Abstract

The Satellite Infrared Spectrometer (SIRS) on the Nimbus III satellite was designed to measure the earth’s spectral radiances in the 15-μm band of carbon dioxide. From simultaneous measurements of spectral radiances it is possible to obtain the vertical temperature profile of the atmosphere. The measurements are approximated by the integral equation of radiative transfer, modified by one or two layers of clouds. A solution requires that the surface radiative temperature and the surface air temperature be known. By iteration, a solution based upon the statistical behavior of the atmosphere is obtained for the free air temperature and the cloud heights and amounts. Examples are presented, comparing the SIRS soundings with coincident radiosonde soundings. The results from this experiment indicate that the technique can be applied as a routine observing tool for meteorological use.

© 1970 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. I. F. King, Scientific Uses of Earth Satellites, J. A. Van Allen, Ed. (University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 1956), p. 133.
  2. L. D. Kaplan, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 49, 1004 (1959).
    [Crossref]
  3. L. Machta, K. Peterson, N. A. Lieurance, W. D. Komhyr, Weather 24, 398 (1969).
    [Crossref]
  4. W. Bischof, B. Bolin, Tellus 18, 155 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  5. D. T. Hilleary, E. L. Heacock, W. A. Morgan, R. H. Moore, E. C. Mangold, S. D. Soules, Monthly Weather Rev. 94, 367 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. G. Dreyfus, D. T. Hilleary, Aerospace Eng. 21, 42 (1962).
  7. M. G. Dreyfus, Appl. Opt. 1, 615 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. R. Drayson, Appl. Opt. 5, 385 (1966).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. H. J. Bolle, University of Munich, private communication.
  10. W. L. Smith, ESSA Tech. Rep. NESC 47 (1969) (available from the Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information as Document PB-183 296).
  11. F. Saiedy, D. T. Hilleary, Appl. Opt. 6, 911 (1967).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. D. J. McCaa, J. H. Shaw, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 25, 374 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  13. D. Q. Wark, H. E. Fleming, Monthly Weather Rev. 94, 351 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. C. Alishouse, L. J. Crone, H. E. Fleming, F. L. Van Cleef, D. Q. Wark, Tellus 19, 477 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  15. E. R. Westwater, O. N. Strand, J. Atmos. Sci. 25, 750 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  16. D. Q. Wark, D. T. Hilleary, Science 165, 1256 (1969).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, W. C. Jacob, Monthly Weather Rev.98,(1970), in press.
  18. S. Twomey, J. Franklin Inst. 279, 95 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  19. S. Twomey, Monthly Weather Rev. 94, 363 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  20. M. T. Chahine, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 58, 1634 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  21. V. F. Turchin, M. S. Malkevich, I. A. Gorchakova, Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 5, 449 (252, English transl.) (1969).
  22. C. L. Mateer, J. Atmos. Sci. 22, 370 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  23. W. L. Smith, Monthly Weather Rev. 96, 387 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  24. O. N. Strand, E. R. Westwater, SIAM J. Numerical Anal. 5, 287 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  25. R. A. Hanel, B. Conrath, Science 165, 1258 (1969).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. D. C. Rodgers, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Atmospheric Physics Memorandum No.69.3 (1969).
  27. F. G. Finger, R. B. Mason, S. Teweles, Monthly Weather Rev. 92, 243 (1964).
    [Crossref]

1969 (4)

L. Machta, K. Peterson, N. A. Lieurance, W. D. Komhyr, Weather 24, 398 (1969).
[Crossref]

D. Q. Wark, D. T. Hilleary, Science 165, 1256 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. F. Turchin, M. S. Malkevich, I. A. Gorchakova, Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 5, 449 (252, English transl.) (1969).

R. A. Hanel, B. Conrath, Science 165, 1258 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1968 (5)

W. L. Smith, Monthly Weather Rev. 96, 387 (1968).
[Crossref]

O. N. Strand, E. R. Westwater, SIAM J. Numerical Anal. 5, 287 (1968).
[Crossref]

M. T. Chahine, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 58, 1634 (1968).
[Crossref]

E. R. Westwater, O. N. Strand, J. Atmos. Sci. 25, 750 (1968).
[Crossref]

D. J. McCaa, J. H. Shaw, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 25, 374 (1968).
[Crossref]

1967 (2)

F. Saiedy, D. T. Hilleary, Appl. Opt. 6, 911 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Alishouse, L. J. Crone, H. E. Fleming, F. L. Van Cleef, D. Q. Wark, Tellus 19, 477 (1967).
[Crossref]

1966 (5)

S. Twomey, Monthly Weather Rev. 94, 363 (1966).
[Crossref]

D. Q. Wark, H. E. Fleming, Monthly Weather Rev. 94, 351 (1966).
[Crossref]

S. R. Drayson, Appl. Opt. 5, 385 (1966).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Bischof, B. Bolin, Tellus 18, 155 (1966).
[Crossref]

D. T. Hilleary, E. L. Heacock, W. A. Morgan, R. H. Moore, E. C. Mangold, S. D. Soules, Monthly Weather Rev. 94, 367 (1966).
[Crossref]

1965 (2)

C. L. Mateer, J. Atmos. Sci. 22, 370 (1965).
[Crossref]

S. Twomey, J. Franklin Inst. 279, 95 (1965).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

F. G. Finger, R. B. Mason, S. Teweles, Monthly Weather Rev. 92, 243 (1964).
[Crossref]

1962 (2)

M. G. Dreyfus, D. T. Hilleary, Aerospace Eng. 21, 42 (1962).

M. G. Dreyfus, Appl. Opt. 1, 615 (1962).
[Crossref]

1959 (1)

L. D. Kaplan, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 49, 1004 (1959).
[Crossref]

Alishouse, J. C.

J. C. Alishouse, L. J. Crone, H. E. Fleming, F. L. Van Cleef, D. Q. Wark, Tellus 19, 477 (1967).
[Crossref]

Bischof, W.

W. Bischof, B. Bolin, Tellus 18, 155 (1966).
[Crossref]

Bolin, B.

W. Bischof, B. Bolin, Tellus 18, 155 (1966).
[Crossref]

Bolle, H. J.

H. J. Bolle, University of Munich, private communication.

Chahine, M. T.

M. T. Chahine, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 58, 1634 (1968).
[Crossref]

Conrath, B.

R. A. Hanel, B. Conrath, Science 165, 1258 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crone, L. J.

J. C. Alishouse, L. J. Crone, H. E. Fleming, F. L. Van Cleef, D. Q. Wark, Tellus 19, 477 (1967).
[Crossref]

Drayson, S. R.

Dreyfus, M. G.

M. G. Dreyfus, Appl. Opt. 1, 615 (1962).
[Crossref]

M. G. Dreyfus, D. T. Hilleary, Aerospace Eng. 21, 42 (1962).

Finger, F. G.

F. G. Finger, R. B. Mason, S. Teweles, Monthly Weather Rev. 92, 243 (1964).
[Crossref]

Fleming, H. E.

J. C. Alishouse, L. J. Crone, H. E. Fleming, F. L. Van Cleef, D. Q. Wark, Tellus 19, 477 (1967).
[Crossref]

D. Q. Wark, H. E. Fleming, Monthly Weather Rev. 94, 351 (1966).
[Crossref]

Gorchakova, I. A.

V. F. Turchin, M. S. Malkevich, I. A. Gorchakova, Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 5, 449 (252, English transl.) (1969).

Hanel, R. A.

R. A. Hanel, B. Conrath, Science 165, 1258 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heacock, E. L.

D. T. Hilleary, E. L. Heacock, W. A. Morgan, R. H. Moore, E. C. Mangold, S. D. Soules, Monthly Weather Rev. 94, 367 (1966).
[Crossref]

Hilleary, D. T.

D. Q. Wark, D. T. Hilleary, Science 165, 1256 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Saiedy, D. T. Hilleary, Appl. Opt. 6, 911 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. T. Hilleary, E. L. Heacock, W. A. Morgan, R. H. Moore, E. C. Mangold, S. D. Soules, Monthly Weather Rev. 94, 367 (1966).
[Crossref]

M. G. Dreyfus, D. T. Hilleary, Aerospace Eng. 21, 42 (1962).

Jacob, W. C.

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, W. C. Jacob, Monthly Weather Rev.98,(1970), in press.

Kaplan, L. D.

L. D. Kaplan, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 49, 1004 (1959).
[Crossref]

King, J. I. F.

J. I. F. King, Scientific Uses of Earth Satellites, J. A. Van Allen, Ed. (University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 1956), p. 133.

Komhyr, W. D.

L. Machta, K. Peterson, N. A. Lieurance, W. D. Komhyr, Weather 24, 398 (1969).
[Crossref]

Lieurance, N. A.

L. Machta, K. Peterson, N. A. Lieurance, W. D. Komhyr, Weather 24, 398 (1969).
[Crossref]

Machta, L.

L. Machta, K. Peterson, N. A. Lieurance, W. D. Komhyr, Weather 24, 398 (1969).
[Crossref]

Malkevich, M. S.

V. F. Turchin, M. S. Malkevich, I. A. Gorchakova, Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 5, 449 (252, English transl.) (1969).

Mangold, E. C.

D. T. Hilleary, E. L. Heacock, W. A. Morgan, R. H. Moore, E. C. Mangold, S. D. Soules, Monthly Weather Rev. 94, 367 (1966).
[Crossref]

Mason, R. B.

F. G. Finger, R. B. Mason, S. Teweles, Monthly Weather Rev. 92, 243 (1964).
[Crossref]

Mateer, C. L.

C. L. Mateer, J. Atmos. Sci. 22, 370 (1965).
[Crossref]

McCaa, D. J.

D. J. McCaa, J. H. Shaw, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 25, 374 (1968).
[Crossref]

Moore, R. H.

D. T. Hilleary, E. L. Heacock, W. A. Morgan, R. H. Moore, E. C. Mangold, S. D. Soules, Monthly Weather Rev. 94, 367 (1966).
[Crossref]

Morgan, W. A.

D. T. Hilleary, E. L. Heacock, W. A. Morgan, R. H. Moore, E. C. Mangold, S. D. Soules, Monthly Weather Rev. 94, 367 (1966).
[Crossref]

Peterson, K.

L. Machta, K. Peterson, N. A. Lieurance, W. D. Komhyr, Weather 24, 398 (1969).
[Crossref]

Rodgers, D. C.

D. C. Rodgers, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Atmospheric Physics Memorandum No.69.3 (1969).

Saiedy, F.

Shaw, J. H.

D. J. McCaa, J. H. Shaw, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 25, 374 (1968).
[Crossref]

Smith, W. L.

W. L. Smith, Monthly Weather Rev. 96, 387 (1968).
[Crossref]

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, W. C. Jacob, Monthly Weather Rev.98,(1970), in press.

W. L. Smith, ESSA Tech. Rep. NESC 47 (1969) (available from the Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information as Document PB-183 296).

Soules, S. D.

D. T. Hilleary, E. L. Heacock, W. A. Morgan, R. H. Moore, E. C. Mangold, S. D. Soules, Monthly Weather Rev. 94, 367 (1966).
[Crossref]

Strand, O. N.

E. R. Westwater, O. N. Strand, J. Atmos. Sci. 25, 750 (1968).
[Crossref]

O. N. Strand, E. R. Westwater, SIAM J. Numerical Anal. 5, 287 (1968).
[Crossref]

Teweles, S.

F. G. Finger, R. B. Mason, S. Teweles, Monthly Weather Rev. 92, 243 (1964).
[Crossref]

Turchin, V. F.

V. F. Turchin, M. S. Malkevich, I. A. Gorchakova, Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 5, 449 (252, English transl.) (1969).

Twomey, S.

S. Twomey, Monthly Weather Rev. 94, 363 (1966).
[Crossref]

S. Twomey, J. Franklin Inst. 279, 95 (1965).
[Crossref]

Van Cleef, F. L.

J. C. Alishouse, L. J. Crone, H. E. Fleming, F. L. Van Cleef, D. Q. Wark, Tellus 19, 477 (1967).
[Crossref]

Wark, D. Q.

D. Q. Wark, D. T. Hilleary, Science 165, 1256 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Alishouse, L. J. Crone, H. E. Fleming, F. L. Van Cleef, D. Q. Wark, Tellus 19, 477 (1967).
[Crossref]

D. Q. Wark, H. E. Fleming, Monthly Weather Rev. 94, 351 (1966).
[Crossref]

Westwater, E. R.

E. R. Westwater, O. N. Strand, J. Atmos. Sci. 25, 750 (1968).
[Crossref]

O. N. Strand, E. R. Westwater, SIAM J. Numerical Anal. 5, 287 (1968).
[Crossref]

Woolf, H. M.

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, W. C. Jacob, Monthly Weather Rev.98,(1970), in press.

Aerospace Eng. (1)

M. G. Dreyfus, D. T. Hilleary, Aerospace Eng. 21, 42 (1962).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Atmos. Oceanic Phys. (1)

V. F. Turchin, M. S. Malkevich, I. A. Gorchakova, Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 5, 449 (252, English transl.) (1969).

J. Atmos. Sci. (2)

C. L. Mateer, J. Atmos. Sci. 22, 370 (1965).
[Crossref]

E. R. Westwater, O. N. Strand, J. Atmos. Sci. 25, 750 (1968).
[Crossref]

J. Franklin Inst. (1)

S. Twomey, J. Franklin Inst. 279, 95 (1965).
[Crossref]

J. Mol. Spectrosc. (1)

D. J. McCaa, J. H. Shaw, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 25, 374 (1968).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (2)

L. D. Kaplan, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 49, 1004 (1959).
[Crossref]

M. T. Chahine, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 58, 1634 (1968).
[Crossref]

Monthly Weather Rev. (5)

D. T. Hilleary, E. L. Heacock, W. A. Morgan, R. H. Moore, E. C. Mangold, S. D. Soules, Monthly Weather Rev. 94, 367 (1966).
[Crossref]

W. L. Smith, Monthly Weather Rev. 96, 387 (1968).
[Crossref]

F. G. Finger, R. B. Mason, S. Teweles, Monthly Weather Rev. 92, 243 (1964).
[Crossref]

D. Q. Wark, H. E. Fleming, Monthly Weather Rev. 94, 351 (1966).
[Crossref]

S. Twomey, Monthly Weather Rev. 94, 363 (1966).
[Crossref]

Science (2)

D. Q. Wark, D. T. Hilleary, Science 165, 1256 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Hanel, B. Conrath, Science 165, 1258 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

SIAM J. Numerical Anal. (1)

O. N. Strand, E. R. Westwater, SIAM J. Numerical Anal. 5, 287 (1968).
[Crossref]

Tellus (2)

J. C. Alishouse, L. J. Crone, H. E. Fleming, F. L. Van Cleef, D. Q. Wark, Tellus 19, 477 (1967).
[Crossref]

W. Bischof, B. Bolin, Tellus 18, 155 (1966).
[Crossref]

Weather (1)

L. Machta, K. Peterson, N. A. Lieurance, W. D. Komhyr, Weather 24, 398 (1969).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

J. I. F. King, Scientific Uses of Earth Satellites, J. A. Van Allen, Ed. (University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 1956), p. 133.

H. J. Bolle, University of Munich, private communication.

W. L. Smith, ESSA Tech. Rep. NESC 47 (1969) (available from the Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information as Document PB-183 296).

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, W. C. Jacob, Monthly Weather Rev.98,(1970), in press.

D. C. Rodgers, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Atmospheric Physics Memorandum No.69.3 (1969).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Radiance measurements from channel 1 between the equator and 16°N, during the times 0204–0209 G.M.T., 21 April 1969. Yap (9.5°N, 138.2°E) is located at the circled point.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Weighting functions, dτ/dx, for the eight sirs channels. The temperature and humidity values were taken from the Nashville radiosonde for 1800 G.M.T., 16 April 1969. The ordinate is x = p 2 7.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison between radiosonde temperatures (dotted lines) and sirs-derived temperatures (solid lines). On the right is shown the difference in geopotential heights calculated from the two temperature profiles on the left.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

See caption to Fig. 3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

See caption to Fig. 3.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

See caption to Fig. 3.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

See caption to Fig. 3.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Positions and Bandwidths of the SIRS Channels

Equations (10)

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I ( ν , φ , φ , t ) = B [ ν , T ( p s ) , φ , φ , t ] τ ( ν , T c , p s , φ , φ , t ) p = 0 p = p s B [ ν , T ( p ) , φ , φ , t ] d τ ( ν , T e , p , φ , φ , t ) ,
I ( ν , t ) = t 0 π / 2 0 2 π [ I ( ν , φ , φ , t ) R ( ν , φ , φ , t ) + E ( ν , t ) ] f ( t t ) d φ d φ d t ,
I ( ν , t ) = B [ ν , T ( p s ) , t ] τ ( ν , T e , p s , t ) p = 0 p = p s B [ ν , T ( p ) , t ] d τ ( ν , T e , p , t ) N { B [ ν , T ( p s ) , t ] τ ( ν , T e , p s , t ) B [ ν , T ( p c ) , t ] τ ( ν , T c , p c , t ) p = p c p = p s B [ ν , T ( p ) , t ] d τ ( ν , T e , p , t ) } + E ( ν , t ) ,
τ i ( ν , p ) = exp [ 1 g 0 p k i ( ν , p ) q i ( p ) d p ] ,
τ i ( ν j ) = 0 τ i ( ν ) F ( ν j ν ) d ν ,
T e ( p ) = 1 p 0 p T ( p ) d p ,
τ ( 899 , p ) = exp [ 1 g 0 p k p p 0 q ( p ) d p ] ,
τ total = τ CO 2 τ H 2 O τ O 3 .
Δ Z = Z SIRS Z radiosonde
Z ( p ) = R 9.8 × 10 4 p m s l p T ( p ) d p p ,

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