Abstract

Water aerosols, even when so finely divided as to be invisible, are capable of very strong absorption and emission in the infrared. This effect is pronounced in the 8–13-μ atmospheric window, owing to the 104 increase in the absorptivity of liquid water there over that for water vapor, and it contributes to the well known continuum in this spectral region. Water aerosol is found wherever suitable condensation nuclei exist and the relative humidity is above about 60%. Aerosol droplets increase in size and number with increasing relative humidity, affecting atmospheric radiance measurements accordingly. Trace quantities of aerosol can easily account for emission levels exceeding those of water vapor at 8–13 μ and are clearly indicated in cases where observed radiance levels cannot be accounted for by classical vapor band wing absorption theories. The aerosol emission mechanism is not associated with the formation or growth of the water droplets per se, but simply operates when droplets exist in the airborne state. Fog measurements are discussed and curves presented showing attenuation ratios between wavelengths in the visible and at 8–13 μ. Steam emission measurements leading to the formulation of an aerosol emission model are described briefly.

© 1970 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. R. Carlon, Appl. Opt. 4, 1089 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. R. Carlon, Appl. Opt. 5, 879 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. A. Makarova, G. F. Sitnik, N. I. Kozhevnikov, Astron. Zh. (USSR) 40, 539 (1963).
  4. W. S. Alcott, Laser Focus, 14 (February1969).
  5. A. M. Newton, E. P. Lavin, G. E. Titmuss, R. B. Williams, “SMOPB—Optical Effects of Atmospheric Turbulence,” BAC, Ltd., Bristol, England (1968).
  6. E. K. Plyler, N. Acquista, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 44, 505 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. M. Adams, J. J. Katz, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 46, 895 (1956).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. D. Kislovskii, Opt. Spectros. 7, 201 (1959).
  9. M. Centeno, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 31, 244 (1941).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. J. Wyatt, V. R. Stull, G. N. Plass, Appl. Opt. 3, 229 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. H. McCoy, D. B. Rensch, R. K. Long, Appl. Opt. 8, 1471 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. H. W. Yates, J. H. Taylor, NRL Report 5453, NRL, Wash., D.C. (1960).
  13. J. L. Streete, Appl. Opt. 7, 1545 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. L. Clark, Appl. Opt. 6, 2151 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. W. Nordberg at IRIS Specialty Group on Atmospheric Physics, meeting at Stanford Univ., 19 June 1964. Also, remarks by Blau at same session.
  16. E. N. Sabbagh, Senior Meteorologist, Singco, Inc., Burlington, Mass., private correspondence dated 3February1967.
  17. R. A. Oetjen, E. E. Bell, J. Young, L. Eisner, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 50, 1308 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  18. W. M. Elsasser, Phys. Rev. 53, 768 (1938).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. M. Goody, Quart. J. Royal Meteorol. Soc. 83, 517 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  20. W. T. Roach, R. M. Goody, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 319 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. Wexler, Appl. Opt. 3, 215 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Griggs, Appl. Opt. 8, 171 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. R. Sloan, J. H. Shaw, D. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 45, 455 (1955).
    [CrossRef]
  24. L. W. Nichols, J. Lamar, Appl. Opt. 7, 1757 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. L. W. Nichols, Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, Calif., private correspondence dated 23October1968.
  26. P. W. Kruse, L. D. McGlauchlin, R. G. McQuistan, Elements of Infrared Technology (Wiley, New York, 1962), p. 167.
  27. S. S. Ballard, W. L. Wolfe, Appl. Opt. 1, 551 (1962).
  28. H. R. Carlon, Appl. Opt. 1, 603 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  29. A. Arnulf, J. Bricard, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 47, 491 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  30. D. R. Johnston, D. E. Burch, Appl. Opt. 6, 1497 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. E. R. Lippincott, R. R. Stromberg, W. H. Grant, G. L. Cessac, Science 164, 1482 (27June1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. M. Sinclair, Industrial Research, 60 (September1969).
  33. D. E. Burch et al., “Experimental Investigation of the IR Absorption by Atmospheric Gases,” AD-657,614.

1969 (4)

W. S. Alcott, Laser Focus, 14 (February1969).

J. H. McCoy, D. B. Rensch, R. K. Long, Appl. Opt. 8, 1471 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Griggs, Appl. Opt. 8, 171 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. R. Lippincott, R. R. Stromberg, W. H. Grant, G. L. Cessac, Science 164, 1482 (27June1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968 (2)

1967 (2)

1966 (1)

1965 (1)

1964 (2)

1963 (1)

E. A. Makarova, G. F. Sitnik, N. I. Kozhevnikov, Astron. Zh. (USSR) 40, 539 (1963).

1962 (2)

S. S. Ballard, W. L. Wolfe, Appl. Opt. 1, 551 (1962).

H. R. Carlon, Appl. Opt. 1, 603 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1960 (1)

R. A. Oetjen, E. E. Bell, J. Young, L. Eisner, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 50, 1308 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

L. D. Kislovskii, Opt. Spectros. 7, 201 (1959).

1958 (1)

W. T. Roach, R. M. Goody, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 319 (1958).
[CrossRef]

1957 (2)

R. M. Goody, Quart. J. Royal Meteorol. Soc. 83, 517 (1957).
[CrossRef]

A. Arnulf, J. Bricard, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 47, 491 (1957).
[CrossRef]

1956 (1)

R. M. Adams, J. J. Katz, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 46, 895 (1956).
[CrossRef]

1955 (1)

R. Sloan, J. H. Shaw, D. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 45, 455 (1955).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

E. K. Plyler, N. Acquista, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 44, 505 (1954).
[CrossRef]

1941 (1)

M. Centeno, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 31, 244 (1941).
[CrossRef]

1938 (1)

W. M. Elsasser, Phys. Rev. 53, 768 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Acquista, N.

E. K. Plyler, N. Acquista, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 44, 505 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Adams, R. M.

R. M. Adams, J. J. Katz, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 46, 895 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Alcott, W. S.

W. S. Alcott, Laser Focus, 14 (February1969).

Arnulf, A.

A. Arnulf, J. Bricard, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 47, 491 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Ballard, S. S.

S. S. Ballard, W. L. Wolfe, Appl. Opt. 1, 551 (1962).

Bell, E. E.

R. A. Oetjen, E. E. Bell, J. Young, L. Eisner, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 50, 1308 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Bricard, J.

A. Arnulf, J. Bricard, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 47, 491 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Burch, D. E.

D. R. Johnston, D. E. Burch, Appl. Opt. 6, 1497 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Burch et al., “Experimental Investigation of the IR Absorption by Atmospheric Gases,” AD-657,614.

Carlon, H. R.

Centeno, M.

M. Centeno, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 31, 244 (1941).
[CrossRef]

Cessac, G. L.

E. R. Lippincott, R. R. Stromberg, W. H. Grant, G. L. Cessac, Science 164, 1482 (27June1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clark, H. L.

Eisner, L.

R. A. Oetjen, E. E. Bell, J. Young, L. Eisner, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 50, 1308 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Elsasser, W. M.

W. M. Elsasser, Phys. Rev. 53, 768 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Goody, R. M.

W. T. Roach, R. M. Goody, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 319 (1958).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Goody, Quart. J. Royal Meteorol. Soc. 83, 517 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Grant, W. H.

E. R. Lippincott, R. R. Stromberg, W. H. Grant, G. L. Cessac, Science 164, 1482 (27June1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Griggs, M.

Johnston, D. R.

Katz, J. J.

R. M. Adams, J. J. Katz, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 46, 895 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Kislovskii, L. D.

L. D. Kislovskii, Opt. Spectros. 7, 201 (1959).

Kozhevnikov, N. I.

E. A. Makarova, G. F. Sitnik, N. I. Kozhevnikov, Astron. Zh. (USSR) 40, 539 (1963).

Kruse, P. W.

P. W. Kruse, L. D. McGlauchlin, R. G. McQuistan, Elements of Infrared Technology (Wiley, New York, 1962), p. 167.

Lamar, J.

Lavin, E. P.

A. M. Newton, E. P. Lavin, G. E. Titmuss, R. B. Williams, “SMOPB—Optical Effects of Atmospheric Turbulence,” BAC, Ltd., Bristol, England (1968).

Lippincott, E. R.

E. R. Lippincott, R. R. Stromberg, W. H. Grant, G. L. Cessac, Science 164, 1482 (27June1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Long, R. K.

Makarova, E. A.

E. A. Makarova, G. F. Sitnik, N. I. Kozhevnikov, Astron. Zh. (USSR) 40, 539 (1963).

McCoy, J. H.

McGlauchlin, L. D.

P. W. Kruse, L. D. McGlauchlin, R. G. McQuistan, Elements of Infrared Technology (Wiley, New York, 1962), p. 167.

McQuistan, R. G.

P. W. Kruse, L. D. McGlauchlin, R. G. McQuistan, Elements of Infrared Technology (Wiley, New York, 1962), p. 167.

Newton, A. M.

A. M. Newton, E. P. Lavin, G. E. Titmuss, R. B. Williams, “SMOPB—Optical Effects of Atmospheric Turbulence,” BAC, Ltd., Bristol, England (1968).

Nichols, L. W.

L. W. Nichols, J. Lamar, Appl. Opt. 7, 1757 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. W. Nichols, Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, Calif., private correspondence dated 23October1968.

Nordberg, W.

W. Nordberg at IRIS Specialty Group on Atmospheric Physics, meeting at Stanford Univ., 19 June 1964. Also, remarks by Blau at same session.

Oetjen, R. A.

R. A. Oetjen, E. E. Bell, J. Young, L. Eisner, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 50, 1308 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Plass, G. N.

Plyler, E. K.

E. K. Plyler, N. Acquista, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 44, 505 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Rensch, D. B.

Roach, W. T.

W. T. Roach, R. M. Goody, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 319 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Sabbagh, E. N.

E. N. Sabbagh, Senior Meteorologist, Singco, Inc., Burlington, Mass., private correspondence dated 3February1967.

Shaw, J. H.

R. Sloan, J. H. Shaw, D. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 45, 455 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Sinclair, M.

M. Sinclair, Industrial Research, 60 (September1969).

Sitnik, G. F.

E. A. Makarova, G. F. Sitnik, N. I. Kozhevnikov, Astron. Zh. (USSR) 40, 539 (1963).

Sloan, R.

R. Sloan, J. H. Shaw, D. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 45, 455 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Streete, J. L.

Stromberg, R. R.

E. R. Lippincott, R. R. Stromberg, W. H. Grant, G. L. Cessac, Science 164, 1482 (27June1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stull, V. R.

Taylor, J. H.

H. W. Yates, J. H. Taylor, NRL Report 5453, NRL, Wash., D.C. (1960).

Titmuss, G. E.

A. M. Newton, E. P. Lavin, G. E. Titmuss, R. B. Williams, “SMOPB—Optical Effects of Atmospheric Turbulence,” BAC, Ltd., Bristol, England (1968).

Wexler, R.

Williams, D.

R. Sloan, J. H. Shaw, D. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 45, 455 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R. B.

A. M. Newton, E. P. Lavin, G. E. Titmuss, R. B. Williams, “SMOPB—Optical Effects of Atmospheric Turbulence,” BAC, Ltd., Bristol, England (1968).

Wolfe, W. L.

S. S. Ballard, W. L. Wolfe, Appl. Opt. 1, 551 (1962).

Wyatt, P. J.

Yates, H. W.

H. W. Yates, J. H. Taylor, NRL Report 5453, NRL, Wash., D.C. (1960).

Young, J.

R. A. Oetjen, E. E. Bell, J. Young, L. Eisner, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 50, 1308 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (12)

Astron. Zh. (USSR) (1)

E. A. Makarova, G. F. Sitnik, N. I. Kozhevnikov, Astron. Zh. (USSR) 40, 539 (1963).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (6)

E. K. Plyler, N. Acquista, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 44, 505 (1954).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Adams, J. J. Katz, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 46, 895 (1956).
[CrossRef]

M. Centeno, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 31, 244 (1941).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Oetjen, E. E. Bell, J. Young, L. Eisner, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 50, 1308 (1960).
[CrossRef]

R. Sloan, J. H. Shaw, D. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 45, 455 (1955).
[CrossRef]

A. Arnulf, J. Bricard, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 47, 491 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Laser Focus (1)

W. S. Alcott, Laser Focus, 14 (February1969).

Opt. Spectros. (1)

L. D. Kislovskii, Opt. Spectros. 7, 201 (1959).

Phys. Rev. (1)

W. M. Elsasser, Phys. Rev. 53, 768 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

W. T. Roach, R. M. Goody, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 319 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Quart. J. Royal Meteorol. Soc. (1)

R. M. Goody, Quart. J. Royal Meteorol. Soc. 83, 517 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

E. R. Lippincott, R. R. Stromberg, W. H. Grant, G. L. Cessac, Science 164, 1482 (27June1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (8)

M. Sinclair, Industrial Research, 60 (September1969).

D. E. Burch et al., “Experimental Investigation of the IR Absorption by Atmospheric Gases,” AD-657,614.

H. W. Yates, J. H. Taylor, NRL Report 5453, NRL, Wash., D.C. (1960).

L. W. Nichols, Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, Calif., private correspondence dated 23October1968.

P. W. Kruse, L. D. McGlauchlin, R. G. McQuistan, Elements of Infrared Technology (Wiley, New York, 1962), p. 167.

W. Nordberg at IRIS Specialty Group on Atmospheric Physics, meeting at Stanford Univ., 19 June 1964. Also, remarks by Blau at same session.

E. N. Sabbagh, Senior Meteorologist, Singco, Inc., Burlington, Mass., private correspondence dated 3February1967.

A. M. Newton, E. P. Lavin, G. E. Titmuss, R. B. Williams, “SMOPB—Optical Effects of Atmospheric Turbulence,” BAC, Ltd., Bristol, England (1968).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Attenuation at 10 μ by nonscattering fine aerosol in saturated air.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Photograph taken across the desert floor on a warm and somewhat humid day; (b) the air glows incandescent in the 8–14-μ band.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Fog trial (optical path = 91.5 m); (b) fog trial (optical path = 91.5 m); (c) fog trial (optical path = 91.5 m).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral scans of mist and light fog.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Air Force data, Florida tests; (b) Air Force data trends.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Exotech radiometer in steam measurement setup.

Metrics