Abstract

An oceanographic optical instrument has been designed and constructed to record the radiance distribution of natural radiant energy underwater. The instrument contains two cameras placed back-to-back, each equipped with a fisheye (180° field of view) lens and is fabricated so that film can be exposed by remote control. The instrument is designed to operate at depths up to 100 m. Values of underwater radiance can be obtained from the exposed films by means of photographic photometry. Radiance distributions obtained in natural waters will provide basic information needed for the study and solution of several problems in optical oceanography. First, the radiance distribution is an important input for the study of the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with the sea. From the distribution of radiance in the natural light fields in the ocean, many of the important optical properties which relate to radiative transfer processes in the ocean can be calculated. Second, from these optical properties one can compute the magnitude of the deterioration of image contrast of submerged objects and thus furnish information for the study and solution of underwater visibility problems, which include problems in underwater television and photography. Finally, since radiant energy is critical to the beginning of the marine food chain through photosynthetic plankton, radiance distribution measurements will provide information of fundamental importance to the problem of primary productivity in natural waters.

© 1970 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. N. G. Johnson, G. Liljequist, Svenska Hydrograf. Biol. domm. Skrifter, Ny Ser. Hydrograf. 14, 3 (1938).
  2. L. V. Whitney, J. Marine Res. 4, 122 (1941).
  3. L. V. Whitney, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 31, 714 (1941).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Takenouti, Bull. Japan. Soc. Sci. Fish. 8, 213 (1940).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. G. Jerlov, M. Fukuda, Tellus 12, 348 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Sasaki, S. Watanabe, G. Oshiba, N. Okami, Records Oceanog. Works Japan, Special No. 4, 197 (1960).
  7. T. Sasaki, S. Watanabe, G. Oshiba, N. Okami, J. Oceanog. Soc. Japan 14, 1 (1958).
  8. T. Sasaki, in Physical Aspects of Light in the Sea—A Symposium, (Univ. of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, 1964), pp. 19–24.
  9. J. E. Tyler, Univ. Calif. Bull. S.I.O. 7, 363 (1960).
  10. J. E. Tyler, W. H. Richardson, R. W. Holmes, J. Geophys. Res. 64, 667 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. E. Tyler, A. Shaules, Appl. Opt. 3, 105 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. E. Tyler, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiative Transfer 8, 338 (1968).
  13. J. E. Tyler, R. C. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 56, 1390 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. C. Smith, J. E. Tyler, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 57, 589 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. E. Tyler, R. C. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 57, 595 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Q. Duntley, The Sea (Wiley–Interscience, New York, 1962), Vol. 1, pp. 452–455.
  17. K. Miyamoto, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 54, 1060 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. Miyamoto (private communication).
  19. C. E. K. Mees, The Theory of Photographic Process (Macmillan, New York, 1954).
  20. G. W. Crawley, Brit. J. Phot. 100 (January1965).
  21. L. A. Jones, H. R. Condit, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 38, 123 (1948).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. E. Tyler, R. W. Preisendorfer, The Sea (Wiley–Interscience, New York, 1962), Vol. 1, Chap. 4.
  23. T. H. James, G. C. Higgins, Fundamentals of Photographic Theory (Morgan and Morgan, New York, 1960).
  24. B. Dudley, Handbook of Photography (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1939) Chap. 7.
  25. R. W. Austin, R. W. Loudermilk, Soc. Photo. Opt. Instrum. Eng., Seminar Proc. 12, 123 (1968).
  26. R. C. Smith, J. Marine Res. 27, 341 (1969).
  27. J. E. Tyler, Limnol. Oceanog. 4, 102 (1959).
    [CrossRef]

1969

R. C. Smith, J. Marine Res. 27, 341 (1969).

1968

R. W. Austin, R. W. Loudermilk, Soc. Photo. Opt. Instrum. Eng., Seminar Proc. 12, 123 (1968).

J. E. Tyler, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiative Transfer 8, 338 (1968).

1967

R. C. Smith, J. E. Tyler, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 57, 589 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Tyler, R. C. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 57, 595 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966

J. E. Tyler, R. C. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 56, 1390 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965

G. W. Crawley, Brit. J. Phot. 100 (January1965).

1964

K. Miyamoto, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 54, 1060 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Tyler, A. Shaules, Appl. Opt. 3, 105 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1960

J. E. Tyler, Univ. Calif. Bull. S.I.O. 7, 363 (1960).

N. G. Jerlov, M. Fukuda, Tellus 12, 348 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1959

J. E. Tyler, W. H. Richardson, R. W. Holmes, J. Geophys. Res. 64, 667 (1959).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Tyler, Limnol. Oceanog. 4, 102 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1958

T. Sasaki, S. Watanabe, G. Oshiba, N. Okami, J. Oceanog. Soc. Japan 14, 1 (1958).

1948

L. A. Jones, H. R. Condit, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 38, 123 (1948).
[CrossRef]

1941

L. V. Whitney, J. Marine Res. 4, 122 (1941).

L. V. Whitney, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 31, 714 (1941).
[CrossRef]

1940

Y. Takenouti, Bull. Japan. Soc. Sci. Fish. 8, 213 (1940).
[CrossRef]

1938

N. G. Johnson, G. Liljequist, Svenska Hydrograf. Biol. domm. Skrifter, Ny Ser. Hydrograf. 14, 3 (1938).

Austin, R. W.

R. W. Austin, R. W. Loudermilk, Soc. Photo. Opt. Instrum. Eng., Seminar Proc. 12, 123 (1968).

Condit, H. R.

L. A. Jones, H. R. Condit, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 38, 123 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Crawley, G. W.

G. W. Crawley, Brit. J. Phot. 100 (January1965).

Dudley, B.

B. Dudley, Handbook of Photography (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1939) Chap. 7.

Duntley, S. Q.

S. Q. Duntley, The Sea (Wiley–Interscience, New York, 1962), Vol. 1, pp. 452–455.

Fukuda, M.

N. G. Jerlov, M. Fukuda, Tellus 12, 348 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Higgins, G. C.

T. H. James, G. C. Higgins, Fundamentals of Photographic Theory (Morgan and Morgan, New York, 1960).

Holmes, R. W.

J. E. Tyler, W. H. Richardson, R. W. Holmes, J. Geophys. Res. 64, 667 (1959).
[CrossRef]

James, T. H.

T. H. James, G. C. Higgins, Fundamentals of Photographic Theory (Morgan and Morgan, New York, 1960).

Jerlov, N. G.

N. G. Jerlov, M. Fukuda, Tellus 12, 348 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, N. G.

N. G. Johnson, G. Liljequist, Svenska Hydrograf. Biol. domm. Skrifter, Ny Ser. Hydrograf. 14, 3 (1938).

Jones, L. A.

L. A. Jones, H. R. Condit, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 38, 123 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Liljequist, G.

N. G. Johnson, G. Liljequist, Svenska Hydrograf. Biol. domm. Skrifter, Ny Ser. Hydrograf. 14, 3 (1938).

Loudermilk, R. W.

R. W. Austin, R. W. Loudermilk, Soc. Photo. Opt. Instrum. Eng., Seminar Proc. 12, 123 (1968).

Mees, C. E. K.

C. E. K. Mees, The Theory of Photographic Process (Macmillan, New York, 1954).

Miyamoto, K.

K. Miyamoto, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 54, 1060 (1964).
[CrossRef]

K. Miyamoto (private communication).

Okami, N.

T. Sasaki, S. Watanabe, G. Oshiba, N. Okami, J. Oceanog. Soc. Japan 14, 1 (1958).

T. Sasaki, S. Watanabe, G. Oshiba, N. Okami, Records Oceanog. Works Japan, Special No. 4, 197 (1960).

Oshiba, G.

T. Sasaki, S. Watanabe, G. Oshiba, N. Okami, J. Oceanog. Soc. Japan 14, 1 (1958).

T. Sasaki, S. Watanabe, G. Oshiba, N. Okami, Records Oceanog. Works Japan, Special No. 4, 197 (1960).

Preisendorfer, R. W.

J. E. Tyler, R. W. Preisendorfer, The Sea (Wiley–Interscience, New York, 1962), Vol. 1, Chap. 4.

Richardson, W. H.

J. E. Tyler, W. H. Richardson, R. W. Holmes, J. Geophys. Res. 64, 667 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, T.

T. Sasaki, S. Watanabe, G. Oshiba, N. Okami, J. Oceanog. Soc. Japan 14, 1 (1958).

T. Sasaki, S. Watanabe, G. Oshiba, N. Okami, Records Oceanog. Works Japan, Special No. 4, 197 (1960).

T. Sasaki, in Physical Aspects of Light in the Sea—A Symposium, (Univ. of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, 1964), pp. 19–24.

Shaules, A.

Smith, R. C.

R. C. Smith, J. Marine Res. 27, 341 (1969).

J. E. Tyler, R. C. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 57, 595 (1967).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, J. E. Tyler, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 57, 589 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Tyler, R. C. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 56, 1390 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Takenouti, Y.

Y. Takenouti, Bull. Japan. Soc. Sci. Fish. 8, 213 (1940).
[CrossRef]

Tyler, J. E.

J. E. Tyler, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiative Transfer 8, 338 (1968).

J. E. Tyler, R. C. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 57, 595 (1967).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, J. E. Tyler, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 57, 589 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Tyler, R. C. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 56, 1390 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Tyler, A. Shaules, Appl. Opt. 3, 105 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Tyler, Univ. Calif. Bull. S.I.O. 7, 363 (1960).

J. E. Tyler, Limnol. Oceanog. 4, 102 (1959).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Tyler, W. H. Richardson, R. W. Holmes, J. Geophys. Res. 64, 667 (1959).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Tyler, R. W. Preisendorfer, The Sea (Wiley–Interscience, New York, 1962), Vol. 1, Chap. 4.

Watanabe, S.

T. Sasaki, S. Watanabe, G. Oshiba, N. Okami, J. Oceanog. Soc. Japan 14, 1 (1958).

T. Sasaki, S. Watanabe, G. Oshiba, N. Okami, Records Oceanog. Works Japan, Special No. 4, 197 (1960).

Whitney, L. V.

L. V. Whitney, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 31, 714 (1941).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Whitney, J. Marine Res. 4, 122 (1941).

Appl. Opt.

Brit. J. Phot.

G. W. Crawley, Brit. J. Phot. 100 (January1965).

Bull. Japan. Soc. Sci. Fish.

Y. Takenouti, Bull. Japan. Soc. Sci. Fish. 8, 213 (1940).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

J. E. Tyler, W. H. Richardson, R. W. Holmes, J. Geophys. Res. 64, 667 (1959).
[CrossRef]

J. Marine Res.

R. C. Smith, J. Marine Res. 27, 341 (1969).

L. V. Whitney, J. Marine Res. 4, 122 (1941).

J. Oceanog. Soc. Japan

T. Sasaki, S. Watanabe, G. Oshiba, N. Okami, J. Oceanog. Soc. Japan 14, 1 (1958).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer.

L. V. Whitney, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 31, 714 (1941).
[CrossRef]

K. Miyamoto, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 54, 1060 (1964).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Jones, H. R. Condit, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 38, 123 (1948).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Tyler, R. C. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 56, 1390 (1966).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, J. E. Tyler, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 57, 589 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Tyler, R. C. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 57, 595 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiative Transfer

J. E. Tyler, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiative Transfer 8, 338 (1968).

Limnol. Oceanog.

J. E. Tyler, Limnol. Oceanog. 4, 102 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Soc. Photo. Opt. Instrum. Eng., Seminar Proc.

R. W. Austin, R. W. Loudermilk, Soc. Photo. Opt. Instrum. Eng., Seminar Proc. 12, 123 (1968).

Svenska Hydrograf. Biol. domm. Skrifter, Ny Ser. Hydrograf.

N. G. Johnson, G. Liljequist, Svenska Hydrograf. Biol. domm. Skrifter, Ny Ser. Hydrograf. 14, 3 (1938).

Tellus

N. G. Jerlov, M. Fukuda, Tellus 12, 348 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Univ. Calif. Bull. S.I.O.

J. E. Tyler, Univ. Calif. Bull. S.I.O. 7, 363 (1960).

Other

T. Sasaki, S. Watanabe, G. Oshiba, N. Okami, Records Oceanog. Works Japan, Special No. 4, 197 (1960).

T. Sasaki, in Physical Aspects of Light in the Sea—A Symposium, (Univ. of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, 1964), pp. 19–24.

K. Miyamoto (private communication).

C. E. K. Mees, The Theory of Photographic Process (Macmillan, New York, 1954).

S. Q. Duntley, The Sea (Wiley–Interscience, New York, 1962), Vol. 1, pp. 452–455.

J. E. Tyler, R. W. Preisendorfer, The Sea (Wiley–Interscience, New York, 1962), Vol. 1, Chap. 4.

T. H. James, G. C. Higgins, Fundamentals of Photographic Theory (Morgan and Morgan, New York, 1960).

B. Dudley, Handbook of Photography (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1939) Chap. 7.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Chart illustrating optical properties which can be derived from radiance distribution data. The properties are defined and discussed in the text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram showing projection geometry of fisheye lens for recording radiance distributions on film.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Camera shutter speed vs distance along the focal plane.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photograph of the underwater unit of the radiance distribution camera system.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Underwater radiance camera system block diagram.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

K ( Z ) = ( 1 / H ) ( d H / d Z ) ,
H ( Z 2 ) / H ( Z 1 ) = exp [ K ( Z 2 Z 1 ) ] ,
a ( Z ) = 1 / h ( Z ) [ d H ¯ ( Z , + ) / d Z ] ,
H ¯ ( Z + ) = H ( Z , + ) H ( Z , )
h ( Z ) = h ( Z , ) + h ( Z , + )
C o = ( N T N B ) / N B ,
C R = C o exp [ ( α + K cos θ ) r ] ,
r 1 = f θ ,
d Ω = f 2 ( sin θ / θ ) d S 1 .
E = N ( n / n 1 ) 2 ( π / 4 F 2 ) ( sin θ / θ ) .

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