Abstract

In order to obtain quantitative data on the backscatter function from laser irradiance backscattered from the atmosphere, the ratio of power transmitted to power received must be accurately known. No absolute measurements of power, optical system transmittance, detector quantum efficiency, or electronic gain are necessarily required. The technique of measuring the power ratio by irradiating a smoked or painted target of known diffuse reflectance at a fixed range is used to calibrate a complete lidar system. The relative area of the output power pulse is monitored by a fast response photodiode, and the relative area of the returned pulse is also recorded after passing through a filter of known high optical density. It is essential to control the temperatures of the laser rod and receiver interference prefilter to ensure proper spectral matching. Field experience gained using this technique is described, and examples of calibration measurements and backscatter functions for smog and cirrus clouds are presented.

© 1970 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. T. H. Collis, F. G. Fernald, J. E. Alder, J. Appl. Meteorol. 7, 227 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. F. Hall, H. Y. Ageno, Proc. 13th Radar Meteorol. Conf., Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 518 (1968).
  3. P. A. Franken, J. A. Jenney, D. M. Rank, “Airborne Investigations of Clear Air Turbulence with Optical Radar,” Univ. of Michigan, Rept. Contr. NONR 1224 (51) (December1965), p. 40.
  4. E. W. Barrett, O. Ben-Dov, J. Appl. Meteorol. 6, 500 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. C. W. Sandford, J. Atmos. Terrest. Phys. 29, 1651, 1657 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. E. K. Middleton, C. L. Sanders, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 41, 419 (1951).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Grum, G. W. Luckey, Appl. Opt. 7, 2289 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. Y. Ageno, Soc. Phot. Instrum. Engrs., 13th Ann. Tech. Symp. Proc. 357 (1968).
  9. M. P. McCormick, J. D. Lawrence, T. R. Crownfield, Appl. Opt. 7, 2424 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P. L. Smith, Proc. Conf. Atmospheric Limitations to Optical Propagation, Nat. Bur. Stand., Colo., 374, 383 (1965).
  11. B. Liu, Univ. of Minnesota, private communication.
  12. I. H. Blifford, L. D. Ringer, J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 716 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. Elterman, “UV, Visible, and IR Attenuation for Altitudes to 50 km, 1968,” AFCRL-68-0153 (April1968).
  14. J. T. Bradley, R. M. Schotland, “Optical Sounding V,” New York Univ., Final Rept. Contr. DAAB-07-68-C, August1969.
  15. I. D. Abella, H. Z. Cummins, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1177 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Bertolotti, L. Muzii, D. Sette, Appl. Opt. 8, 117 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. P. A. Davis, Appl. Opt. 8, 2099 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. H. Weickmann, Berichte des Deutschen Wetterdienstes in der U.S. Zone Nr. 6 (1949), 61 pp.
  19. H. C. Bryant, A. J. Cox, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 56, 1529 (1966).
    [CrossRef]

1969 (3)

1968 (5)

F. Grum, G. W. Luckey, Appl. Opt. 7, 2289 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Ageno, Soc. Phot. Instrum. Engrs., 13th Ann. Tech. Symp. Proc. 357 (1968).

M. P. McCormick, J. D. Lawrence, T. R. Crownfield, Appl. Opt. 7, 2424 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. T. H. Collis, F. G. Fernald, J. E. Alder, J. Appl. Meteorol. 7, 227 (1968).
[CrossRef]

F. F. Hall, H. Y. Ageno, Proc. 13th Radar Meteorol. Conf., Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 518 (1968).

1967 (2)

E. W. Barrett, O. Ben-Dov, J. Appl. Meteorol. 6, 500 (1967).
[CrossRef]

M. C. W. Sandford, J. Atmos. Terrest. Phys. 29, 1651, 1657 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

H. C. Bryant, A. J. Cox, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 56, 1529 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

I. D. Abella, H. Z. Cummins, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1177 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1951 (1)

W. E. K. Middleton, C. L. Sanders, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 41, 419 (1951).
[CrossRef]

1949 (1)

H. Weickmann, Berichte des Deutschen Wetterdienstes in der U.S. Zone Nr. 6 (1949), 61 pp.

Abella, I. D.

I. D. Abella, H. Z. Cummins, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1177 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Ageno, H. Y.

F. F. Hall, H. Y. Ageno, Proc. 13th Radar Meteorol. Conf., Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 518 (1968).

H. Y. Ageno, Soc. Phot. Instrum. Engrs., 13th Ann. Tech. Symp. Proc. 357 (1968).

Alder, J. E.

R. T. H. Collis, F. G. Fernald, J. E. Alder, J. Appl. Meteorol. 7, 227 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Barrett, E. W.

E. W. Barrett, O. Ben-Dov, J. Appl. Meteorol. 6, 500 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Ben-Dov, O.

E. W. Barrett, O. Ben-Dov, J. Appl. Meteorol. 6, 500 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Bertolotti, M.

Blifford, I. H.

I. H. Blifford, L. D. Ringer, J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 716 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, J. T.

J. T. Bradley, R. M. Schotland, “Optical Sounding V,” New York Univ., Final Rept. Contr. DAAB-07-68-C, August1969.

Bryant, H. C.

H. C. Bryant, A. J. Cox, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 56, 1529 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Collis, R. T. H.

R. T. H. Collis, F. G. Fernald, J. E. Alder, J. Appl. Meteorol. 7, 227 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Cox, A. J.

H. C. Bryant, A. J. Cox, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 56, 1529 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Crownfield, T. R.

Cummins, H. Z.

I. D. Abella, H. Z. Cummins, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1177 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Davis, P. A.

Elterman, L.

L. Elterman, “UV, Visible, and IR Attenuation for Altitudes to 50 km, 1968,” AFCRL-68-0153 (April1968).

Fernald, F. G.

R. T. H. Collis, F. G. Fernald, J. E. Alder, J. Appl. Meteorol. 7, 227 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Franken, P. A.

P. A. Franken, J. A. Jenney, D. M. Rank, “Airborne Investigations of Clear Air Turbulence with Optical Radar,” Univ. of Michigan, Rept. Contr. NONR 1224 (51) (December1965), p. 40.

Grum, F.

Hall, F. F.

F. F. Hall, H. Y. Ageno, Proc. 13th Radar Meteorol. Conf., Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 518 (1968).

Jenney, J. A.

P. A. Franken, J. A. Jenney, D. M. Rank, “Airborne Investigations of Clear Air Turbulence with Optical Radar,” Univ. of Michigan, Rept. Contr. NONR 1224 (51) (December1965), p. 40.

Lawrence, J. D.

Liu, B.

B. Liu, Univ. of Minnesota, private communication.

Luckey, G. W.

McCormick, M. P.

Middleton, W. E. K.

W. E. K. Middleton, C. L. Sanders, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 41, 419 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Muzii, L.

Rank, D. M.

P. A. Franken, J. A. Jenney, D. M. Rank, “Airborne Investigations of Clear Air Turbulence with Optical Radar,” Univ. of Michigan, Rept. Contr. NONR 1224 (51) (December1965), p. 40.

Ringer, L. D.

I. H. Blifford, L. D. Ringer, J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 716 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, C. L.

W. E. K. Middleton, C. L. Sanders, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 41, 419 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Sandford, M. C. W.

M. C. W. Sandford, J. Atmos. Terrest. Phys. 29, 1651, 1657 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Schotland, R. M.

J. T. Bradley, R. M. Schotland, “Optical Sounding V,” New York Univ., Final Rept. Contr. DAAB-07-68-C, August1969.

Sette, D.

Smith, P. L.

P. L. Smith, Proc. Conf. Atmospheric Limitations to Optical Propagation, Nat. Bur. Stand., Colo., 374, 383 (1965).

Weickmann, H.

H. Weickmann, Berichte des Deutschen Wetterdienstes in der U.S. Zone Nr. 6 (1949), 61 pp.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Berichte des Deutschen Wetterdienstes in der U.S. Zone Nr. (1)

H. Weickmann, Berichte des Deutschen Wetterdienstes in der U.S. Zone Nr. 6 (1949), 61 pp.

J. Appl. Meteorol. (2)

R. T. H. Collis, F. G. Fernald, J. E. Alder, J. Appl. Meteorol. 7, 227 (1968).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Barrett, O. Ben-Dov, J. Appl. Meteorol. 6, 500 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

I. D. Abella, H. Z. Cummins, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1177 (1961).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

I. H. Blifford, L. D. Ringer, J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 716 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Terrest. Phys. (1)

M. C. W. Sandford, J. Atmos. Terrest. Phys. 29, 1651, 1657 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (2)

W. E. K. Middleton, C. L. Sanders, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 41, 419 (1951).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Bryant, A. J. Cox, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 56, 1529 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Proc. 13th Radar Meteorol. Conf., Amer. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

F. F. Hall, H. Y. Ageno, Proc. 13th Radar Meteorol. Conf., Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 518 (1968).

Soc. Phot. Instrum. Engrs., 13th Ann. Tech. Symp. Proc. (1)

H. Y. Ageno, Soc. Phot. Instrum. Engrs., 13th Ann. Tech. Symp. Proc. 357 (1968).

Other (5)

P. L. Smith, Proc. Conf. Atmospheric Limitations to Optical Propagation, Nat. Bur. Stand., Colo., 374, 383 (1965).

B. Liu, Univ. of Minnesota, private communication.

P. A. Franken, J. A. Jenney, D. M. Rank, “Airborne Investigations of Clear Air Turbulence with Optical Radar,” Univ. of Michigan, Rept. Contr. NONR 1224 (51) (December1965), p. 40.

L. Elterman, “UV, Visible, and IR Attenuation for Altitudes to 50 km, 1968,” AFCRL-68-0153 (April1968).

J. T. Bradley, R. M. Schotland, “Optical Sounding V,” New York Univ., Final Rept. Contr. DAAB-07-68-C, August1969.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Reflectance characteristics of smoked MgO and Eastman white reflectance paint for 632.8-nm normal illuminance.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Ratio of received to transmitted lidar signal as a function of photomultiplier voltage during a calibration test.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temperature dependence of ruby laser wavelength and the receiver interference filter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Lidar A-scope display from a turbid marine layer. Trace B is a continuation of trace A at higher gain, in order to show detail above 1 km.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reduced data from Fig. 4. The region from 0.3 km to 0.6 km has been corrected to account for incomplete overlap of the receiver field of view with the transmitted laser beam.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Backscatter function for cirrus fibratus clouds. Cloud transmittance was calculated assuming 50-μm radius ice spheres wit an extinction efficiency factor of 2.

Tables (1)

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Table I Variables, Typical Measured Values, and Probable Errors

Equations (6)

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Φ R = Φ T A ρ τ c 2 τ f cos θ / π r c 2 ,
Φ r = Φ t A c δ f ( z ) τ a 2 / 2 r a 2 ,
Φ R = G R V R , Φ r = G r V r , Φ T = G T V T , Φ t = G t V t .
G R = G r , G T = G t .
f ( z ) = V r V t V T V R 2 r a 2 ρ τ c 2 τ f cos θ π r c 2 c δ τ a 2 .
( i 1 + i 2 ) = 8 π 2 f ( Z ) / N λ 2 ,

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