Abstract

The data from meteorological satellites have provided the research community and the operational user during the past decade with global visible and infrared measurements which have served as valuable inputs for the better understanding of the earth–atmosphere system. Early in the meteorological satellite program, the instrumentation largely consisted of vidicon imaging devices and low spatial resolution scanning radiometers. In contrast, current devices being flown on meteorological spacecraft include high spatial resolution scanning radiometers, spectrometers, and high signal-to-noise ratio imaging systems. This array of instrumentation, flown on twenty-eight spacecraft, has permitted the researcher and operational user to (1) remotely measure surface temperatures, (2) deduce the vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor, and ozone, (3) ascertain atmospheric kinematics from cloud motions, cloud characteristics, and circulation patterns, (4) detect and track cyclones and local storms, (5) calculate the heat balance of the earth–atmosphere system, (6) determine the nature and distribution of cloud cover, and (7) remotely detect natural resource boundaries and characteristics.

© 1970 Optical Society of America

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Space Sci. Rev.

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Tellus

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A. F. Krueger, S. Fritz, Tellus 13, 1 (1961).
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L. F. Whitney, L. D. Herman, ESSA Tech. Rept. NESC-45, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Washington, D.C. (1968).

J. E. Arnold, SMRP No. 64, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (1967).

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C. W. C. Rogers, P. E. Sherr, Final Rept., Contract E-47-67(N), Allied Research Associates, Inc., Concord, Mass. (1967).

R. J. Boucher, C. J. Bowley, E. S. Merritt, C. W. C. Rogers, P. E. Sherr, W. K. Widger, Final Rept., Contract Cwb-10630, ARACON Geophysics Co., Concord, Mass. (1963).

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G. M. Johnson, ESSA Tech. Rept. NESC-39, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Washington, D.C. (1966), 92 pp.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Nadir spatial resolutions for the visible sensors flown on satellites for meteorological purposes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Best infrared window scanning radiometer resolution available at any given date.

Equations (1)

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I ν = B ( ν , T s ) τ ( ν , p s ) 0 P s B ( ν , T ( p ) ) τ ( ν , p ) p d p ,

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