Abstract

The Michelson interferometer flown on Nimbus III in April 1969 has obtained infrared emission spectra of the earth and its atmosphere within 400 cm−1 and 2000 cm−1 (5 μ and 25 μ). Spectra of good quality have been recorded with a spectral resolution corresponding to 5 cm−1. This paper discusses the design of the instrument including the optical layout, the phase locked loop operation of the Michelson motor, and the functioning of the reference interferometer. The methods of data reduction and in-flight calibration are demonstrated on sample spectra recorded while in orbit around the earth.

© 1970 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. Fellgett, thesis, Univ. of Cambridge (1951).
  2. P. Jacquinot, C. Dufour, J. Rech. Centre Nat. Rech. Sci. Lab. Bellevue (Paris) 6, 91 (1948).
  3. P. Jacquinot, Rep. Progr. Phys. 23, 267 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Connes, Rev. Opt. 40, 45, 116, 171, 231 (1961).
  5. L. Mertz, Transformations in Optics (Wiley, New York, 1965).
  6. E. V. Loewenstein, Appl. Opt. 5, 5, 845 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Vanasse, H. Sakai, Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, Ed. (North-Holland Publ. Co., Amsterdam, 1967), Vol. 6.
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. I. F. King, in Scientific Uses of Earth Satellites, J. A. Van Allen, Ed. (Univ. of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 1956).
  9. L. Kaplan, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 49, 10, 1004 (1959).
  10. D. Wark, H. E. Fleming, Monthly Weather Rev. 94, 351 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. I. F. King, J. Atmos. Sci. 21, 324 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. T. Chahine, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 58, 1634 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. J. Conrath, J. Geophys. Res. 74, 3347 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. Mertz, in Proc. 12th Intern. Astrophys. Symp. (Liège), Gov. Res. Rep., U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Rep. No. AD602936, p. 120 (1963).
  15. L. C. Block, A. S. Zachor, Appl. Opt. 3, 209 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Lovett, L. Marcotte, R. Nadile, Rep. AFCRL-67-0563, Office of Aerospace Res., USAF (1967).
  17. L. W. Chaney, S. R. Dravson, C. Young, Appl. Opt. 6, 347 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. R. A. Hanel, L. W. Chaney, in Proc. 17th Intern. Astron. Congr., Madrid (Dunod, Paris, 1966), Vol. 2.
  19. R. A. Hanel, B. J. Conrath, Science 165, 1258 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. W. Cooley, J. W. Tukey, Mathematics Computation 19, 297 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. L. Forman, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 56, 978 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. B. Blackman, J. W. Tukey, The Measurement of Power Spectra (Dover Publ., Inc., New York, 1958).
  23. R. A. Hanel, in Advances in Geophysics, H. E. Landsberg, J. Van Mieghem, Eds. (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1970), Vol. 14, Chap. 13 (A. J. Drummond, Ed.).
    [CrossRef]
  24. B. J. Conrath, R. A. Hanel, V. G. Kunde, C. Prabhakara, submitted to J. Geophys. Res.

1969 (2)

B. J. Conrath, J. Geophys. Res. 74, 3347 (1969).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Hanel, B. J. Conrath, Science 165, 1258 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968 (1)

M. T. Chahine, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 58, 1634 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

1966 (3)

M. L. Forman, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 56, 978 (1966).
[CrossRef]

D. Wark, H. E. Fleming, Monthly Weather Rev. 94, 351 (1966).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Loewenstein, Appl. Opt. 5, 5, 845 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

J. W. Cooley, J. W. Tukey, Mathematics Computation 19, 297 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1964 (2)

1961 (1)

J. Connes, Rev. Opt. 40, 45, 116, 171, 231 (1961).

1960 (1)

P. Jacquinot, Rep. Progr. Phys. 23, 267 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

L. Kaplan, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 49, 10, 1004 (1959).

1948 (1)

P. Jacquinot, C. Dufour, J. Rech. Centre Nat. Rech. Sci. Lab. Bellevue (Paris) 6, 91 (1948).

Blackman, R. B.

R. B. Blackman, J. W. Tukey, The Measurement of Power Spectra (Dover Publ., Inc., New York, 1958).

Block, L. C.

Chahine, M. T.

M. T. Chahine, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 58, 1634 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Chaney, L. W.

L. W. Chaney, S. R. Dravson, C. Young, Appl. Opt. 6, 347 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Hanel, L. W. Chaney, in Proc. 17th Intern. Astron. Congr., Madrid (Dunod, Paris, 1966), Vol. 2.

Connes, J.

J. Connes, Rev. Opt. 40, 45, 116, 171, 231 (1961).

Conrath, B. J.

B. J. Conrath, J. Geophys. Res. 74, 3347 (1969).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Hanel, B. J. Conrath, Science 165, 1258 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Conrath, R. A. Hanel, V. G. Kunde, C. Prabhakara, submitted to J. Geophys. Res.

Cooley, J. W.

J. W. Cooley, J. W. Tukey, Mathematics Computation 19, 297 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Dravson, S. R.

Dufour, C.

P. Jacquinot, C. Dufour, J. Rech. Centre Nat. Rech. Sci. Lab. Bellevue (Paris) 6, 91 (1948).

Fellgett, P.

P. Fellgett, thesis, Univ. of Cambridge (1951).

Fleming, H. E.

D. Wark, H. E. Fleming, Monthly Weather Rev. 94, 351 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Forman, M. L.

M. L. Forman, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 56, 978 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Hanel, R. A.

R. A. Hanel, B. J. Conrath, Science 165, 1258 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Hanel, L. W. Chaney, in Proc. 17th Intern. Astron. Congr., Madrid (Dunod, Paris, 1966), Vol. 2.

B. J. Conrath, R. A. Hanel, V. G. Kunde, C. Prabhakara, submitted to J. Geophys. Res.

R. A. Hanel, in Advances in Geophysics, H. E. Landsberg, J. Van Mieghem, Eds. (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1970), Vol. 14, Chap. 13 (A. J. Drummond, Ed.).
[CrossRef]

Jacquinot, P.

P. Jacquinot, Rep. Progr. Phys. 23, 267 (1960).
[CrossRef]

P. Jacquinot, C. Dufour, J. Rech. Centre Nat. Rech. Sci. Lab. Bellevue (Paris) 6, 91 (1948).

Kaplan, L.

L. Kaplan, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 49, 10, 1004 (1959).

King, J. I. F.

J. I. F. King, J. Atmos. Sci. 21, 324 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. I. F. King, in Scientific Uses of Earth Satellites, J. A. Van Allen, Ed. (Univ. of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 1956).

Kunde, V. G.

B. J. Conrath, R. A. Hanel, V. G. Kunde, C. Prabhakara, submitted to J. Geophys. Res.

Loewenstein, E. V.

E. V. Loewenstein, Appl. Opt. 5, 5, 845 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Lovett, J.

J. Lovett, L. Marcotte, R. Nadile, Rep. AFCRL-67-0563, Office of Aerospace Res., USAF (1967).

Marcotte, L.

J. Lovett, L. Marcotte, R. Nadile, Rep. AFCRL-67-0563, Office of Aerospace Res., USAF (1967).

Mertz, L.

L. Mertz, Transformations in Optics (Wiley, New York, 1965).

L. Mertz, in Proc. 12th Intern. Astrophys. Symp. (Liège), Gov. Res. Rep., U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Rep. No. AD602936, p. 120 (1963).

Nadile, R.

J. Lovett, L. Marcotte, R. Nadile, Rep. AFCRL-67-0563, Office of Aerospace Res., USAF (1967).

Prabhakara, C.

B. J. Conrath, R. A. Hanel, V. G. Kunde, C. Prabhakara, submitted to J. Geophys. Res.

Sakai, H.

G. Vanasse, H. Sakai, Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, Ed. (North-Holland Publ. Co., Amsterdam, 1967), Vol. 6.
[CrossRef]

Tukey, J. W.

J. W. Cooley, J. W. Tukey, Mathematics Computation 19, 297 (1965).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Blackman, J. W. Tukey, The Measurement of Power Spectra (Dover Publ., Inc., New York, 1958).

Vanasse, G.

G. Vanasse, H. Sakai, Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, Ed. (North-Holland Publ. Co., Amsterdam, 1967), Vol. 6.
[CrossRef]

Wark, D.

D. Wark, H. E. Fleming, Monthly Weather Rev. 94, 351 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Young, C.

Zachor, A. S.

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

J. I. F. King, J. Atmos. Sci. 21, 324 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

B. J. Conrath, J. Geophys. Res. 74, 3347 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (3)

M. T. Chahine, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 58, 1634 (1968).
[CrossRef]

L. Kaplan, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 49, 10, 1004 (1959).

M. L. Forman, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 56, 978 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Rech. Centre Nat. Rech. Sci. Lab. Bellevue (Paris) (1)

P. Jacquinot, C. Dufour, J. Rech. Centre Nat. Rech. Sci. Lab. Bellevue (Paris) 6, 91 (1948).

Mathematics Computation (1)

J. W. Cooley, J. W. Tukey, Mathematics Computation 19, 297 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Monthly Weather Rev. (1)

D. Wark, H. E. Fleming, Monthly Weather Rev. 94, 351 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Progr. Phys. (1)

P. Jacquinot, Rep. Progr. Phys. 23, 267 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Opt. (1)

J. Connes, Rev. Opt. 40, 45, 116, 171, 231 (1961).

Science (1)

R. A. Hanel, B. J. Conrath, Science 165, 1258 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (10)

P. Fellgett, thesis, Univ. of Cambridge (1951).

R. B. Blackman, J. W. Tukey, The Measurement of Power Spectra (Dover Publ., Inc., New York, 1958).

R. A. Hanel, in Advances in Geophysics, H. E. Landsberg, J. Van Mieghem, Eds. (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1970), Vol. 14, Chap. 13 (A. J. Drummond, Ed.).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Conrath, R. A. Hanel, V. G. Kunde, C. Prabhakara, submitted to J. Geophys. Res.

L. Mertz, Transformations in Optics (Wiley, New York, 1965).

G. Vanasse, H. Sakai, Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, Ed. (North-Holland Publ. Co., Amsterdam, 1967), Vol. 6.
[CrossRef]

J. I. F. King, in Scientific Uses of Earth Satellites, J. A. Van Allen, Ed. (Univ. of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 1956).

L. Mertz, in Proc. 12th Intern. Astrophys. Symp. (Liège), Gov. Res. Rep., U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Rep. No. AD602936, p. 120 (1963).

R. A. Hanel, L. W. Chaney, in Proc. 17th Intern. Astron. Congr., Madrid (Dunod, Paris, 1966), Vol. 2.

J. Lovett, L. Marcotte, R. Nadile, Rep. AFCRL-67-0563, Office of Aerospace Res., USAF (1967).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simplified diagram of IRIS. The image motion compensation and calibration mirror can be oriented so that IRIS sees earth, deep space, or an on-board blackbody.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical interferograms recorded by IRIS in orbit. Interferograms 1, 2, and 4 were taken while viewing earth; interferogram 3 was taken while viewing the warm blackbody. Numbers 1 and 4 are arctic cases and number 2 is a hot desert case.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Block diagram of the IRIS. The motion of the Michelson motor is phase locked to the Nimbus clock.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The infrared interferometer spectrometer (IRIS) flown on Nimbus III. The upward looking port is for viewing earth, and the other port is for viewing deep space.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

A typical uncalibrated power spectrum and the associated phase spectrum shown in the upper and middle part of the figure are the result of the fourier transformation of the interferogram. The lower part of the figure shows the phase corrected power spectrum before calibration.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Orbital averages of the calibration spectra on a relative scale, the responsivity calculated from the calibration spectra, and the noise equivalent radiance calculated from the standard deviation of the responsivity. The factor √2 of Eq. (7) was omitted.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Typical emission spectrum of a tropical region. The strong CO2 bands between 580 cm−1 and 780 cm−1 are used to derive the atmospheric temperature profile. Ozone absorption appears between 1000 cm−1 and 1070 cm−1. Most other features are due to H2O except for a CH4 band near 1306 cm−1 and weak bands of CO2 and N2O.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Spectra recorded by IRIS over desert and arctic regions. The desert soil at noon is warmer than the air and shows a reststrahlen effect, a lower emissivity in the 1100 cm−1 region compared with the 900 cm−1 region, typical of silicate oxides.

Equations (8)

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i ( δ ) = r ν ( B ν B ν i ) cos ( 2 π ν δ ϕ ν ) d ν .
C = r ( B target B instr ) .
B t = [ ( C t C ¯ c ) / ( C ¯ w C ¯ c ) ] B w ,
r = ( C w C c ) / B w ,
B i = [ C ¯ c / ( C ¯ w C ¯ c ) ] B w .
s = [ i = 1 k ( r i r ¯ ) 2 / ( k 1 ) ] 1 2 ,
NER = s B w / 2 1 2 r ¯ .
S / N = η 1 η 2 I ν Δ ν D * ( A Ω Ω d τ ) 1 2 .

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