nature 198, 255 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spectrosc. (1)

E. G. Berzing, Yu. V. Naboikin, I. A. Rom-Krichevskaya, Yu. A. Tiunov, Opt. Spectrosc. 22, 274 (1967).

Opto-electronics (1)

J. Katzenstein, G. Magyar, A. C. Selden, Opto-electronics 1, 13 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Lett. (1)

D. J. Bradley, G. H. C. New, B. Sutherland, S. J. Caughey, Phys. Lett. 28A, 532 (1969).

Proc. IEEE (1)

G. Singh, M. Di Domenico, R. G. Smith, Proc. IEEE 53, 507 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Roy. Soc. (1)

G. G. Stokes, Proc. Roy. Soc. 11, 545 (1862).

Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. (1)

V. I. Malyshev, A. S. Markin, A. V. Masalov, A. A. Sychov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 57, 827 (1969) [Sov. Phys. JETP 30, 453 (1970)].

Other (2)

E. Snitzer in Quantum Electronics 3, P. Grivet, N. Bloembergen, Eds. (Columbia University Press, New York, 1964), p. 999.

J. M. Burch, in Quantum Electronics 3, P. Grivet, N. Bloembergen, Eds. (Columbia University Press, New York, 1964), p. 1187.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Reflection of coherent light by a pile of plates. Coherent light source: helium–neon gas laser at 6328 Å.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Coherence of Q-switched ruby laser emission. Interference fringes obtained with random stack mirror.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Self-modulation of neodymium oscillator. (a), (b) 8-mm × 1-mm stack reflector; (a) 200 nsec cm−1; (b) 20 nsec cm−1; (c) 1-mm plate in dielectric mirror cavity, 20 nsec cm−1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Quasi-continuous emission of neodymium laser with stack reflector—upper beam 100 μsec cm−1, lower beam 1 μsec cm−1, repetitive.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Intensity Modulation of Neodymium Laser Oscillator as a Function of Thickness and Number of Plates Inserted in the Cavity

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ϕ ( m ) = m r / [ 1 + ( m 1 ) r ] ,
m = 2 N r = | ( μ 1 ) / ( μ + 1 ) | 2 }
R ¯ = ( 1 + { 4 μ / [ 2 N ( μ 1 ) 2 ] } ) 1 .
G ( t ) = G ( t ) + 1 2 a G ( t τ ) + 1 2 a G ( t + τ ) ;

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