Abstract

Experiments have been performed which lead to the conclusion that dichromated gelatin holograms arise as a result of the formation of an air–gelatin interface, with the observed high diffraction efficiencies resulting from the air–gelatin refractive index differential of 0.52 found at the interface. It is postulated that rapid removal of water by isopropanol in the development process creates strains in the gelatin film which are relieved by splitting. The resultant cracks in the hologram manifest themselves in an obvious location, between the highly exposed planes of cross-linked gelatin. Photomicrographic evidence on Bragg-Lippmann and on plane gratings, liquid gate data, lack of thickness reciprocity for the gratings, and observations of grating thickness employing bandpass measurements comprise the bulk of the experimental work. From these data, a model is proposed that is consistent with all the experimental results for both Bragg-Lippmann and plane gratings.

© 1970 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. A. Shankoff, Appl. Opt. 7, 2101 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. L. H. Lin, Appl. Opt. 8, 963 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. G. Brandes, E. E. Francois, T. A. Shankoff, Appl. Opt. 8, 2346 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. L. Landau, E. Lifshitz, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1960).
  5. See, for example, R. W. Wood, Physical Optics (Macmillan Book Company, New York, 1934).
  6. C. B. Burckhardt, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 57, 602 (1967), Fig. 2.
  7. P. Bousquet, R. Deluil, Compt. Rend. 256, 1461 (1963).

1969

1968

1967

C. B. Burckhardt, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 57, 602 (1967), Fig. 2.

1963

P. Bousquet, R. Deluil, Compt. Rend. 256, 1461 (1963).

Bousquet, P.

P. Bousquet, R. Deluil, Compt. Rend. 256, 1461 (1963).

Brandes, R. G.

Burckhardt, C. B.

C. B. Burckhardt, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 57, 602 (1967), Fig. 2.

Deluil, R.

P. Bousquet, R. Deluil, Compt. Rend. 256, 1461 (1963).

Francois, E. E.

Landau, L.

L. Landau, E. Lifshitz, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1960).

Lifshitz, E.

L. Landau, E. Lifshitz, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1960).

Lin, L. H.

Shankoff, T. A.

Wood, R. W.

See, for example, R. W. Wood, Physical Optics (Macmillan Book Company, New York, 1934).

Appl. Opt.

Compt. Rend.

P. Bousquet, R. Deluil, Compt. Rend. 256, 1461 (1963).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer.

C. B. Burckhardt, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 57, 602 (1967), Fig. 2.

Other

L. Landau, E. Lifshitz, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1960).

See, for example, R. W. Wood, Physical Optics (Macmillan Book Company, New York, 1934).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Exposure curves for various film thicknesses.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photomicrographs of a cut through a 2.5-μm thick Bragg-Lippmann reflection grating: (a) view 1; (b) close-up of a section of view 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photomicrographs of plane gratings. (a) End-on cross sectional view of a 7-μm thick grating with a 13-μm d spacing; (b) scanning electron photomicrograph of a 3-μm thick grating having a 0.9-μm d spacing.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Liquid gate datafor gratings of various exposures in 15-μm gelatin films.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Bandpass data for gelatin gratings.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Model for dichromated gelatin gratings.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Liquid Gate Data for Gelatin Solvents

Tables Icon

Table II (A) Bandpass Data at Various Processing Steps for a 3-μm Thick Film. (B) Stepwise Exposure of a 9-μm Thick Grating to Excess Water Vapor

Equations (3)

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I [ c 2 ( c + b ) 2 sinc 2 ( π c c + b ) ] ( Δ n ) 2 a 2 sinc 2 ( q x a ) ,
k a | sin [ ( θ ϕ + x ) / 2 ] sin [ ( θ ϕ x ) / 2 ] | = 0.44 π ,
sin ( θ ϕ ) + sin x = 2 sin θ ,

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