Abstract

A new high-intensity standard of total and spectral irradiance has been developed recently at the National Bureau of Standards. The standard consists of a 1000-W tungsten–halogen lamp mounted in a ceramic reflector, the reflecting surface of which is coated with flame-sprayed Al2O3. The lamp–reflector combination results in a source having a relatively small (3 cm × 5 cm) radiating area yielding a total irradiance, at a distance of 40 cm, of about 136 mW cm−2. The total irradiance calibrations are based on the radiance of a 1400-K blackbody and have an estimated maximum systematic error of 0.9% and a maximum estimated standard error of 0.19%. The spectral measurements were made over the wavelength range of 0.3 μm to 2.5 μm relative to the NBS 1000-W tungsten–halogen irradiance standards. The estimated uncertainty in these measurements ranges from 4% in the visible and near ir to 8% in the uv.

© 1970 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. Stair, W. E. Schneider, W. B. Fussell, Appl. Opt. 6, 101 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. Stair, R. G. Johnston, E. W. Halback, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. 64A, 291 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Stair, W. E. Schneider, J. K. Jackson, Appl. Opt. 2, 1151 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Stair, W. B. Fussell, W. E. Schneider, Appl. Opt. 4, 85 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. J. Kostkowski, A. T. Hattenburg, D. E. Erminy, Advan. Geophys. 13, 111 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. E. Schneider, R. Stair, J. K. Jackson, Appl. Opt. 6, 6, 1479 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Stair, W. E. Schneider, W. R. Waters, J. K. Jackson, R. E. Brown, “Some Developments in Improved Methods for the Measurement of the Spectral Irradiances of Solar Simulators,” NASA Rept. CR 201, April1965.
  8. A. Gouffe, Rev. Opt. 24, 1 (1945).
  9. R. A. Smith, F. E. Jones, R. P. Chasmar, The Detection and Measurement of Infrared Radiation (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1957) p. 39.
  10. R. Stair, W. E. Schneider, “Standards, Sources, and Detectors, Symposium on Thermal Radiation of Solids,” NASA SP-55, 217, 1964.
  11. R. Stair, W. E. Schneider, W. R. Waters, J. K. Jackson, Appl. Opt. 4, 703 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Stair, W. E. Schneider, International Symposium on Solar Radiation (1965), p. 75.
  13. P. J. Wyatt, R. V. Stull, G. N. Plass, Appl. Opt. 3, 229 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. V. Stull, P. J. Wyatt, G. N. Plass, Appl. Opt. 3, 243 (1964).
    [CrossRef]

1970

H. J. Kostkowski, A. T. Hattenburg, D. E. Erminy, Advan. Geophys. 13, 111 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1967

W. E. Schneider, R. Stair, J. K. Jackson, Appl. Opt. 6, 6, 1479 (1967).
[CrossRef]

R. Stair, W. E. Schneider, W. B. Fussell, Appl. Opt. 6, 101 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1965

1964

1963

1960

R. Stair, R. G. Johnston, E. W. Halback, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. 64A, 291 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1945

A. Gouffe, Rev. Opt. 24, 1 (1945).

Brown, R. E.

R. Stair, W. E. Schneider, W. R. Waters, J. K. Jackson, R. E. Brown, “Some Developments in Improved Methods for the Measurement of the Spectral Irradiances of Solar Simulators,” NASA Rept. CR 201, April1965.

Chasmar, R. P.

R. A. Smith, F. E. Jones, R. P. Chasmar, The Detection and Measurement of Infrared Radiation (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1957) p. 39.

Erminy, D. E.

H. J. Kostkowski, A. T. Hattenburg, D. E. Erminy, Advan. Geophys. 13, 111 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Fussell, W. B.

Gouffe, A.

A. Gouffe, Rev. Opt. 24, 1 (1945).

Halback, E. W.

R. Stair, R. G. Johnston, E. W. Halback, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. 64A, 291 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Hattenburg, A. T.

H. J. Kostkowski, A. T. Hattenburg, D. E. Erminy, Advan. Geophys. 13, 111 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, J. K.

W. E. Schneider, R. Stair, J. K. Jackson, Appl. Opt. 6, 6, 1479 (1967).
[CrossRef]

R. Stair, W. E. Schneider, W. R. Waters, J. K. Jackson, Appl. Opt. 4, 703 (1965).
[CrossRef]

R. Stair, W. E. Schneider, J. K. Jackson, Appl. Opt. 2, 1151 (1963).
[CrossRef]

R. Stair, W. E. Schneider, W. R. Waters, J. K. Jackson, R. E. Brown, “Some Developments in Improved Methods for the Measurement of the Spectral Irradiances of Solar Simulators,” NASA Rept. CR 201, April1965.

Johnston, R. G.

R. Stair, R. G. Johnston, E. W. Halback, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. 64A, 291 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Jones, F. E.

R. A. Smith, F. E. Jones, R. P. Chasmar, The Detection and Measurement of Infrared Radiation (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1957) p. 39.

Kostkowski, H. J.

H. J. Kostkowski, A. T. Hattenburg, D. E. Erminy, Advan. Geophys. 13, 111 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Plass, G. N.

Schneider, W. E.

W. E. Schneider, R. Stair, J. K. Jackson, Appl. Opt. 6, 6, 1479 (1967).
[CrossRef]

R. Stair, W. E. Schneider, W. B. Fussell, Appl. Opt. 6, 101 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Stair, W. B. Fussell, W. E. Schneider, Appl. Opt. 4, 85 (1965).
[CrossRef]

R. Stair, W. E. Schneider, W. R. Waters, J. K. Jackson, Appl. Opt. 4, 703 (1965).
[CrossRef]

R. Stair, W. E. Schneider, J. K. Jackson, Appl. Opt. 2, 1151 (1963).
[CrossRef]

R. Stair, W. E. Schneider, W. R. Waters, J. K. Jackson, R. E. Brown, “Some Developments in Improved Methods for the Measurement of the Spectral Irradiances of Solar Simulators,” NASA Rept. CR 201, April1965.

R. Stair, W. E. Schneider, International Symposium on Solar Radiation (1965), p. 75.

R. Stair, W. E. Schneider, “Standards, Sources, and Detectors, Symposium on Thermal Radiation of Solids,” NASA SP-55, 217, 1964.

Smith, R. A.

R. A. Smith, F. E. Jones, R. P. Chasmar, The Detection and Measurement of Infrared Radiation (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1957) p. 39.

Stair, R.

R. Stair, W. E. Schneider, W. B. Fussell, Appl. Opt. 6, 101 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. E. Schneider, R. Stair, J. K. Jackson, Appl. Opt. 6, 6, 1479 (1967).
[CrossRef]

R. Stair, W. E. Schneider, W. R. Waters, J. K. Jackson, Appl. Opt. 4, 703 (1965).
[CrossRef]

R. Stair, W. B. Fussell, W. E. Schneider, Appl. Opt. 4, 85 (1965).
[CrossRef]

R. Stair, W. E. Schneider, J. K. Jackson, Appl. Opt. 2, 1151 (1963).
[CrossRef]

R. Stair, R. G. Johnston, E. W. Halback, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. 64A, 291 (1960).
[CrossRef]

R. Stair, W. E. Schneider, W. R. Waters, J. K. Jackson, R. E. Brown, “Some Developments in Improved Methods for the Measurement of the Spectral Irradiances of Solar Simulators,” NASA Rept. CR 201, April1965.

R. Stair, W. E. Schneider, International Symposium on Solar Radiation (1965), p. 75.

R. Stair, W. E. Schneider, “Standards, Sources, and Detectors, Symposium on Thermal Radiation of Solids,” NASA SP-55, 217, 1964.

Stull, R. V.

Waters, W. R.

R. Stair, W. E. Schneider, W. R. Waters, J. K. Jackson, Appl. Opt. 4, 703 (1965).
[CrossRef]

R. Stair, W. E. Schneider, W. R. Waters, J. K. Jackson, R. E. Brown, “Some Developments in Improved Methods for the Measurement of the Spectral Irradiances of Solar Simulators,” NASA Rept. CR 201, April1965.

Wyatt, P. J.

Advan. Geophys.

H. J. Kostkowski, A. T. Hattenburg, D. E. Erminy, Advan. Geophys. 13, 111 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand.

R. Stair, R. G. Johnston, E. W. Halback, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. 64A, 291 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Opt.

A. Gouffe, Rev. Opt. 24, 1 (1945).

Other

R. A. Smith, F. E. Jones, R. P. Chasmar, The Detection and Measurement of Infrared Radiation (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1957) p. 39.

R. Stair, W. E. Schneider, “Standards, Sources, and Detectors, Symposium on Thermal Radiation of Solids,” NASA SP-55, 217, 1964.

R. Stair, W. E. Schneider, W. R. Waters, J. K. Jackson, R. E. Brown, “Some Developments in Improved Methods for the Measurement of the Spectral Irradiances of Solar Simulators,” NASA Rept. CR 201, April1965.

R. Stair, W. E. Schneider, International Symposium on Solar Radiation (1965), p. 75.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

High intensity source.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental apparatus for conducting total and spectral stability tests.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Infrared spectral reflectance of oxidized inconel.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental apparatus for determining atmospheric absorption.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental setup for determining total irradiance of high intensity source.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relative spectral emission of a 1300-K blackbody and ofa 300-K blackbody, transmittance of quartz, and transmittance of a 33-cm path for water vapor and carbon dioxide.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of prism and filter spectroradiometric measurements for unit T-9.

Tables (7)

Tables Icon

Table I Relative Spectral and Total Irradiance Ratios for a Clear 1000-W Lamp in a Silica Coated Reflector at 150 cm vs a 1000-W Reference Source at 75 cm as a Function of Time

Tables Icon

Table II Relative Spectral and Total Irradiance Ratios for a Clear 1000-W Lamp in an Al2O3 Coated Reflector at 150 cm vs a 1000-W Reference Source at 75 cm as a Function of Timea

Tables Icon

Table III Relative Spectral and Total Irradiance Ratios for a Frosted 1000-W Lamp in an Al2O3 Coated Reflector at 150 cm vs a 1000-W Reference Source at 75 cm as a Function of Timea

Tables Icon

Table IV Results of Atmospheric Absorption Measurementsa

Tables Icon

Table V Transmittances and Uncertainties of Sector Disks

Tables Icon

Table VI Total Irradiance of High-Intensity Units in mW cm−2 at a Distance of 40 cm

Tables Icon

Table VII Summary of Estimated Systematic Errors and Precision in Total Irradiance Measurements

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E B B = [ 0 α σ r 2 ( T B B 4 T s 4 ) ] / d 2 ,
E s = E B B · D ¯ s / τ · D ¯ B B ,
E B B = 0.995 A d 2 [ λ 1 λ 2 L λ B B τ ( λ ) d λ λ 1 λ 2 L λ s τ ( λ ) d λ ] ,
E x = ( 136 mW cm 2 ) [ ( 41.2 cm ) 2 / ( 101.2 cm ) 2 ] = 22.5 mW / cm 2 .

Metrics