Abstract

The design and performance characteristics of a prototype cloud physics laser nephelometer are described. The instrument measures radiation scattered from individual cloud droplets, determining droplet concentrations from scattered light-pulse count rates and size distributions from pulse amplitudes.

© 1970 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Diem, Meteorol. Rundschau 1, 261, (1948).
  2. L. J. Battan, C. H. Reitan, Artificial Stimulation of Rain (Pergamon Press, New York, 1957), p. 184.
  3. L. F. Clague, J. Appl. Meteorol. 4, 549 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Warren, J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 1049 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. B. MacReady, D. M. Takeuchi, J. Appl. Meteorol. 7, 591 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. A. Spyers-Duran, R. R. Braham, J. Appl. Meteorol. 6, 1108 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. K. Weickmann, H. J. auf Kampe, J. Meteorol. 10, 204 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. J. Mason, The Physics of Clouds (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1957), p. 84 ff.
  9. R. Knollenberg, J. Appl. Meteorol. 9, 86 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. C. Van de Hulst, Light Scattering in Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).
  11. D. Diermendjian, R. Clasen, W. Viezee, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 51, 620 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. N. Plass, Appl. Opt. 5, 279 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. P. J. Huffman, W. R. Thursky, J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 1073 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. Vonnegut, Neubaum, J. Colloid Sci. 7, 616 (1952).
    [CrossRef]

1970 (1)

R. Knollenberg, J. Appl. Meteorol. 9, 86 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

J. Warren, J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 1049 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

P. B. MacReady, D. M. Takeuchi, J. Appl. Meteorol. 7, 591 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

P. A. Spyers-Duran, R. R. Braham, J. Appl. Meteorol. 6, 1108 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966 (2)

P. J. Huffman, W. R. Thursky, J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 1073 (1966).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Plass, Appl. Opt. 5, 279 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1965 (1)

L. F. Clague, J. Appl. Meteorol. 4, 549 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

D. Diermendjian, R. Clasen, W. Viezee, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 51, 620 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

H. K. Weickmann, H. J. auf Kampe, J. Meteorol. 10, 204 (1953).
[CrossRef]

1952 (1)

B. Vonnegut, Neubaum, J. Colloid Sci. 7, 616 (1952).
[CrossRef]

1948 (1)

Diem, Meteorol. Rundschau 1, 261, (1948).

auf Kampe, H. J.

H. K. Weickmann, H. J. auf Kampe, J. Meteorol. 10, 204 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Battan, L. J.

L. J. Battan, C. H. Reitan, Artificial Stimulation of Rain (Pergamon Press, New York, 1957), p. 184.

Braham, R. R.

P. A. Spyers-Duran, R. R. Braham, J. Appl. Meteorol. 6, 1108 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Clague, L. F.

L. F. Clague, J. Appl. Meteorol. 4, 549 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Clasen, R.

D. Diermendjian, R. Clasen, W. Viezee, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 51, 620 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Diem,

Diem, Meteorol. Rundschau 1, 261, (1948).

Diermendjian, D.

D. Diermendjian, R. Clasen, W. Viezee, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 51, 620 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, P. J.

P. J. Huffman, W. R. Thursky, J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 1073 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Knollenberg, R.

R. Knollenberg, J. Appl. Meteorol. 9, 86 (1970).
[CrossRef]

MacReady, P. B.

P. B. MacReady, D. M. Takeuchi, J. Appl. Meteorol. 7, 591 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Mason, B. J.

B. J. Mason, The Physics of Clouds (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1957), p. 84 ff.

Neubaum,

B. Vonnegut, Neubaum, J. Colloid Sci. 7, 616 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Plass, G. N.

Reitan, C. H.

L. J. Battan, C. H. Reitan, Artificial Stimulation of Rain (Pergamon Press, New York, 1957), p. 184.

Spyers-Duran, P. A.

P. A. Spyers-Duran, R. R. Braham, J. Appl. Meteorol. 6, 1108 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, D. M.

P. B. MacReady, D. M. Takeuchi, J. Appl. Meteorol. 7, 591 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Thursky, W. R.

P. J. Huffman, W. R. Thursky, J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 1073 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. Van de Hulst, Light Scattering in Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).

Viezee, W.

D. Diermendjian, R. Clasen, W. Viezee, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 51, 620 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Vonnegut, B.

B. Vonnegut, Neubaum, J. Colloid Sci. 7, 616 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Warren, J.

J. Warren, J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 1049 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Weickmann, H. K.

H. K. Weickmann, H. J. auf Kampe, J. Meteorol. 10, 204 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Appl. Meteorol. (4)

R. Knollenberg, J. Appl. Meteorol. 9, 86 (1970).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Clague, J. Appl. Meteorol. 4, 549 (1965).
[CrossRef]

P. B. MacReady, D. M. Takeuchi, J. Appl. Meteorol. 7, 591 (1968).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Spyers-Duran, R. R. Braham, J. Appl. Meteorol. 6, 1108 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (2)

J. Warren, J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 1049 (1969).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Huffman, W. R. Thursky, J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 1073 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Colloid Sci. (1)

B. Vonnegut, Neubaum, J. Colloid Sci. 7, 616 (1952).
[CrossRef]

J. Meteorol. (1)

H. K. Weickmann, H. J. auf Kampe, J. Meteorol. 10, 204 (1953).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (1)

D. Diermendjian, R. Clasen, W. Viezee, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 51, 620 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Meteorol. Rundschau (1)

Diem, Meteorol. Rundschau 1, 261, (1948).

Other (3)

L. J. Battan, C. H. Reitan, Artificial Stimulation of Rain (Pergamon Press, New York, 1957), p. 184.

B. J. Mason, The Physics of Clouds (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1957), p. 84 ff.

H. C. Van de Hulst, Light Scattering in Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scattered power as a function of scattering angle and cone of acceptance.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scattered power for an F/5 collector at 55°.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Sample volume geometry.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simplified optical diagram of nephelometer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calibration curve for nephelometer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Size distribution for electrostatically produced spray.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Size distribution for electrostatically produced spray.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Size distributions for aerosol sprays.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Oceanic cloud distributions.

Equations (2)

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W ( θ ) = N λ 1 2 ( i 1 + i 2 ) ( λ 2 / 4 π 2 ) d Ω ,
p ( N ) = m N e m / N ! .

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